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What is the Most Valuable School Subject?

What is the Most Valuable School Subject? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Americans are most likely to mention math when asked which school subject has been most valuable in their lives. English or literature is second, followed by science and history.
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Leading Schools
Improving Schools Through Enhanced Leadership
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Dorothy Retha Cook's curator insight, April 24, 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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The power of framing: It’s not what you say, it’s how you say it

The power of framing: It’s not what you say, it’s how you say it | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Lakoff researches how framing influences reasoning, or how the way we say something often matters much more than what we say. And he has used his research to inform how Democrats can better frame their party positions. He consolidated his advice for Democrats in his book, Don’t think of an elephant! The title conveys one of its main insights: if you negate a frame, you strengthen a frame. In other words, if you say “don’t think of an elephant,” you can’t help but think of one.
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Nearly HALF of high school seniors graduate with A averages — while standardized test scores fall.

Nearly HALF of high school seniors graduate with A averages — while standardized test scores fall. | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Nearly HALF of high school seniors graduate with A averages — while standardized test scores fall.

 


In what one researcher described as a "stunning" finding, a recent analysis of the grades of America's Class of 2016 found that nearly half of seniors graduated with "A" averages. A total of 47% of seniors' grade averages were either an A, A-minus, or A-plus. That is a nearly 10% increase in about two decades. In 1998, 38.9% of graduating senior's had A averages.


While nearly half of the Class of 2016 graduated with A averages, another 43.7% graduated with B's (down from 47.9% in '89). Thus, 91% of high school graduates in 2016 had either an A or B average. Only 8.9% graduated with a C average (down from 12.7% in '98).


So does the higher percentage of A's and B's really mean that students are mastering the subject matter at a higher rate? No. As USA Today stresses, while A's are on the rise, the average SAT score has fallen "from 1,026 to 1,002 on a 1,600-point scale."


The numbers come from a study by two researchers, the College Board's Michael Hurwitz and University of Georgia Institute of Higher Education doctoral student Jason Lee. Hurwitz, who described the 47% result as "stunning," said that A's are now simply the "modal high school grade."

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Dorothy Retha Cook's curator insight, July 19, 2:23 PM

Not on topic but on point.

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There's an epidemic of grade inflation and unearned As in American high schools

There's an epidemic of grade inflation and unearned As in American high schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
More high school students in the US are graduating than ever before, in part because of rising grade-point averages. But a new study suggests the trend isn't cause for celebration.
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Another School District Says ‘No’ To Homework

Another School District Says ‘No’ To Homework | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Heidi Maier has directed the teachers at her county’s 31 schools to stop providing homework to their students. “The research showed that students who are given a preponderance of homework do not perform better, or get better grades, than those who do not,” the superintendent stated.

There will be exceptions for special projects and research papers, but gone are the days of time-consuming homework packets being sent home in backpacks every night. Instead, the teachers will encourage parents to read with their children for at least 20 minutes each evening after school lets out.
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You Probably Don't Suck at Math, You Just Need a Better Attitude

The results, which were published Wednesday in the journal PLOS ONE, indicate that confidence and core values have a lot to do with learning the numbers.
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Unusual course on critical thinking succeeded until tough teacher was removed

Unusual course on critical thinking succeeded until tough teacher was removed | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
One of the most unusual courses in high school these days is TOK, the initialism for Theory of Knowledge, part of the International Baccalaureate program. Most Americans have never heard of it.

It is a course on critical thinking and how we know what we claim to know. It demands a lot of writing and thus, by the standard teenager definition, is not easy. But most of the IB teachers I have encountered, and many of their students, call it special and deep, a distinctive element of a program now offered in nearly 900 U.S. high schools.
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Gearing Up for Change: How to Keep Mutiny from Sinking Your Change Effort

