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Biography of Karl Marx
Revolutionary socialist thinker and activist of German origin (Trier , West Prussia , 1818 - London , 1883 ) . Karl Marx came from a middle-class Jewish family (his father was a lawyer recently converted to Lutheranism ) . He studied at the universities of Bonn , Berlin and Jena , PhD in Philosophy from the latter in 1841.
Since that time , the thought of Marx would be seated on the dialectics of Hegel , although he replaced the idealism of a materialist conception , according to which economic forces are the infrastructure that ultimately determines the phenomena " superstructure " of the social order , political and cultural .
( Mordecari was the Jewish family name ) . Born in Trier (Germany ), specifically in the Rhineland in 1818 , and died in London , 1883. The many ambiguities in his life that unfolded form a personality as complex as seductive.
Wealthy bourgeois family , his father was a lawyer, is baptized at age six in the Evangelical and sent to the twelve the Gymnasium (similar to a high school ) of the Jesuits . Although its origin is Jewish, opportunism became Protestantism , but in the background was indifferent. His childhood was surrounded by an atmosphere areligious rationalist . He studied law in Bonn and Berlin , while others presides " Student Union treverina spree friends " . Involved in several duels .
At eighteen, secretly promised to Jenny von Westphalen . Thereafter , he began to study the philosophy of Hegel. Journalist, worked first in the Rheinische Zeitung , Annals founded in 1843 and the following year Franco- up , not willingly, to Paris , where he worked contact and friendship with Friedrich Engels and published " La Sagrada Familia " . Later, he traveled to Brussels where he was allowed to stay " only if it engages in philosophy " and type in addition to " Philosophy of Poverty " several theories of social conflict . Eager to have sons , and not showing great appreciation for the female sex , their eight children , one illegitimate - only survive three females .
Forever chased by police , goes from Paris to Berlin and Vienna , watching prohibited its periodicals ( Neue Rheinische Zeitung ) . In 1848 he wrote his most famous work " The Communist Manifesto " . Banned permanently from Prussia in 1849 , lives in London , where it can survive thanks to the generous help of a monthly pension of Engels ( established from 1856). Senior New York Herald Tribune, tries in vain to emigrate to the United States. In 1866 he held the first congress of the Socialist International , inspired by Marx and , the following year saw the first book of Capital . In 1872 breaks definitively with the anarchist Bakunin , and in 1875 with the Social Democratic Party of W. Liebknecht .
Faithful friend of his friends ( although somewhat selfish ) , small bourgeois customs and artistic sensibility to a maximum degree intransigent regarding the " morality" Victorian politician is not too clever ( get more splits that accessions ) , is certainly , in historical terms , one of the greatest geniuses of mankind.
His philosophy , in spite of what they have done it " his followers " wanted to be open and critical : a method of analysis more than a dogmatic system . His essays on political economy ( the result of nearly twenty years of uninterrupted study at the National Library in London) are almost irreproachable from the point of view of science . In it converge the cream of classical philosophy (Hegel ) , the scientific findings of the English economists ( Smith and Ricardo ) and the revolutionary utopia of the French socialists ( Fourier and Saint -Simon , among others) .
This delicate balance could be maintained dynamically alive thanks to the power of synthesis of Marx. At his death , the delicate interplay of forces would begin to falter. In his hatred of all dogmatism attest the famous words to his son , Paul Lafargue : ' Ce qu'il already Un certain
c'este que moi , je suis pas in Marxist " . " The truth is that I am not a Marxist " .
Sociology does not advocate communism
How Marx contributed to sociology ?
Karl Marx never considered himself a sociologist , but had an immense influence on sociology and other social sciences .
Outside these areas , he is best known for his writings on communism.
He said that the working class would beat the propertied class , and the result would be a utopia in which the government would atrophy and disappear and the principles of the economy would be based on the slogan " to each according to his need and from each according their ability . "
His main contribution to sociological thinking perspective is called " conflict theory " according to which the organization and social change based on the conflicts that arise in society.
Marx did not define nor coined the term perspective . Those who use this approach are based on his writings.
Their notions of change are rooted in the writings of a philosopher , Hegel , who developed the concept of dialectics.
This notion was based on the idea that everything has in itself the seeds of its own destruction , but that a new way will emerge from the ashes.
Many consider this theory very similar to the Greek and Latin classical myth of the phoenix ( who flew too close to the sun and burns ) and the creation myths of the Athapaskan people of the North American Great Plains .
Marx took this idea and applied dialectics to society , claiming that the origins of change are all materialistic , and not based on ideas.
In our terms , this means that belong to the cultural dimensions of technology and economics.
By going deriving the technology people of the gathering and hunting to agriculture ( horticulture, livestock ) and the industrial revolution , changes in technology have led to changes in social organization , and also in beliefs and values.
The main source of conflict in the industrial age was between
workers , whom he called the proletariat ( from Latin) , who survived by selling their work , and
factory owners , who called the bourgeoisie (the word has the same root and bourgeois burg ) , who needed the work to get benefits.
The favor exploited class and would benefit from a change towards greater equality while exploiting class would resist that change.
This approach is called dialectical materialism.
Ironically , predicted that the revolution would take place in industrialized societies , but the only communist revolutions in history occurred in large feudal agrarian societies (Russia and China) .
An important concept conflict approach , after considering social dynamics as a result of competition for resources, is that those who are in power ( and possess wealth) have a vested interest in perpetuating the system that put them on top of the social pyramid .
The idea has been applied in a micro to a macro level , such as family dynamics national social organization .
The conflict approach , derived from his writings , has been copied and adapted to a large number of sociological issues .
Although German, Marx spent most of his time as a writer at the British Library in London.
with previously read everything I could understand leftover in history karl marx was jecuitas parents and his childhood was surrounded by the rationalist and areligious atmófera ie wearing a belief in God but did not believe in some religions and eighteen years was that began studying philosophy which left the right by the philosophy in berlin and I keep thinking Hegel 's idealist dialectics and materialist thought Feuerbachl interpretation of the world , materialism which had made the radical criticism denunciándon Religion as a illusion and Marx was prepared by his childhood areligious , to capture this critique of religion , this means that marl try to apply this dialectical approach to the study of the material world .
marl into thinking marx to find true relaidad about human problems using religious alignments , philosophical , political , social and economic .
Marx never gave a definition of sociology : although their contributions are of great value for sociological analysis , he ( Marx ) , not a sociologist , is a " social thinker " because of his time there was no sociology as a discipline , science is instituted later .
When Marx speaks of 'reality' refers to the social and historical context to the world of man. Ensures that man is social relationships.
For Marx , what man is can not be determined from the spirit or the idea but from the man himself , of what it is specifically, the real man, corporeal standing on solid ground . The man is no abstract being out of the world but that man is in the world, this is the state and society .