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Marx adopted the model of dialectical logic of Hegel. While Hegel dealt with the dialectic of ideas, Marx attempted to apply this dialectical approach to the study of the material world , this allowed to take the dialectic of Marx realm of philosophy and move to the science of social relations in the material world .
Two basic features distinguish dialectical analysis of Marx's thought most of sociological thought : First , the dialectical method of analysis does not provide a single, unidirectional cause-effect relationship between the various parts of the social world , for a factor dialectical thinker can have an effect on another , but the latter may also influence the first. This kind of thinking means that when dialectical thinkers talk about causality , always refer to the interrelationships between social factors , as well as dialectical totality of social life in which they occur. The second feature of dialectical analysis even further object to most contemporary sociological thought . In the dialectical analysis , as Marx develops , social values are not separable from social facts . The dialectical thinker thinks that not only is impossible to separate the values of the study of the social world , but it is not because it produces a sociology wish inhuman and passionless .
Facts and values are interwoven , which resolved to the study of social phenomena necessarily involve value-laden .
In his early works called alignment distortions causing the structure of capitalist society in human nature . Although the actor was suffering alignment of capitalist society , Marx focused its analysis on the structures of capitalism that caused the alignment .
Marx offered basically an alignment theory rooted in the social structure. It is the social structure that breaks the natural interconnections that characterize human nature in an ideal sense . Here it is important the two-class system : though workers use the tools and act on nature, natural relationships are broken.
Components of the lineup. The concept includes four basic components : first, in capitalist society , workers are alienated from their productive activity. Instead of being a successful process in and of itself , productive activity in capitalism is reduced, according to Marx boring and stultifying a means of earning money to survive. Second , workers are alienated object also productive activities : the product. The product of their work is not theirs , workers not only have no control over the product, but also have a correct perception of what they produce , often perform very specialized tasks , a result that hardly perceive the role in the production process . Third, workers in capitalism are alienated from their coworkers. Society and hostility between people often alienate workers of their peers. Finally , workers are alienated from their own human potential in capitalist society . The conscience is numbed and ultimately destroyed as are gradually breaking relations with other humans and with nature .
Distortions arising from the alignment . Following alignment, labor in capitalism is reduced to a simple work- whose realization the individual does not affirm himself but denies himself, does not feel satisfied, but unhappy , does not develop freely his physical and mental efficiency , but mortifies his body and ruins his mind. In capitalism, the work is very different to genuine human activity.
As an example of the perversion of humanity by capitalism we reflect on the money. Ideally people can not be more than what they really are, but in capitalism gives money skills and attitudes people have not really .
Only a few people are allowed to perform intellectual work , mostly manual work done free of mental components .
We also have the monotony of endlessly repeating the same specialized task . Humans are no longer creative and loneliness are oriented toward possession of objects. Because the total alienation of human functions , a person can no longer meet their human needs and capabilities and is forced to focus on the skills and natural needs.
For Marx, capitalism was an inverted world , in which they should be up, are relegated to the lowest and vice versa.
The reality of life under capitalism is behind the illusion of a fact, the common belief is that they are the capabilities that give success to the worker.
Emancipation . The object of the sociology of Marx was the emancipation of mankind from the slavery of capitalist society . " Human emancipation will be complete only when the real man or single has become a species-being ."
Thus , human activity must achieve dignity , integration , perfection and liberation of man , so that the resources and capabilities that reside in it to develop, expand and find fruitful expression .
Reflections on human potential led Marx to articulate a critique of capitalist society and a political program aimed at the destruction of the structures of capitalism for people to express their essential humanity .
The goal of emancipation is to be generic , ie , the goal is communism, which is the first real expression and authentic realization of man, man's essence and his essence as real.
Marx's views on major structures formed from its dialectical thinking , especially on the basis of their tendency to focus on social relations.
Marx perceived social structures as a set of numerous ongoing social relations . This dynamic or dialectic perspective opposes the idea of many neodurkheinianos , who have ignored the warning that Durkheim had to treat social facts as things , and consider things done. While it had a dynamic of structures, Marx believed that the set of relations in capitalism were external actors and coercive . This does not mean that this set of relations was inevitable and eternal , but had acquired an objective reality under capitalism and must be destroyed to get closer to communism.
