Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.
Mel Riddile's insight:
“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.
• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.
• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.
• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn
In 2009, JohnHattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.
In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrievalpractice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.
Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?
Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.
Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson
• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.
• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.
• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words
• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).
• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).
• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).
Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)
• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned
• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved
• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool
• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model
• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.
For U.S. education to live up to its promise as the greater equalizer, we must abolish outdated ideas that teachers are either incompetent or Jaime Escalante.
"If we want highly effective teachers in every classroom, we must re-balance the scales, admit that teachers and schools can bear only so much of the responsibility for unequal access to education, and accept that some of the fault is in our collective failure to provide equal opportunity."
But the question is how likely it is that failure will be productive. And the answer is: Not very. The benefits of screwing up are wildly overrated. What’s most reliably associated with successful outcomes, it turns out, are prior experiences with success, not with failure. While there are exceptions, the most likely consequence of having failed at something is that children will come to see themselves as lacking competence.
Here is an excellent short guide on concept mapping created by the folks over at Lucidchart (a popular concept mapping tool). The guide covers almost everything you need to know about concept maps including definitions, key features, theoretical foundations, how-to instructions, use cases and history.
Hone a Learning Mindset: Having a positive attitude towards professional development is vital. In an interview with McKinsey Quarterly, Tom Peters discussed the importance of leaders having "unscheduled time" (up to 50 percent). What should they do with that time? He advised, "One way to deal with the insane pace of change is by living to get smarter and to learn new things." Set aside time to learn on a regular basis.
These research-backed tips can help you learn more, faster, and with less effort.
Mel Riddile's insight:
Remember more with retrieval. "When class ends, I tell students, ten minutes after class get a blank piece of paper and just write down everything that was going on in class today. And then, at night, again get another blank piece of paper, write down everything you remember from class. That will have a way bigger impact than most of the stuff students do," says Garcia.
Psychologists seek to explain how and why people do what they do. Why do some children graduate from high school, while others drop out? Why would someone spend hundreds of hours memorizing words to compete in a spelling bee? Some explanations focus on circumstances in the environment and how people react to them, and others focus on characteristics of the person that are thought to be relatively enduring.
Grit is an example of the latter. Being gritty means being deeply committed to a long-term goal and following through on that commitment by pursuing it over the course of years. That goal might be to graduate at the top of your high school class, or to have a successful career in the military, or to be an internationally competitive gymnast.
A study published in the International Journal of Business Administration in May 2016, found that what students read in college directly affects the level of writing they achieve. In fact, researchers found that reading content and frequency may exert more significant impacts on students’ writing ability than writing instruction and writing frequency. Students wh
Universal Design for Learning and inclusive practices are repeatedly emphasized throughout the Every Student Succeeds Act. Effective implementation, then, will require that instructors revise common assumptions about the way students learn.
Leaders in high-performing, high-poverty (HP/HP) schools know that success requires more than just high-quality teaching and learning. The entire school, as a system, should work together to develop a common instructional framework that provides a vision of what success looks like. When a ship loses its compass, getting to port becomes a game of chance. It's no different for a school. When a school, particularly one characterized by high poverty and low performance, lacks an instructional plan or framework, progress will be anything but systematic, and more than likely patterns of low performance will continue.
Want to blow your students' minds with some hard-hitting critical thinking exercises? Try out the ones we've got for you here.
"Critical thinking sometimes involves the formation of ethical codes. These kinds of critical thinking exercises were handed down to me from my own elementary school teachers. They challenged my ethical programming and have stuck with me as central tenets in my moral code."
The evidence is largely anecdotal, and the research is inconclusive, but many professors say reading online clearly hampers students’ ability to take in what they study.
Mel Riddile's insight:
"A few studies have found little difference in retention when students read on a screen versus in print, though one, from Norway’s University of Stavanger, did suggest that high-school students remember less when they read a text digitally.
Some evidence exists that when students multitask (or are faced with the temptations of internet access), their comprehension dips. But as of yet, it’s unclear what role screens play in that outcome."
EAST LANSING, Mich. -- Teachers believe the Common Core standards in their states can improve how they teach writing, but they also find plenty of shortcomings with the standards - and with the associ..
The College Board has suggested a “college readiness benchmark” that works out to roughly 500 on each portion of the SAT as a score below which students are not likely to achieve at least a B-minus average at “a four-year college” – presumably an average one. . . .
Research shows some elementary teachers may need more support to teach math under the Common Core State Standards. Some teacher-preparation programs are adding classes to help prepare teachers for the standards, and school district officials are work
Educators know the negative impact of poor attendance on student and peer outcomes. Educators also understand that supporting students' attendance behaviors is a relentless, micro-activity requiring that they know what's going on every minute of every day inside of their schools. Recent findings highlight the impact of just one day of weather-related absences, as well as the corrosive impact of chronic absenteeism. The effects of poor attendance can be seen as early as first grade, validating the call for early interventions.
What is not as well understood are the difficulties in designing and maintaining an effective attendance system. The assumption that attendance systems can't possibly be all that hard to build coupled with the reality that very few educators are actually trained in systems design are two possible explanations why one of a school's most critical systems is also one of its weakest.
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