Internet, being the most significant advent of new technologies, has fundamentally changed the way people interact. The purpose of the Internet goes beyond communication into virtual social spaces or third places. Some of the third places where socialization takes place are chatrooms, social networks and microblogging services. Among the latter,one of the most popular is Twitter, an online microblogging site. The present study aims to explore the complexities that a computer-mediated , Internet based platform for communication and socialization such as Twitter presents. By problematizing follower- followed asymmetrical parasocial relationship, it is argued that through the use of hashtags and re-tweets, which is intertextual and dialogic. It has mainly been contended Twitter features instantiate Parasocial Interaction Theory, elaborated means being Internet lingo or Netspeak. In order to explore the Parasocial Interaction Theory and the employment of Internet lingo in Twitter context, a digital corpus of 1000 tweets was built (around 25, 900 words approximately) by taking screenshots of Twitter timeline. In order to carry out the analysis, the sample under scrutiny was tabulated and finally classified according to the categories of analysis. Two criteria have been looked into, Netspeak features elaborated and functions of Twitter features like Hashtag and re-tweet in constructing and maintaning a parasocial interaction. The variables selected within each system have been explored both quantitatively and qualitatively. As a result of the analysis, it is seen that Twitter context encourages the use of Netspeak features, like abbreviations, acronyms and letter homophones. And features like RT and # serve to carry on the parasocial interaction.
In my district our schools are busting at the seams with kids needing social pragmatics skills. We even have city-wide social thinking educators that run groups all focused on social skill development.
A team of researchers at UC San Francisco has uncovered the neurological basis of speech motor control, the complex coordinated activity of tiny brain regions that controls our lips, jaw, tongue and larynx as we speak.
The work has potential implications for developing computer-brain interfaces for artificial speech communication and for the treatment of speech disorders. It also sheds light on an ability that is unique to humans among living creatures but poorly understood.
“Speaking is so fundamental to who we are as humans – nearly all of us learn to speak,” said senior author Edward Chang, MD, a neurosurgeon at the UCSF Epilepsy Center and a faculty member in the UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience. “But it’s probably the most complex motor activity we do.”
The complexity comes from the fact that spoken words require the coordinated efforts of numerous “articulators” in the vocal tract – the lips, tongue, jaw and larynx – but scientists have not understood how the movements of these distinct articulators are precisely coordinated in the brain.
To understand how speech articulation works, Chang and his colleagues recorded electrical activity directly from the brains of three people undergoing brain surgery at UCSF, and used this information to determine the spatial organization of the “speech sensorimotor cortex,” which controls the lips, tongue, jaw, larynx as a person speaks. This gave them a map of which parts of the brain control which parts of the vocal tract.
They then applied a sophisticated new method called “state-space” analysis to observe the complex spatial and temporal patterns of neural activity in the speech sensorimotor cortex that play out as someone speaks. This revealed a surprising sophistication in how the brain's speech sensorimotor cortex works.
They found that this cortical area has a hierarchical and cyclical structure that exerts a split-second, symphony-like control over the tongue, jaw, larynx and lips.
“These properties may reflect cortical strategies to greatly simplify the complex coordination of articulators in fluent speech,” said Kristofer Bouchard, PhD. In the same way that a symphony relies upon all the players to coordinate their plucks, beats or blows to make music, speaking demands well-timed action of several various brain regions within the speech sensorimotor cortex.
Bilingualism and learning – Being bilingual can have cognitive or executive function benefits. Children who speak two languages can be over- or under-diagnosed with LD. (RT @Multi_Ling_Mat: How Does Being Bilingual Affect Learning?
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