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Friendship and natural selection

More than any other species, humans form social ties to individuals who are neither kin nor mates, and these ties tend to be with similar people. Here, we show that this similarity extends to genotypes. Across the whole genome, friends’ genotypes at the single nucleotide polymorphism level tend to be positively correlated (homophilic). In fact, the increase in similarity relative to strangers is at the level of fourth cousins. However, certain genotypes are also negatively correlated (heterophilic) in friends. And the degree of correlation in genotypes can be used to create a “friendship score” that predicts the existence of friendship ties in a hold-out sample. A focused gene-set analysis indicates that some of the overall correlation in genotypes can be explained by specific systems; for example, an olfactory gene set is homophilic and an immune system gene set is heterophilic, suggesting that these systems may play a role in the formation or maintenance of friendship ties. Friends may be a kind of “functional kin.” Finally, homophilic genotypes exhibit significantly higher measures of positive selection, suggesting that, on average, they may yield a synergistic fitness advantage that has been helping to drive recent human evolution.

 

Friendship and natural selection
Nicholas A. Christakis and James H. Fowler

PNAS

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400825111

 


Via Complexity Digest, Becheru Alexandru
Christine Capra's insight:

So, how does this impact our ability to have meaningful exchanges across diverse populations? 

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21st-Century-Report-FINAL-NoBlanks.pdf

Christine Capra's insight:

The three keystones necessary for the creation of a 21st Century Civic Infrastructure are:
1) Engaging all sectors;
2) Enlisting all voices; and 
3) Building vertical and horizontal thoroughfares for information and practice exchange.

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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Economic Networks - Networked Economy
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What’s the True Impact of the Alternative Economy? Researchers Decide It’s Time to Find Out

What’s the True Impact of the Alternative Economy? Researchers Decide It’s Time to Find Out | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
Successful initiatives are investing in human relationships, not faceless call centers or centralized headquarters.

Via june holley
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Carl Jung Depth Psychology: Carl Jung: The union of opposites is a trans-conscious process and, in principle, not amenable to scientific explanation.

Carl Jung Depth Psychology: Carl Jung: The union of opposites is a trans-conscious process and, in principle, not amenable to scientific explanation. | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

Via Maxwell Purrington
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Eva Rider's curator insight, August 28, 2014 10:44 PM

The Union of the Opposites and the alchemical wedding - where the unconscious and the conscious meet - Are we swallowed into the unconscious or do we bring the unconscious into consciousness via the spark of life...

Interesting...C.G. Jung and his own process of understanding that which is inconceivable; there is an awe before the mystery of the feminine.

Rescooped by Christine Capra from Talks
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A Magna Carta for the web

A Magna Carta for the web | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web 25 years ago. So it’s worth a listen when he warns us: There’s a battle ahead. Eroding net neutrality, filter bubbles and centralizing corporate control all threaten the web’s wide-open spaces. It’s up to users to fight for the right to access and openness. The question is, What kind of Internet do we want?

 

http://on.ted.com/h0Pgm


Via Complexity Digest
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Talent and Performance Development
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Wirearchies = Adaptive, Two Way Flow of Power, Knowledge, with a Focus on Results

Wirearchies = Adaptive, Two Way Flow of Power, Knowledge, with a Focus on Results | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

Harold Jarche features Chee Chin Liew’s presentation on moving from hierarchies to teams at BASF.  It shows how IT Services used their technology platforms to enhance networking, knowledge-sharing, and collaboration.  


It features an approach to “building flows of information into pertinent, useful and just-in-time knowledge” so that...  knowledge can flow in order to foster trust and credibility.

      

______________________________

    

In complex environments, weak hierarchies and strong networks are the best organizing principle.   ...It means giving up control. 

   

_______________________________
       
Creating this two-way flow of dialogue, practice, expertise, and interest, can be the foundation of a wirearchy.

In complex environments, weak hierarchies and strong networks are the best organizing principle.


....many companies today have strong networks...coupled with strong central control. Becoming a wirearchy requires new organizational structures that incorporate communities, networks, and cooperative behaviours. It means giving up control. The job of those in leaderships roles is to help the network make better decisions. 

 

 

Related tools & posts by Deb:

 

See the companion post about Holacracy, here.

