Sweden opened a stretch of electric highway, becoming the first country to test electric power for heavy transport. Electric-powered trucks are expected to cut 80 to 90 percent of fossil fuel emissions in Sweden.
One of the oldest known galaxies in the universe is now home to the oldest oxygen yet spotted, a new study suggests. That massive group of stars, dubbed SXDF-NB1006-2, lies about 13.1 billion light-years from Earth and was the oldest known galaxy when it was discovered in 2012 (a record that has been toppled several times since). When first observed, astronomers also discerned that the galaxy had a halo of ionized hydrogen (purple in the artist’s sketch above), a sign that radiation streaming from the galaxy’s stars was energetic enough to strip electrons from atoms in that region of space.
Now, new observations of a particular wavelength of infrared light from that galaxy betrays the presence of oxygen atoms that have two electrons missing (in the smaller region depicted in green), researchers report online today in Science. Because all elements in the universe heavier than hydrogen, helium, and lithium have been forged by nuclear fusion in the cores of stars and then scattered into space by supernova explosions, the find indicates that the galaxy, at the age we’re now observing it, was old enough for at least one generation of stars to have formed, lived, and died.
The lack of infrared glow from the galaxy across a broad range of wavelengths, however, suggests that there’s very little dust there to absorb and then re-radiate the stars’ radiation, the team notes. There are likely many other galaxies of the same age sporting haloes of oxygen, the team notes, and detecting and then analyzing them will help shed light on how stars and galaxies formed and evolved in the early universe.
"The great writer's gift to a reader is to make him a better writer."
“Stories,” Neil Gaiman asserted in his wonderful lecture on what makes stories last, “are genuinely symbiotic organisms that we live with, that allow human beings to advance.” But what is the natural selection of these organisms — what makes the ones that endure fit for survival? What, in other words, makes a great story?
En ny flerstegshjärnavbildningsmetod som kallas ClearMap skapar en ögonblicksbild av nervaktivitet i hela hjärnan hos en vuxen Mouse1. Verktyget, som beskrivs 25 maj i Cell, kan hjälpa forskarna att förstå hur symfonier av nervceller skjuter under sociala interaktioner skiljer sig mellan musmodeller av autism och typiska möss. Forskarna har använt olika metoder, såsom funktionell magnetisk resonanstomografi, att spela synkroniserad aktivitet i hjärnregioner. Men dessa tekniker kan inte identifiera vilka aktivitetsmönster motsvarar särskilda beteenden. I den nya metoden, lyser en specialiserad mikroskop ljus på olika djup i musen hjärnan att producera en tredimensionell (3D) rendering av aktiva nervceller. Ny programvara överlagrar sedan denna bild på en allmänt tillgänglig atlas av hjärnstrukturer. Forskare kan analysera denna kombination att sätta fingret på de hjärnregioner som eld i synkront och matcha denna verksamhet vad djuret gjorde precis innan de undersökte dess hjärna.
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