Xylan is a major structural component of plant cell wall and the second most abundant plant polysaccharide in nature. Here, by combining genomic and functional analyses, we provide a comprehensive picture of xylan utilization by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) and highlight its role in the adaptation of this epiphytic phytopathogen to the phyllosphere. The xylanolytic activity of Xcc depends on xylan-deconstruction enzymes but also on transporters, including two TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs) which belong to operons necessary for efficient growth in the presence of xylo-oligosaccharides and for optimal survival on plant leaves. Genes of this xylan utilization system are specifically induced by xylo-oligosaccharides and repressed by a LacI-family regulator named XylR. Part of the xylanolytic machinery of Xcc, including TBDT genes, displays a high degree of conservation with the xylose-regulon of the oligotrophic aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Moreover, it shares common features, including the presence of TBDTs, with the xylan utilization systems of Bacteroides ovatus and Prevotella bryantii, two gut symbionts. These similarities and our results support an important role for TBDTs and xylan utilization systems for bacterial adaptation in the phyllosphere, oligotrophic environments and animal guts. Guillaume Déjean, Servane Blanvillain-Baufumé, Alice Boulanger, Armelle Darrasse, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Anne-Laure Girard, Sébastien Carrére, Stevie Jamet, Claudine Zischek, Martine Lautier, Magali Solé, Daniela Büttner, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Emmanuelle Lauber, Matthieu Arlat
The study of the Sun, the Moon, stars, eclipses, day and night, began well before recorded history. There are reindeer bones and tusks of mammoths from the Ice Age that have notches carved on them picturing the phases of the Moon. These bones and tusks are dated between 25,000 and 10,000 B.C., and some scientists place them as long ago as 32,000 B.C.
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