           

Stay in touch with Best of the Best news, taken from Deb's  NINE multi-gold award winning curation streams from @Deb Nystrom, REVELN delivered once a month via email, available for free here, via REVELN Tools.        Beyond Resilience: Black Swans, Anti-Fragility and Change

          

Beyond Resilience: Givers, Takers, Matchers and Anti-Fragile Systems    

      

Co-Creation in Theory U: Leading from the Future as it Emerges & the Road to Commitment

 


Via Deb Nystrom, REVELN
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Helen Teague's curator insight, March 6, 2014 1:46 PM

well worth the reading time.

InflatableCostumes's curator insight, March 7, 2014 7:26 AM

 Manufacturers of Custom Shaped Cold Air Inflatables including Giant Character shapes and  Product Replicas also Rooftop Balloons specializing in custom inflatables for advertising, manufactured in Hyderabad city, India - http://www.inflatablecostumes.com

Deb Nystrom, REVELN's curator insight, August 17, 2014 2:23 PM

I just featured the called out quote above about complexity (over complicated, bureaucratic), and less hierarchy, more communication via networks in my most recent post about letting go of industrial age thinking via the command and control nature of performance appraisals.  

Wirearchy and holacracy (think Zappos) are alternatives that embrace networked learning.  One is arguably a set of principles, the latter is an organization design approach that deemphasizes management.

~  Deb

Rescooped by Christine Capra from Sustainable Futures
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Understand faulty thinking to tackle climate change - opinion - 18 August 2014 - New Scientist

Understand faulty thinking to tackle climate change - opinion - 18 August 2014 - New Scientist | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
The amorphous nature of climate change creates the ideal conditions for human denial and cognitive bias to come to the fore, says George Marshall

Via Flora Moon
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Stephane Bilodeau's curator insight, August 18, 2014 9:06 PM

Discussions about economics, meanwhile, invariably turn into self defeating cost-benefit analyses. Stern offers a choice between spending 1 per cent of annual income now, or risking losing 20 per cent of it in 50 years' time. This language is almost identical to that Kahneman used two decades earlier in his experiments on loss aversion. Is it surprising that when a choice is framed like this, policy-makers are intuitively drawn towards postponing action and taking a gamble on the future?


If cost and uncertainty really are universal psychological barriers, it is hard to explain why 15 per cent of people fully accept the threat and are willing to make personal sacrifices to avert it. Most of the people in this group are left wing or environmentalists and have managed to turn climate change into a narrative that fits with their existing criticisms of industry and growth.


Conservatives may justify climate inaction on the grounds of cost and uncertainty but they, too, are able to accept both as long as they speak to their core values. As former US vice-president and climate sceptic Dick Cheney said: "If there is only a 1 per cent chance of terrorists getting weapons of mass destruction, we must act as if it is a certainty."

Rescooped by Christine Capra from CxBooks
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Social Dynamics (by Brian Skyrms)

Social Dynamics

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Brian Skyrms presents eighteen essays which apply adaptive dynamics (of cultural evolution and individual learning) to social theory. Altruism, spite, fairness, trust, division of labor, and signaling are treated from this perspective. Correlation is seen to be of fundamental importance. Interactions with neighbors in space, on static networks, and on co-evolving dynamics networks are investigated. Spontaneous emergence of social structure and of signaling systems are examined in the context of learning dynamics.

 

 


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Collective Presencing: Embracing a New Paradigm

Collective Presencing: Embracing a New Paradigm | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
In the first two articles in this series, we introduced collective presencing as a new human capacity emerging at this time. The first article described a journey of individual and collective deepe...
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Put on Your Systems Thinking Cap: What is Whole Systems Design? - Roots to Fruits LLC

Put on Your Systems Thinking Cap: What is Whole Systems Design? - Roots to Fruits LLC | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
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Systems thinking: a cautionary tale (cats in Borneo)

Learn about sustainability for free with short animation videos! Find all sustainability videos and join the community on http://sustainabilityillustrated.co...
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Systems thinking: an introduction

A brief introduction to Systems thinking from www.fotonlabs.com For a full introdution to the area of complex systems please see our course at: https://www.u...
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Étoile Platform
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Introduction to Hypernetworks

Introduction to Hypernetworks | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

A new module on the Étoile Platform, by Jeffrey Johnson

 

Based on the course presented at the 4th Ph.D. summer School - conference on “Mathematical Modeling of Complex Systems”, Cultural Foundation “Kritiki Estia”, 14 – 25 July, 2014, Athens.

 

The modern world is complex beyond human understanding and control. The science of complex systems aims to find new ways of thinking about the many interconnected networks of interaction that defy traditional approaches. Thus far, research into networks has largely been restricted to pairwise relationships represented by links between two nodes.

