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Does Student Interest Have To Arise “Naturally”? Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Explained

Does Student Interest Have To Arise “Naturally”? Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Explained | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

By Annie Murphy Paul


"Research suggests that well-developed personal interests always begin with an external “trigger”—seeing a play, reading a book, hearing someone talk—and that well-designed environments can make such a triggering more likely."

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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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Beth Crisafulli Hofer's comment, January 10, 6:54 PM
I'm going to add some of these to our framework!
LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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ACT Scores Drop

ACT Scores Drop | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

In its annual score report released Wednesday, the testing company said only 38 percent of graduating seniors who took the exam hit the college-prepared benchmark in at least three of the four core subjects tested - reading, English, math and science. That compares with 40 percent last year. The benchmark is designed to measure a strong readiness for college.

The average composite score also declined a bit, down from 21 to 20.8 this year. The four tests are scored on a scale of 1 to 36. The composite is the average of the four scores. Many colleges use the composite in admissions.

ACT's Paul Weeks says the declines were expected, given the growing and changing demographics of the testing population.

Sixty-four percent of the 2016 graduates took the ACT, meaning nearly 2.1 million students, compared with 59 percent the year before. That increases the share of test-takers who aren't necessarily college bound, said Weeks, senior vice president for client relations, in an interview.

By comparison, 1.7 million graduating seniors in 2015 took the SAT, the other major college entrance exam. The College Board expects to release updated 2016 numbers for the SAT in the fall.

Of the ACT-tested high school graduates this year, 61 percent met the English benchmark of 18 points, which indicates a student is likely ready for a college composition course and would earn a "C'' or better grade.

In reading, 44 percent met the 22-point mark that suggests readiness for a college-level social-sciences course. For math, 41 percent met the 22-point threshold that predicts success in an algebra course. And in science, 36 percent reached the 23-point score that predicts success in an entry-level biology course.

In contrast, 34 percent of 2016 grads did not meet any of the four benchmarks. Weeks called that number alarming, an indication those students are likely to struggle with first-year courses and end up in remedial classes that will delay degree completion and increase college costs.

The report showed a relatively wide gulf, by race, in the percentages of graduates hitting three or more of the college-ready benchmarks. Forty-nine percent of white test-takers met the three-or-more benchmark, compared with 11 percent of African-Americans and 23 percent of Hispanic test-takers. But the gaps between the groups haven't shifted that much, for better or worse, in the past four years.

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Formative Assessment: Collaborative Discussions

Formative Assessment: Collaborative Discussions | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Lesson Objective
Formatively assess understanding of effective collaborative discussions

Length
15 minutes

Questions to Consider
How does Ms. Bouchard involve her students in establishing the learning goals and success criteria?
What observations does Ms. Bouchard make during the discussions?
How does Ms. Bouchard help the students assess their own learning?
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Americans Like Their Schools Just Fine — But Not Yours

Americans Like Their Schools Just Fine — But Not Yours | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In the EdNext poll, Americans' opinions of their local public schools have risen considerably over the past decade. More than half — 55 percent — give the school in their community an "A" or "B" rating, compared with just 43 percent a decade ago.

It's hard to find an empirical reason for this warming of opinion. Student performance, at least as measured by test scores, isn't improving.

Still, there may be a sense that "schools are evolving and changing," says Maria Ferguson, executive director of the nonpartisan Center on Education Policy. "All this talk about innovation may be getting into the water. For me as a parent of two kids in school, the Common Core, for example, has been positive."

However, public opinion of the nation's schools overall, as opposed to one's local school, is much lower: Just 25 percent would give an A or B grade to American schools as a whole.
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Do You Want to Hack Homework This Year?

Do You Want to Hack Homework This Year? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
What we realized while we were writing this, is much like grading, folks have a lot of deeply held beliefs attached to homework that have to do with teaching responsibility and holding kids accountable as well as making sure students really get the practice they need to develop their skills. We don't disagree that these are important skills and ideas that need to be an honored part of the learning process, we just think they should be addressed more deliberately during the school day instead of at home.

There are so many responsibilities students have once they leave school that we often don't give any room for their own personal interests and/or family time. We can respect those boundaries and value their home time by adjusting some practices we have during the day and what we expect once they leave to keep learning going.
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Room Arrangement Should Match Instruction

Room Arrangement Should Match Instruction | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Why is setting up your classroom important?
Your classroom is truly your home away from home. It’s the place your students and you will be spending a good part of your days. Because of this, we know you want to make it as amazing as possible! You want to get your table arrangements just right, the best posters on the walls, and classroom materials clearly organized.