The usual narrative of school change is so often repeated that the story is familiar to nearly every educator. First, a teacher or leader attends a conference session or reads a book and becomes excited about a new research-based practice. An idea for school change is born! That person involves others, and discussion about the idea evolves either informally or as a part of a committee or professional learning community. A group of early adopters may even be identified to start implementing the new practice. Eventually, the leadership team agrees to try to spread this practice schoolwide, and a new initiative is presented to the faculty. Everyone behind the idea has studied—and invested significant time in—the new, research-based practice. They're enthusiastic about pushing it forward for the good of all students in the school. What could go wrong?
This story of school change would be simpler, although possibly less interesting, if the whole faculty agreed before the school adopted the practice, and then learning in the school improved. In fact, that kind of fairy tale ending rarely happens. Instead, as buzz generates about the policy or practice being considered, some degree of mutiny often begins to form in the school, and the shiny bubble of enthusiasm bursts. Teachers say or think things like: "It's just one more thing to do, and I don't have time." "What's wrong with the way we do it now?" "It's only a trend. I'll wait for the pendulum to swing back the other way." "Will this really help students? I don't see it." It's a well-worn path.
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Do Some Administrators Let the Position Go to Their Heads?

Do Some Administrators Let the Position Go to Their Heads? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
There are lots of people who go into leadership positions but never make it further than focusing on their administrative duties. There are at least three reasons why this happens.
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Grade tampering to raise graduation rates

Grade tampering to raise graduation rates | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
One Prince George’s teacher said administrators “do whatever it takes” to raise graduation rates.
Mel Riddile's insight:

"Employees interviewed on the issue agreed to speak on the condition of anonymity, saying they feared retaliation for speaking out. Several told of being thwarted if they tried to fail a student, which they described as part of a larger push to raise on-time graduation rates."

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Response: Leaders Can Support Innovation by 'Listening More & Speaking Less'

What can school leaders do to engage teachers in this kind of a process? First, make sure all the basics are in order with respect to teachers' working conditions. The physical plant, classroom conditions, materials and supplies, support staff, information systems - all of these need to be in working order so that the teachers have the "basics" they need to do their job.

Second, work closely with teacher teams to define the school vision for student learning and achievement; translate that back into what needs to happen in each classroom, the hallways, communal areas, front office, teachers' lounge, staff meetings, and playgrounds/athletic fields to make that vision a reality. Agree upon what progress towards the vision will look like and feel like, for teachers, for students, for families, and so on. Create systems and processes that can serve as feedback loops so that the teachers know if their efforts are generating results. And then do the very best you can to safeguard that vision from educational fads, district mandates, a teacher's favorite activity, student grumbling, and other kinds of distractions. Don't spin a cocoon around your school, but do provide your teachers with the conditions they will need to stay focused on this collaborative vision and to make and measure progress towards it.

Third, work together to create a culture of transparency and collaboration where open door policies are the norm, teachers are recognized for effectiveness, effort, and growth, teachers work together and share their expertise and experiences, and teacher professional knowledge is sought, acted upon, and affirmed.
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Six Habits Of People Who Know How To Bring Out The Best In Others

Six Habits Of People Who Know How To Bring Out The Best In Others | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
As a leader, the most important part of your job isn’t your results. Your job is to inspire your employees’ results. Here’s how.
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Students' Sense of Belonging: What the Research Says

Students' Sense of Belonging: What the Research Says | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Students who are underrepresented in a school setting or who are part of a group that is subject to negative stereotypes may respond differently to failure or criticism from a teacher, psychologists say.
Those students may see such experiences as confirmation that they are less capable than their peers. Schools can counteract those effects by discussing how to learn from failure and by encouraging teachers to be “warm demanders” who set high expectations for students and encourage their potential, psychologists say.
Researchers from Stanford University have found that students whose teachers attached a note to the first draft of their essays that said, “I’m giving you these comments because I have very high expectations and I know that you can reach them,” were more likely to revise that essay than students in a control group who received a note that said, “I’m giving you these comments so that you’ll have feedback on your paper.” And the effects were stronger for black students.
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Does Algebra Do More Harm Than Good?

Does Algebra Do More Harm Than Good? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Algebra is one of the biggest hurdles to getting a high school or college degree — particularly for students of color and first-generation undergrads.

It is also the single most failed course in community colleges across the country. So if you’re not a STEM major (science, technology, engineering, math), why even study algebra?