This course marks a major extension of networks to multidimensional hypernetworks for modeling multi-element relationships, such as companies making up the stock market, the neighborhoods forming a city, people making up committees, divisions making up companies, computers making up the internet, men and machines making up armies, or robots working as teams. This course makes an important contribution to the science of complex systems by: (i) extending network theory to include dynamic relationships between many elements; (ii) providing a mathematical theory able to integrate multilevel dynamics in a coherent way; (iii) providing a new methodological approach to analyze complex systems; and (iv) illustrating the theory with practical examples in the design, management and control of complex systems taken from many areas of application.


Via Jorge Louçã
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Sustainable Futures
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Leadership as Network Weaving « Interaction Institute for Social Change Blog

Leadership as Network Weaving « Interaction Institute for Social Change Blog | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

Thanks to Deborah McLaren for putting this slide show together that references the good work of June Holley, Chris Brogan, and Beth Kanter.  I find that there are many people out there who naturally get the concept of “network weaving” and many others still who are still learning to understand its value, and to see it as a function of leadership in a networked world.


Via Flora Moon
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Network Leadership
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The Collapse of Expertise and Rise of Collaborative Sensemaking

The Collapse of Expertise and Rise of Collaborative Sensemaking | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
If organizations are going to thrive in turbulent times, they must surrender many of their most cherished assumptions and start leveraging the power of collaborative knowledge. But this won't be ea...

Via june holley
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from networks and network weaving
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Decentralization: Why Dumb Networks Are Better : The Freeman

Decentralization: Why Dumb Networks Are Better : The Freeman | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
Filed Under: Capitalism, Competition, Free Markets, Human Action, Innovation, Market Process “Every device employed to bolster individual freedom must have as its chief purpose the impairment of the absoluteness of power.” —…

Via june holley
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Network Leadership
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On Motivation

On Motivation | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
Margaret Wheatley – Paradigm Shifter, Author and Co-Founder of the Berkana Institute
There is a misperception that people are motivated by competition. People are actually motivated by generosity and love.

Via june holley
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june holley's curator insight, August 22, 2014 1:51 PM

Great stuff on new leadership.

Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, August 22, 2014 6:38 PM

Walk out and Walk on is a great book. The last few years I taught I thought about that phrase a lot. We have to let go when we move on. It is hard and ongoing work.

 

@ivon_ehd1

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Beyond Resilience: Givers, Takers, Matchers and Anti-Fragile Systems

Beyond Resilience:  Givers, Takers, Matchers and Anti-Fragile Systems | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
“Our focus on removing or minimizing randomness has actually had the perverse effect of increasing fragility.”   How can we work through this  paradox in organizations?  Assistant Professor Adam Gr...
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Art of Hosting
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Appreciative Inquiry: a positive organizational practice - YouTube

Is your work day dictated by the negative problems you need to fix? This episode covers a strengths-based way of viewing people, processes, and organizations...


Via F. Thunus
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David Hain's curator insight, August 19, 2014 4:32 AM

Appreciative Inquiry is truly a solution for our divided and leaderless times - power to the people!

Les Howard's curator insight, August 19, 2014 7:40 AM

There is also a coaching version of this, Appreciative Coaching.

Rescooped by Christine Capra from Papers
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JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems

Complex systems are increasingly being viewed as distributed information processing systems, particularly in the domains of computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and Artificial Life. This trend has resulted in a strong uptake in the use of (Shannon) information-theoretic measures to analyse the dynamics of complex systems in these fields. We introduce the Java Information Dynamics Toolkit (JIDT): a Google code project which provides a standalone, (GNU GPL v3 licensed) open-source code implementation for empirical estimation of information-theoretic measures from time-series data. While the toolkit provides classic information-theoretic measures (e.g. entropy, mutual information, conditional mutual information), it ultimately focusses on implementing higher-level measures for information dynamics. That is, JIDT focusses on quantifying information storage, transfer and modification, and the dynamics of these operations in space and time. For this purpose, it includes implementations of the transfer entropy and active information storage, their multivariate extensions and local or pointwise variants. JIDT provides implementations for both discrete and continuous-valued data for each measure, including various types of estimator for continuous data (e.g. Gaussian, box-kernel and Kraskov-Stoegbauer-Grassberger) which can be swapped at run-time due to Java's object-oriented polymorphism. Furthermore, while written in Java, the toolkit can be used directly in MATLAB, GNU Octave and Python. We present the principles behind the code design, and provide several examples to guide users

 

"JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems"
Joseph T. Lizier, arXiv:1408.3270, 2014
http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.3270


Via Complexity Digest
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Eli Levine's curator insight, August 19, 2014 11:11 AM

This could be useful.