But you also want your classroom to reflect YOU. How can your classroom show who you are as a teacher and communicate your beliefs about teaching? That’s what we’ll be exploring over the course of this Deep Dive. Let’s get started!
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If You’re Not Outside Your Comfort Zone, You Won’t Learn Anything

If You’re Not Outside Your Comfort Zone, You Won’t Learn Anything | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Stop avoiding what scares you.
Via Richard Andrews
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Greg Clowminzer's curator insight, August 11, 1:50 PM
If Hiring a Coach Scares You, Think Again. If You’re Not Outside Your Comfort Zone, You Won’t Learn Anything.
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Growth Mindset Memes

Growth Mindset Memes | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
When I take a look at the stats for this blog lately, I see that my posts about growth mindset are getting more views than usual.  My hope is that this means that many teachers are getting ready to teach their students about having a growth mindset.  It's important to read Carol Dweck's recent statements,…
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"If serving is below you, leadership is beyond you!"

"If serving is below you, leadership is beyond you!" | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

"This quote appeared a few days back on a LinkedIn homepage and sent to us by one of our contacts. Its simple, profound truth set us to thinking. Why isn't this on the website of every educational leadership program and on the desk or wall of every leader? Isn't this the jolt we need every now and then to bring us back to the reason we entered this leadership arena in the first place? Most of us wanted to serve more students than we could in our classrooms and we wanted to serve adult educators as well as the children. But, we do forget sometimes."

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Schools With Fewer Suspensions Are Not Like Other Schools

Schools With Fewer Suspensions Are Not Like Other Schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Younger students, more integrated. Of the 33 schools, 58 percent were elementary schools and 58 percent were traditional district-run schools (meaning they aren’t charter or innovation schools).
The schools also had fewer children of color and fewer low-income children than other DPS schools, making them more racially and economically integrated.
An average of 61 percent of students at those 33 schools were children of color, as compared to the district average of 78 percent. An average of 56 percent were eligible for federally subsidized lunches, an indicator of poverty, as opposed to the district average of 74 percent.
The schools also had fewer English language learners and students with disabilities.
It would be nice to read some data about success stories from schools like the one where I teach and where we are working very hard to reduce suspensions.
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Learning Strategies, Not Learning Styles

Learning Strategies, Not Learning Styles | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
long, students were defined and confined by learning styles. It most likely all began as a positive move toward helping students grow as learners, but it was one of those times educators took some research and went the wrong way with it. We (I include myself in this issue) would tell certain students they were visual learners, and others that they were auditory learners.

It's not that we don't have preferred methods of learning, but too often our students are boxed in by their learning styles as if they didn't have more than one. This issue caused me to write about the Myth of Learning Styles a few years ago. It became a big issue because students, and their parents and teachers, began to believe that students only had one way of preferred learning which prevented them from strengthening other styles of learning.
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In Utah, schools can now hire teachers with no training whatsoever

In Utah, schools can now hire teachers with no training whatsoever | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
What happened to a "highly qualified" teacher in every classroom?
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A majority of students (60%) fall short, again, on state Common Core tests

A majority of students (60%) fall short, again, on state Common Core tests | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Pass rates were low for a second year, math scores inched up and English remained flat.
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The Reason This Teacher Adopted a No-Homework Policy May Surprise You

The Reason This Teacher Adopted a No-Homework Policy May Surprise You | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
"Research has been unable to prove that homework improves student performance," the note said. "Rather, I ask that you spend your evenings doing things that are proven to correlate with student success. Eat dinner as a family, read together, play outside, and get your child to bed early."

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Assessing Students with Twitter-Style Exit Slips

Assessing Students with Twitter-Style Exit Slips | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Questions to Consider
What are the benefits of using an exit slip that is in the style of Twitter?
What might you assess with this style of exit slip?
With older students, how could you adapt this strategy for use on actual Twitter?
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Want Your Kids (or Employees) to Have More Grit? Add This Rule

Want Your Kids (or Employees) to Have More Grit? Add This Rule | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The Hard Thing Rule has three parts. "The first is that everyone--including Mom and Dad--has to do a hard thing," Duckworth explains in her book. "A hard thing is something requires daily deliberate practice." At the office, most of us aren't demanding that employees commit to one task as part of their job that needs to improve through deliberate practice (that is, activities specifically designed to improve your skill and under the watchful eye of a master teacher). But imagine what would happen if all employees, as part of their job, committed to improve through
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What Are the Best Strategies For Surface to Deep Learning?

What Are the Best Strategies For Surface to Deep Learning? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
If it's done correctly, teaching is both rewarding and complicated. The rewarding part is when we see students achieve or overcome some new learning, whether that's social-emotional or academic. In these days of social media, teaching is rewarding because we get to see students who we had in our classrooms long ago, grow up and find a passion in their choice of career.