That’s the argument Eloy Ortiz Oakley, chancellor of the California community college system, made today in an interview with NPR’s Robert Siegel.

At American community colleges, 60 percent of those enrolled are required to take at least one math course. Most — nearly 80 percent — never complete that requirement.

Oakley is among a growing number of educators who view intermediate algebra as an obstacle to students obtaining their credentials — particularly in fields that require no higher level math skills.

Their thinking has led to initiatives like Community College Pathways, which strays away from abstract algebra to engage students in real-world math applications.
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The False Choice Between Vocational and Academic Education

The False Choice Between Vocational and Academic Education | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Vocational education is having something of a resurgence these days, after enduring years out in the cold. The idea that seems to be striking the strongest spark is apprenticeship, having students spend a substantial amount of time in real workplaces learning from highly skilled workers how to do the work they do. 

But, a few days ago, David Leonhardt, the New York Times columnist, wrote a piece in which he says hey, whoa, wait a minute; advocates "have not thought through the downsides [of apprenticeship]." Leonhardt had read a piece in the Wall Street Journal by Eric Hanushek, reporting on research he had done with Ludger Woessmann and several other colleagues.  "The largest problem of skills in the U.S. today isn't a shortage of young workers with specific competencies," Hanushek says in the WSJ article.  "Instead it is a need for more general cognitive skills that give workers the ability to adapt to new circumstances and new jobs."
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Can Digital Equity Close the Achievement Gap?

Can Digital Equity Close the Achievement Gap? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
However, digital equity is not a magic fix for closing the achievement gap. The achievement gap existed long before the invention of the internet. Creating true equality for all students is far more complex than simply giving them all laptops. Further studies have shown that even when students in high-poverty schools have greater access to technology than their peers in low-poverty schools, their test scores remain lower.

While digital equity is a part of closing the achievement gap, it's not the solution. Digital technology can be used to widen the achievement gap or to help close it.
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Top 6 Digital Transformation Trends In Education

Top 6 Digital Transformation Trends In Education | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Educators from all grade-levels are coming to realize the benefits of technology in the classroom. Typically, education is one of the last industries to make extensive change, holding on to antiquated methods and practices. But through the digital transformation and the rise of educational technology, teachers have begun making drastic changes to their instruction, assessments, even the physical make-up of their classrooms, and at a much faster rate than expected. These current trends are making headlines in education because of the ways in which they are impacting student learning:
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Credit Recovery and other fraudulent course

Credit Recovery and other fraudulent course | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The hottest issue in high schools these days is the sharp rise in U.S. graduation rates — up to a record 83 percent — and whether it is real or an elaborate scam.

I think the latter.

There has been an accelerated use of online credit-recovery courses, which allow students to substitute a few weeks of work online for a course that usually takes months in a classroom. But there is no research showing students learn much in the courses — used by 88 percent of school districts — that got them to commencement.
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What other profession is lowering standards?

What other profession is lowering standards? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
ILLINOIS (WCIA) -- The Illinois State Board of Education passed emergency rules for teachers to help the state's shortage of educators. The rules have to do with licensing and broaden what instructors are qualified to teach.
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Reading 'on Grade Level' May Depend on Your School's Test, Study Finds

Reading 'on Grade Level' May Depend on Your School's Test, Study Finds | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley analyzed nearly 170 passages in four common elementary reading assessments: the Basic Reading Inventory, the Qualitative Reading Inventory, the Developmental Reading Assessment, and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, or DIBELS. They looked at how often passages used rare or common words, multisyllabic words, and those whose meaning changes by context.

All of the reading tests showed more complex texts as students moved from grade to grade, but the researchers found they changed in different ways over time, and some tests used more complex words and passages than others even within the same grade.
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Getting Social and Emotional Learning Right

Getting Social and Emotional Learning Right | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
As you know, I tend to come at things from an international comparative perspective, so it won't surprise you to learn that my take on 'self-esteem' is framed in part by the data from the OECD that show that American students, who perform very poorly on mathematics compared to the other advanced industrial countries, think they do quite well at mathematics, while the students from the countries with the best mathematics performance do not rate their knowledge of mathematics as highly. From that perspective, self-esteem is definitely not our problem.  Performance is our problem.