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A self-organizing thousand-robot swarm | Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

A self-organizing thousand-robot swarm | Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
Following simple programmed rules, autonomous robots arrange themselves into vast, complex shapes
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From Big Data to Deep Data

From Big Data to Deep Data | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
From his blog, Otto Scharmer, Senior Lecturer at MIT, and founding chair of the Presencing Institute writes about the value of Deep Data over Big Data:

"The one thing that I have learned from al...
Christine Capra's insight:
“The one thing that I have learned from all these projects is that the key to transformative change is to make the system see itself. That’s why deep data matters. It matters to the future of our institutions, our societies, and our planet.”  Scharmer

And on how many levels do we humans still prefer our blind spots!

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2013/10/10 11:00 “Interliminal Design: Mitigating Cognitive Bias-Induced Design Distortion” | DeAunne Denmark | Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013

2013/10/10 11:00 “Interliminal Design: Mitigating Cognitive Bias-Induced Design Distortion” | DeAunne Denmark | Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013 | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
Digest of presentation at #RSD2 by DeAunne Denmark @infourd @playthink sketchnote on Interliminal Design at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 2 at AHO Oslo School of Design and Architecture This...
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from itsyourbiz
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'Thinking In Systems' Can Help You Build A Sustainable Business

'Thinking In Systems' Can Help You Build A Sustainable Business | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it
3 Reasons To Buy Thinking In Systems: Immediately become a "systems thinker" through this engaging and easy-to-read primer. Own a 10-page reference in the appendix that nicely summarizes all the ke...

Via Skip Boykin
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Social Foraging
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Collective Learning and Optimal Consensus Decisions in Social Animal Groups

Collective Learning and Optimal Consensus Decisions in Social Animal Groups | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the otherwise direct relationship between animals' preferences and their experiences (the outcomes of decisions). Instead, because an individual's learned preferences influence what others experience, and therefore learn about, collective decisions couple the learning processes between social organisms. This introduces a new, and previously unexplored, dynamical relationship between preference, action, experience and learning. Here we model collective learning within animal groups that make consensus decisions. We reveal how learning as part of a collective results in behavior that is fundamentally different from that learned in isolation, allowing grouping organisms to spontaneously (and indirectly) detect correlations between group members' observations of environmental cues, adjust strategy as a function of changing group size (even if that group size is not known to the individual), and achieve a decision accuracy that is very close to that which is provably optimal, regardless of environmental contingencies. Because these properties make minimal cognitive demands on individuals, collective learning, and the capabilities it affords, may be widespread among group-living organisms. Our work emphasizes the importance and need for theoretical and experimental work that considers the mechanism and consequences of learning in a social context.

 


Via Ashish Umre
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Rescooped by Christine Capra from Knowledge Broker
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The Troubling Flaws In How We Select Experts

The Troubling Flaws In How We Select Experts | 'New Science' Leadership & Social Innovation | Scoop.it

Organizations are constantly scouring the earth for the talent or perfect expert that will provide the fresh edge and perspective needed to overcome the challenging obstacles that stand in their way to the top. In their pursuit of excellence however, you may be shocked to learn the criteria they use to define credibility and expertise may be severely flawed.

 


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
Christine Capra's insight:

I think this also has to do with our delusional search for perfection.

 

The better we know one another, the more 'flaw's we see - we can only imagine getting something close to our ideal with the unknown.

 

And we're a culture that prefers the illusion of the ideal over the value in reality. 

 

So we'll choose an infinite stream of expensive 'honeymoon' phases to the grit of committing to the flawed known. In all kinds of realms. . .

 

To our detriment - imho.

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Kenneth Mikkelsen's curator insight, July 28, 2014 10:35 AM

Sadly, it's human nature to overlook the talent nearest you and think an outsider can save the day.  


Why are recommendations perceived as bad ideas when suggested by employees, but suddenly brilliant when a lesser known individual suggests the same thing?


Why are these outsiders perceived to be more credible?

Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, July 28, 2014 7:04 PM

I always wondered how it was done. It certainly does not make much sense in School who is promoted and privileged.

 

@ivon_ehd1

Suvi Salo's curator insight, July 29, 2014 2:32 AM

In the words of Mark Twain, “An expert is an ordinary fellow from another town.”