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Koyal Info Group Mag Discovery of Oxygen in Soils

Koyal Info Group Mag Discovery of Oxygen in Soils | Koyal Info Mag | Scoop.it
In the 1930s, the ability of green plants to form oxygen through oxidation of water -- photosynthesis -- was discovered. Since then, no other large-scale biological formation of oxygen has been found, until now. New research results show that down in the dark depths of the soil, a previously unknown biochemical process is under way, in which oxygen is formed and carbon dioxide is reduced to organic material.
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New discoveries show biological formation of oxygen in soils

In the 1930s, the ability of green plants to form oxygen through oxidation of water -- photosynthesis -- was discovered. Since then, no other large-scale biological formation of oxygen has been found, until now. New research results show that down in the dark depths of the soil, a previously unknown biochemical process is under way, in which oxygen is formed and carbon dioxide is reduced to organic material.

"The results show that there is a highly unexpected biochemical process going on in forest-, agricultural- and grassland soils. This is knowledge that should be possible to apply in our continued work on reducing the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and countering the greenhouse effect," says Professor Siegfried Fleischer of Halmstad University, who initiated the study "Dark Oxidation of Water in Soils," which was just recently published in Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology.

The discovery is a consequence of a research track that, from the beginning, was not in line with current views of the soil ecosystem. Professor Fleischer stumbled across the phenomenon when he studied nitrification, an oxygen-consuming process in the ground. The consumption of oxygen was expected to increase when ammonia was supplied, but analyses in the laboratory rather showed that more oxygen was being produced. When the experiment was repeated, this "anomaly" showed up again and again. This new, unequivocal pattern in the results indicated the need for a new concept. Professor Fleischer took up the challenge.

He made the assumption that the bewildering result could be explained if water, which is present everywhere, contributes to reducing carbon dioxide to organic material down in the dark depths of the soil. The fact that this process takes place without sunlight, as is the case with plants, was however something completely outside current knowledge and accepted views. Professor Fleischer, however, went further, with this as his working hypothesis.

One way of getting nearer the problem was working with isotope-labelled water (H218O), thus revealing if the oxygen formed really did come from water. A few years ago, therefore, Professor Fleischer contacted researchers at the Division of Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University, where the right equipment could be found, and later also with a specialist at the energy company Vattenfall. The research group was able to show that the oxygen formed came from water in the soil, and that the water was oxidised biologically.

An international assessment of the scientific research, carried out at Halmstad University in 2013, called the results "potentially ground-breaking."

Professor Fleischer conducted the five-year project in collaboration with Lovisa Bauhn and Arvid Ödegaard-Jensen of the Division of Nuclear Chemistry at Chalmers University, and Patrik Fors at Vattenfall

Read the Full Info Here:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140121092907.htm

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Koyal Info Mag: Google hilft Krankheitsausbruch Vorhersagen

Koyal Info Mag: Google hilft Krankheitsausbruch Vorhersagen | Koyal Info Mag | Scoop.it
NEW YORK: Irritated at recurring symptoms? Searching for an online diagnosis on Google is not a bad idea before visiting the doctor. The habit of searching on internet for an online diagnosis...
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Google-Suche helfen vorherzusagen, Krankheitsausbruch: Studie


NEW YORK: Irritiert auf wiederkehrende Symptome? Auf der Suche nach einem online-Diagnose bei Google ist keine schlechte Idee, vor dem Besuch des Arzt.

 

Die Gewohnheit, suchen im Internet eine online Diagnose vor dem Besuch eines Arztes frühzeitige Warnung vor einer Epidemie Infektionskrankheiten bieten kann, sagt eine Studie.

 

In der Studie, veröffentlicht in der Zeitschrift Lancet Infectious Diseases wurden Internet-basierte Überwachung gefunden, Infektionskrankheiten solche Dengue-Fieber und Grippe bis zu zwei Wochen früher als traditionelle Überwachungsmethoden erkennen.

 

"Dies ist, da traditionelle Überwachung des Patienten erkennen die Symptome und die Behandlung vor der Diagnose, sowie der Zeitaufwand für Gesundheitsberufe alert Behörden abhängig", sagte Wenbiao Hu, senior Research Fellow an der Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Australien.

 

Oft gab es ein Zeitabstand von zwei Wochen vor herkömmlichen Überwachungsmethoden aufstrebende Infektionskrankheit erkennen könnte. "Digitale Überwachung kann stellen dagegen Echtzeiterkennung von Epidemien," Hu hinzugefügt.

 

Die Studie fand mithilfe digitaler Überwachung durch Suchmaschinen-Algorithmen wie Google Trends und Google Insights, erkennen von 2005 / 06-Vogelgrippe-Ausbruch "Vogelgrippe" können zwischen ein und zwei Wochen früher als amtliche Überwachungsberichte hätte.

 

"In einem anderen Beispiel, ein digitales Datennetz Sammlung wurde gefunden, den Ausbruch von SARS mehr als zwei Monate vor der ersten Veröffentlichungen erkennen zu können von der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO)," sagte er.

 

Früherkennung bedeutet Frühwarnung kann und verringern oder enthalten eine Epidemie, sowie alert Gesundheitsbehörden Risikomanagementstrategien sicherzustellen, wie die Bereitstellung von ausreichend Medikamente werden implementiert, die Studie festgestellt.

 

Social-Media-Tools wie Twitter und Facebook könnte auch wirksam bei der Erkennung von Seuchenausbrüchen, sagte Hu.

 

"Es ist das Potenzial für Digitaltechnik, emerging infectious Disease-Überwachung zu revolutionieren", fügte er hinzu.

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