However, teaching is also complicated because it's not just about teaching students "stuff." Teaching is about using a variety of strategies to help students learn information they need for the future, and it's about teaching students how to ask questions in order to have some level of control over their own learning, so they find a love for learnin
Mel Riddile's insight:

In the paper, Hattie and Donoghue write,


"Knowing the success criteria. A prediction from the model of learning is that when students learn how to gain an overall picture of what is to be learnt, have an understanding of the success criteria for the lessons to come and are somewhat clear at the outset about what it means to master the lessons, then their subsequent learning is maximized. The overall effect across the 31 meta-analyses is 0.54, with the greatest effects relating to providing students with success criteria, planning and prediction, having intentions to implement goals, setting standards for self-judgements and the difficulty of goals."

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10 Easy Ways To Create an Amazing #ClassroomCulture This Year

10 Easy Ways To Create an Amazing #ClassroomCulture This Year | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Greet kids at the door. – There is a massive difference between walking into a room and being welcomed than seeing a teacher sitting at their desk prepping for the day.  This sets the tone for the entire day and reminds kids that we are privileged to have them show up each and every day.
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5 Steps to Motivate Students to Mastery

Creating environment in which assessment is formative and motivating can be a challenge when most parents and students have experienced a grading system that is anything but supportive of learning.
It is possible, however, to help students believe in the value of academic practice and overcome the tendency toward completing academic work just for the grade. This approach moves away from the debilitating mindset that students won't do work that it isn't graded, and it gives them choices while holding them more accountable for their own learning. That idea might seem strange—that students will be more accountable when given more freedom of choice—but in my experience, it has worked.

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12 Powerful Lessons I’ve Learned Being a Leadership Coach

12 Powerful Lessons I’ve Learned Being a Leadership Coach | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In my career as a leadership coach, I’ve been fortunate to work with amazing people. Some have been small-business owners or department heads of medium-sized
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Assessing and Measuring Social Emotional Learning

Assessing and Measuring Social Emotional Learning | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
By Catherine Wedgwood - A new consensus is emerging in K-12 education today: social and emotional learning (SEL) is essential for academic and life success.
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What do schools with low student suspension rates have in common?

What do schools with low student suspension rates have in common? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Researchers interviewed nearly 200 educators from 33 Denver schools that had suspension rates between 0 and 3 percent in the 2014-15 school year.
Mel Riddile's insight:

Younger students, more integrated. Of the 33 schools, 58 percent were elementary schools and 58 percent were traditional district-run schools (meaning they aren’t charter or innovation schools).
The schools also had fewer children of color and fewer low-income children than other DPS schools, making them more racially and economically integrated.
An average of 61 percent of students at those 33 schools were children of color, as compared to the district average of 78 percent. An average of 56 percent were eligible for federally subsidized lunches, an indicator of poverty, as opposed to the district average of 74 percent.
The schools also had fewer English language learners and students with disabilities.
It would be nice to read some data about success stories from schools like the one where I teach and where we are working very hard to reduce suspensions.

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6 Opening and Closing Routines for New Teachers

6 Opening and Closing Routines for New Teachers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Check for understanding, manage your students, and build classroom community with these six opening and closing classroom routines.
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Dr. Theresa Kauffman's curator insight, August 18, 10:47 AM
Opening and closing routines help facilitate learning and retention but also engage learners by requiring their participation.
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How to raise your kids to have grit

How to raise your kids to have grit | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
What makes kids persist? What gives them the "grit" to keep working hard in school, to get good grades, and ultimately be successful in life?

A big contributor is having a "growth mindset."

You may have heard about this before but many people don't understand it nearly as well as they think.

To make sure you and I get it right I called Carol Dweck. She came up with the growth mindset idea. Dweck is a professor at Stanford University and author of Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.

A lot of people are making a lot of mistakes when it comes to this subject. Here's Dweck:
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Writing instruction in our schools is terrible. We need to fix it.

Writing instruction in our schools is terrible. We need to fix it. | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Only four percent of all assignments reviewed pushed student thinking to higher levels,” one report said. “About 85 percent of assignments asked students to either recall information or apply basic skills and concepts as opposed to prompting for inferences or structural analysis, or doing author critiques. Many assignments show an attempt at rigor, but these are largely surface level.”

“Relevance and choice — powerful levers to engage early adolescents — are mostly missing in action,” it said. “Only two percent of assignments meet both indicators of engagement.”

Here are even more depressing numbers: 18 percent of the assignments required no writing at all. Sixty percent demanded just some note-taking, short responses or a sentence or two. Fourteen percent required students to write a single paragraph — whoopee. Only 9 percent went beyond that.
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