The relational perspective gives social structures changing nature more than they would if they were considered things .
Goods. The Marx merchandise concept rooted in materialist orientation analysis on productive activities of the actors. The products are traded in the free market for money ( exchange values )
Although it is people who produce objects in capitalism , the role they play in the production of goods and control over them mystify . At first believe that these objects and the market have an independent existence and that belief becomes reality when these objects and become real market in independent phenomena . The commodity appears as an external reality , almost independent .
Commodity fetishism . The basis of this process is the work that gives value to the goods. The fetishism of commodities involves the process by which the actors forget that it is his work that gives goods their value. They come to believe that their value comes from the natural properties of things or impersonal operation of the market is what gives them their value . So , for the actors , the market performs a function that for Marx the actors are the ones who can perform : the production of value .
Reification. People produce not only economic objects , but also social relationships and ultimately social structures . From this point of view, the commodity fetishism can be translated to the broader concept of reification . Reification is the process by which you get to create that humanly created social forms are natural, universal and absolute , and consequently these social forms acquire these characteristics . The concept of reification involves convincing people that social structures are beyond its control and are unalterable .
The structures actually purchase the character that people give them . Using this concept means that people deify not only goods but also the whole set of the various social structures .
Capital . As independent structure , capital ( in the hands of the actors operating in their own benefit, the bourgeoisie ) exploited workers , those responsible for their creation. Marx thought that the power of capital appeared as a power given by nature, inherent productive power to capital. So people tended to deify capital, to believe that by nature , the capitalist system was external to them.
Movement of goods . Regarded as the capital base . Distinguished two types of movement of goods, which represent the totality of economic relations established , which are external and coercive for the actor. One of these types of movement : DMD is characteristic of capital, not so in the case MDM . We consider simple commodity circulation characterized by the circuit and the second type MDM historic movement of goods , bartering is the first. Both circuits ultimately lead commodity circulation under capitalism , characterized by DMD circuit .
Private Property. Marx analyzed the process by which private property is deified in capitalism. For Marx, private property, and other structural components of capitalism , is derived from the work of employees. Private property is the product , the necessary consequence of alienated labor , of the external relation of the worker to nature and to himself.
Division of labor . The basic idea of Marx on the division of labor is derived from the distinction between the owners of the means of production and those who are forced to sell their labor power . A Marx particularly interested in structural trend where people are forced to specialize in tasks more and more specific . This specialization prevented actors conducted and express their human potential.
Social class . Marx considered social classes as external and coercive structures for people. Social classes are deified social relations or relations among men who have achieved an independent existence.
Social classes are derived from the acts of production: deify people come to classes and consequently begin to take an independent life that builds the actor.
Marx 's ideas relate to consciousness in the cultural sense (ie the norms and values or , in Hegelian terms , the spirit ) and not in the sense of mental processes and the social construction of reality. Marx seems that relegates the cultural level epiphenomenon status , determined by social and economic structures . This seems to reduce all social change such a change of material on which the cultural superstructure is erected .
Class consciousness and false consciousness . When Marx speaks of consciousness ( and false consciousness ) class, does not refer to an individual consciousness , but consciousness as a whole class . These concepts are not for Marx static , but rather dynamic systems of ideas that make sense only in the light of social change and development . False consciousness describes the situation during the capitalist period , while class consciousness is the condition that awaits the proletariat and that can help you make the change from a capitalist society to another communist .
Ideology . Can be defined as the integrated system of ideas that is external to individuals and it is coercive for them. Although Marx used to talk about ideologies in the same sense in which he spoke of the classes and the false consciousness, ie as mere reflections of the material basis , there is no doubt that the ideology acquired an independent existence within your system.
Highlights three interrelated fundamental ideas on Marx 's conceptualization of ideology : first , no doubt representing the interests of the ruling class, but this does not mean that these ideas do not have a reciprocal influence on material interests , and second , they are a mirror image of reality, and third , ideologies have an independent existence that is coercive to people.
The function of a system of ideas is to alter the thoughts and actions of the members of the oppressed class , in this sense , ideologies serve to promote the exploitation of the proletariat. Ideologies do not work for themselves: actors operate through carrying out their guidelines and ideologies determine the actions of the actors of the ruling class , who in turn influence the thoughts and actions of the proletariat .