On the other hand, one of the things that has really impressed us about the schools serving very vulnerable children in East Asia is their strategy for dealing with students who all too often grow up in circumstances that teach them not to trust adults—any adults.  These kids often come to school fearful and unwilling to engage.  In places like Hong Kong and Singapore, the faculties of such schools embrace the motto: 'First the Heart, Then the Head.'  They know they cannot reach these young people in order to engage them in learning until they first do what they need to do to earn their trust.  The faculty in these schools will go to court if they have to intercede on the student's behalf with a judge, buy them lunch if they cannot afford one on their own, stay in school until 8:00 or 8:30 p.m. if the student has no safe place to go.
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Schools are boosting graduation rates by offering 'credit recovery.' But what are students learning?

Schools are boosting graduation rates by offering 'credit recovery.' But what are students learning? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
But it’s hard to know whether students in these classes are getting the same level of education as they would in a regular class, or even as their peers in other credit-recovery courses. The district lacks such records as how many students tried and failed to complete such courses, and how long it took them to finish a class. Measuring the rigor of credit-recovery methods is difficult, too, because of a lack of consistency in how the programs are run from school to school.

Schools around the country started to amp up credit-recovery efforts 15 years ago, when the federal government began pressuring districts to improve graduation rates. Its heavy use has been criticized, including in New York City, which has the only school district larger than L.A.’s.
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LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner: Here's what separates successful leaders from managers

LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner: Here's what separates successful leaders from managers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The clarity of your vision
The courage of your conviction
The ability to effectively communicate those two things
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7 Bad Habits You Need to Kill to Be a Better Leader

Very negative.
Seeing things in black and white, and blowing things out of proportion. The glass for this person is usually half empty as they dwell heavily on the worst possible outcome. They "should" on others, placing expectations of how their colleagues "should" be, thereby limiting their ability to accept others how they are, leading to negativity and the tendency to criticize.
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Misinterpreting the Growth Mindset: Why We're Doing Students a Disservice

Misinterpreting the Growth Mindset: Why We're Doing Students a Disservice | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Too often I have had to deal with misinterpretations of my work, misappropriation of my name, and over-zealous and incorrect use of the Visible Learning research. I was trained to critique ideas never the person but in these internet days this is continually violated. Recently, I had the chance to meet Carol Dweck, and knew all too well that they had to deal with these same issues when it comes to their work. 

Carol had come to Sydney to address AITSL's Highly Accomplished and Lead Teachers conference. So we dined, talked for hours, and had a very pleasant time together. As I did not agree with many of the claims attributed to Carol, I had done my homework by re-reading all her academic publications. Hence, I was a little terrified as I knew Carol's reputation for exactitude. Indeed, I met a careful, precise, and esteemed colleague.

Over the time we spoke, we discussed our mutual disappointment, not surprising, that so many took her work and applied it in many haphazard ways. Educators, pundits, and researchers have over promoted growth mindsets with no evidence of impact, and she noted how so many critics near bothered to read her academic work.  Instead they often recited secondary sources, believed Twitter and Blogs were peer reviewed rigorous studies, and misappropriated her searching for ideas as if it was all resolved.
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Students' Sense of Belonging at School Is Important. It Starts With Teachers

Students' Sense of Belonging at School Is Important. It Starts With Teachers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A student's sense of belonging at school is important to academic achievement, say educators who responded to an Education Week Research Center survey.
While most educators who took the survey use routines to help students feel welcome and safe at school—like greeting them at the classroom door each morning—many respondents say they struggle to help address some barriers to belonging.
The survey, administered by the Education Week Research Center, drew input from 528 educators who are registered users of edweek.org.
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Among those respondents, 41 percent say it's challenging or very challenging for them to address "the concerns of students who feel that they might be judged negatively based on their identity (e.g., disability status, gender, race/ethnicity)."
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