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8 Different Ways to Get Great Ideas

8 Different Ways to Get Great Ideas | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
We asked eight innovative Stanford GSB alumni entrepreneurs including Kiva’s Jessica Jackley (MBA ’07) and Design Within Reach’s Rob Forbes (MBA ’85) to shed light on how they come up with their best...
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Leading Schools
Improving Schools Through Enhanced Leadership
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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Beth Crisafulli Hofer's comment, January 10, 6:54 PM
I'm going to add some of these to our framework!
LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Chardon High School's curator insight, March 21, 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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'Helping Children Succeed' Starts At Birth; A Case For The Power Of Nurture

'Helping Children Succeed' Starts At Birth; A Case For The Power Of Nurture | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In one of the many experiments cited in Paul Tough's new book, Helping Children Succeed, a group of middle school students received this message on a Post-it note, attached to a paper their teachers were handing back.

The message of support and high expectations had a small positive effect on white students.
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'Helping Children Succeed': An Interview With Paul Tough

'Helping Children Succeed': An Interview With Paul Tough | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
I interview journalist Paul Tough about his new book, "Helping Children Succeed: What Works And Why."
Mel Riddile's insight:

The conclusion I draw from recent research in neuroscience and psychology is that children's non-cognitive capacities are mostly the product of their environments, both in school and at home. In the book I describe research that shows, for instance, that very stressful home environments make it less likely that children, as they grow, will develop the capacity to persevere at long-term goals, to focus for long periods on complex tasks, or to bounce back from disappointments and setbacks.


I think something similar happens in classrooms, where children's motivation and their tendency to persevere are strongly influenced by the messages they receive from their teachers and from the school as a whole. Those messages are sometimes conveyed explicitly by teachers, in the way they talk to students about their work and their behavior and their ability. But they are also conveyed implicitly, through the assignments teachers give students, the homework they assign, and the way students are assessed and disciplined.


The research suggests that educators should work to convey to their students two big ideas: first, a sense of connection and relatedness - a sense that students "belong in this academic community," as the researcher Camille Farrington puts it; and second, a sense of growth and potential, by giving them work that is challenging, rigorous, and meaningful, and by helping them recognize that they are getting better at it, even as they struggle through moments of frustration and failure.

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Wave of bomb threats hits schools nationwide

Wave of bomb threats hits schools nationwide | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Robocalls directed at elementary, middle and high schools in at least 18 states.
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How A Strengths-Based Approach to Math Redefines Who Is ‘Smart’

How A Strengths-Based Approach to Math Redefines Who Is ‘Smart’ | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Math teachers in San Francisco are using Complex Instruction to see the brilliance in all their students and help them to see it too.
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The Secret Ingredient Of Successful People And Organizations: Grit 

The Secret Ingredient Of Successful People And Organizations: Grit  | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
I started interviewing these high achievers in business, but also in sports; any high achiever that I could lay my hands on through connections of my advisor or myself. And two themes emerged from the conversations. One was “Wow, the people who are successful are relentlessly dedicated to what they do.” They have a kind of endurance in their effort; they do not get disappointed for long. It is not that they do not get disappointed, but they get back up again, and they are tirelessly working to get better. Perseverance. But there is also stamina in their interest: they are just never bored with what they do. They find it interesting and meaningful, and so they do not switch course a lot. They do not work hard at different things. They work hard at one thing.
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More than five years after adopting Common Core, Kentucky’s black-white achievement gap is widening

More than five years after adopting Common Core, Kentucky’s black-white achievement gap is widening | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
LOUISVILLE, Ky. — The second-graders in Sarah Bowling’s class at Dunn Elementary were on a scavenger hunt to find “arrays.” The bookshelf had a picture of three rows of five fish. The door had an image of four rows with three beach pails in each. Several other pictures were strategically placed in different corners of …
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Homework, Friend or Foe?

Homework, Friend or Foe? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
As we consider what education needs to look like, we must think about homework differently. How will you rebrand it or repurpose it in your classes? What will the impact be?
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Recruitment lessons: how Japan and Australia attract teachers into rural schools

Recruitment lessons: how Japan and Australia attract teachers into rural schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The National Teaching Service faces an uphill battle to get brilliant educators into unattractive schools – but other countries have made it work
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Data Walls were supposed to motivate students. Instead, they shame them.

Data Walls were supposed to motivate students. Instead, they shame them. | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A third-grade teacher on why "data walls" don't work.
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Real-Life Algebra: Homeowners Association Dues

Real-Life Algebra: Homeowners Association Dues | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
But today, a gift fell into my lap: an actual, solve for x algebra application in daily life. A gentleman from South Florida called my office (I was out) and left a message and also sent an email detailing his dilemma. He is on the board of his community’s homeowners association and they needed to decide on the monthly assessment each homeowner would be required to pay to the association for general upkeep. There are two kinds of houses, small and large, 13 of the former and 18 of the latter. The HOA agreement stipulates that the large homes will pay 1.8 times what the small homes are assessed. The board determines the annual budget, let’s say $50,000. How much is each homeowner responsible for?
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Ten reasons why traditional teacher evaluation is failing our schools

Ten reasons why traditional teacher evaluation is failing our schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Teacher evaluations tend to be summative in the sense that they come at intervals at the end of a prescribed period of time and the external judgments are often coupled with rewards (eg oral and or written praise, promotion, and, in some cases, merit pay) or punishments (eg oral or written criticism, castigation, threats, withholding of incentive pay, and in a some cases contract non-renewal or even dismissal).
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An Open Letter to High School Students about Reading

An Open Letter to High School Students about Reading | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Advice for high school students about the importance of reading.

The value of reading as preparation for college should never be underestimated, not even as the focus of higher education turns to STEM majors and career preparation.

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Investors Put $2.3M in Bloomz, a School Communication App That Can Satiate Helicopter Parents (EdSurge News)

Investors Put $2.3M in Bloomz, a School Communication App That Can Satiate Helicopter Parents (EdSurge News) | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Educators know parents can influence how students perform in school. Yet parents often lament about how little they know about what their kids are actually doing in class. In recent years, many entrepreneurs have developed apps that aim to help open this black box for parents. ClassDojo and Remin
Mel Riddile's insight:

Available on mobile devices and web browsers, Bloomz allows teachers to send direct messages and share photos from a class activity or field trip. The tool also aims to help teachers organize and manage parent volunteers for extracurricular activities, and schedule parent-teacher conferences.


 

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Career-Ready? Less Than Half US Students Ready To Fill High-Tech Jobs

Career-Ready? Less Than Half US Students Ready To Fill High-Tech Jobs | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The finding that should concern educators, policymakers, employers, parents and students alike is that fewer than half of either girls or boys met proficiency levels on the test, administered to about 21,500 eighth-graders at 840 public and private schools across the country.

Equally, if not more disconcerting, is that the TEL exam results indicate a significant racial achievement gap. White and Asian students averaged 160 points out of a possible 300, Black and Hispanic students averaged scores of 128 and 138, respectively.
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Reconsidering End of Year Grading for Student Mastery

Reconsidering End of Year Grading for Student Mastery | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Too often, teachers are expected to develop methods of determining final averages that are often an isolated experience of reviewing a grade book, tests and other means of points gathering like class participation, homework and project completion. If a student who has already achieved mastery doesn't see the value in homework, a zero is added to their homework score, drastically reducing the average and blurring the actual communication of mastery learning.
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State's school discipline is 'widespread, discriminatory,' study says

State's school discipline is 'widespread, discriminatory,' study says | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Virginia, the state that leads the nation in the school-to-prison pipeline, also disproportionately suspends African-American male students and those with disabilities from school for issues as minor as a sarcastic tone, a cell phone, or too many unexcused absences.

"Suspended Progress," a report released today by the Legal Aid Justice Center, says that the fix would be for school administrators to shift away from so-called zero tolerance policies, which often mandate punishment for even slight infractions, in favor of working with families and installing more preventive and supportive discipline. 
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Leaders Grow Leaders: How You Can Encourage Your Employees to Lead

Leaders Grow Leaders: How You Can Encourage Your Employees to Lead | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
An important part of leadership is helping others step up into their leadership. Learn how you can encourage more people to be leaders.
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Is principal liable for online bullying?

Is principal liable for online bullying? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A response filed by the defendants in April to her parents' lawsuit argues that the suit's claims are invalid because school officials are not liable for violations of the anti-bullying statute.
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How Kids Learn Resilience

How Kids Learn Resilience | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In recent years, the idea that educators should be teaching kids qualities like grit and self-control has caught on. Successful strategies, though, are hard to come by.
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The Key to Student Success: Build Educator and Collective Capacity

The Key to Student Success: Build Educator and Collective Capacity | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
While it is well established that many factors can increase student performance, the most important factor is the quality of the classroom teacher.
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What Should We Expect Pre-Service Teachers To Know?

What Should We Expect Pre-Service Teachers To Know? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Many pre-service teachers are just graduating and a brand new teaching experience awaits them in the fall, and it's one that they will have to negotiate without a net. Hopefully their professors have prepared them but there are at least 10 areas that they need to have on their minds when they enter the classroom.
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Is Blended Learning 'the Next Generation of Education'?

Is Blended Learning 'the Next Generation of Education'? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Angel Cintron Jr., Connie Parham, Catlin Tucker, Sheri Edwards, Cheryl Costello, William J. Tolley and George Station explore what blended learning is and how it can be made most effective.
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Tony Guzman's curator insight, May 23, 3:00 PM
This op-ed shares from the perspectives and experiences of various teachers regards to blended learning.
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Cognitive Science: How Students Learn and Remember Best

Key Learning Principles
Students learn best when they take control of and organize their new knowledge.
Learning improves when new information is made meaningful for students.
Repetition and simple mnemonic study techniques can be extremely effective.
Teaching to individual learning styles has not been shown definitively to improve student learning. However, teaching in a variety of modes to appeal to all students in several ways has been shown to improve student learning.
Testing encourages learning and can be used as a study tactic, not just a final assessment.
Structuring long-range tasks into short-term chunks helps students learn continuously and avoid procrastination and last-minute cramming.

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How to Learn Math For Teachers | Stanford Center for Professional Development

How to Learn Math For Teachers | Stanford Center for Professional Development | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Explore the new research ideas on mathematics learning and student mindsets that can transform students' experiences with math. Whether you are a teacher preparing to implement the new Common Core State Standards, a parent wanting to give your children the best math start in life, an administrator wanting to know ways to encourage math teachers or another helper of math learners, this course will help you. The sessions are all interactive and include various thinking tasks to promote active engagement - such as reflecting on videos, designing lessons, and discussing ideas with peers. Taught by Jo Boaler, professor of mathematics education, Stanford University, you will learn useful ideas and practices that you can apply immediately, for example:

New pedagogical strategies
An understanding of high quality math tasks
Questions to promote understanding
Messages to give students
Inspirational messages from educational thought-leaders
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