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Due 4/18--Roberts Pulls Supreme Court to the Right Step by Step

Due 4/18--Roberts Pulls Supreme Court to the Right Step by Step | Jorge's 5th Period GOPO | Scoop.it
Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. may work slowly, but he has a long-term strategy for putting his mark on the Supreme Court.

Via Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:

1. Who/what has been consistently favored in Roberts court decisions? Cite evidence to support your answer. The liberals since the liberal party is the majority than the conservative in the judicial court ruling over every conservative ruling of even small case. 

2. What is precedent and in what ways has the Roberts court largely made rulings based on precedent? Precedent is the previous establishment of the previous case which affects the choice of the cases in the future. The rulings have gone towards the liberal sides making rules about certain laws that liberal party congress member rule upon to make of law. 

3. What strategy(ies) might the President pursue to see greater success in the Court? The strategy that the president may use would be the media to cover the choices of the people to go to certain sides of the choices that the judicial branch makes upon the laws to be passed by the rule of four. 

4. Which Justice is considered the “swing vote” on the court and why? Justice Kennedy is the "swing vote" because there is already a 4 to 4 ratio of the conservative and liberal which Kennedy makes the 6 to 6 judicial vote.

5.Is there discernible bias in the way this article was written? Why, or why not? The article was written in the view of a conservative to help decrease the help many liberals receive in their vote to the upcoming laws that are against many of Obama's choices of laws that he will or will not veto against the court ruling. 

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Emily Phariss's curator insight, April 20, 2014 12:34 AM

Robert tends to favor conservative justices. Robert struck down the Voting Rights Act.

Decision from the five justice majorities.

A more compromising tactic or possibly a court with more judges of their favor.

Justice Kennedy vote matters because he is building a legacy.

Yes because all political articles are bias in determining what moves are conservative and what are more liberal there are always fine lines.

Shelby Mench's curator insight, April 22, 2014 9:46 AM

1.)  Who/what has been consistently favored in Roberts court decisions? Cite evidence to support your answer.

 

            In Roberts court decisions conservatives have been favored and he has shown a large attachment to things which he feels are planting new seeds in the justices and discusses them as a new plant.

 

2. What is precedent and in what ways has the Roberts court largely made rulings based on precedent?

 

          A precedent is when an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances. The Roberts court has largely made rulings based on precedent which favor businesses and which choose to push forward older laws.

 

3. What strategy(ies) might the President pursue to see greater success in the Court?

 

            The President might pursue attempting to persuade the justices on issues with a more liberal view. This would help as the Roberts court takes the extra votes in order to gain their votes. This would help the President to see greater success in the court.

 

4. Which Justice is considered the “swing vote” on the court and why?

            The Justice which would be considered the “swing vote” in the court would be Kennedy because he tends to vote both ways and he is typically the deciding vote.

 

5. Is there discernible bias in the way this article was written? Why, or why not?

 

            No there is no discernible bias in the way this article was written because it presents the facts and doesn’t bring in much of an opinion while giving information on both sides instead of only one.

Jessica Markle's curator insight, April 24, 2014 6:14 PM

1. Conservatives have been constantly favored in Roberts’ court decisions because he is constantly persuading the court’s more liberal justices to pass different laws in the polarized system.

2. Precedent is when a court uses a previous case to evaluate the outcome of a current case. Roberts court mainly deals with this when the case involves businesses.

3. In order for the president to gain more support for Congress, he will need to gain support from the opposing political party by perhaps letting them win smaller battles and compromising.

4. Justice Kennedy is considered the "swing vote" because he has voted for both the conservatives and liberals and he is unpredictable.

5. There is always bias in articles, but this article doesn't necessarily have that much. It sheds light on the views of both conservative and liberals.

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Due by 2/24: Americans' Satisfaction With Economy Sours Most Since 2001

Due by 2/24: Americans' Satisfaction With Economy Sours Most Since 2001 | Jorge's 5th Period GOPO | Scoop.it
More Americans today are satisfied with where the nation stands on acceptance of gays and lesbians, federal taxes, and healthcare availability than were satisfied in 2001. But Americans' satisfaction with the economy has declined.

Via Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:
Kelly Grossman's insight:

Rescoop to your own page and write a reflection on the reading in which you answer the following questions  - by class time on Monday, 2/24!

1. The article explains why Gallup chose a 13-year comparison. Do the historical events of this period explain the changes in public opinion? Why or why not? Yes it does since the change of ideas and problems to change first. The the shift in problems for others have shifted from governmental taxation to Gay and Lesbian rights of marriage.

2. Examine the chart comparing Democrats' and Republicans' levels of satisfaction. Do these results coincide with your expectations (based on the textbooks' depiction of American liberalism and conservatism)? Why or why not? Yes they do since the republicans have their own likes and dislikes and vice-versa, for the democrats. The changes and laws placed that are new will effect the mind shifts of the people of the certain party that would affect their future.

3. Based on these results, which public policy changes are likely to be supported by each party? The Military and terrorist defensive increased by both parties to lessen the fear of their lives. The future and safety of the country is their first priority.

4. The sampling error for this poll is +/- 4%. What does this mean, and how might it impact your interpretation of the data presented? It isn't too much of a sampling error that affects the data by the error. The 4% doesn't effect much of the side i believe in as i see the data well built in how the percentage of the both parties was taken.

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Grayson Hunt's curator insight, February 24, 2014 9:41 PM

The increase in military satisfaction and the decrease in world affairs satisfaction reflect the Afghanistan war that many people are now willing to end. The difference in Democratic and Republican satisfactions on certain views reflect their conservative and liberal views because more Democrats are passing the laws they see as necessary so they are more satisfied than Republicans who have less of their laws passed. Both parties are on fairly similar levels of satisfaction with public affairs like education and poverty because they both accept that are many flaws in those areas. The +-4 percentage difference is actually quite a large error due to the many small percentage changes and could make truths less or more serious than fact.

Hannah Larson's curator insight, February 25, 2014 9:17 AM

1. The historical events of the period have greatly affected the results of this poll. 9/11 and the war in Iraq and Afghanistan have changed American approval of our standing in the world and our foreign affairs for the worse. The end of the dot com boom and the beginning of the 2008-2009 recession significantly alterered people's views of the economy. They now disapprove of the state of the economy significantly  more than in the past.

2. For the most part these results coincide with democratic and republican views. Republicans show more approval of the state of the environment and gun policy while Democrats show more approval of social policies such as the legalization of gay marriage and Social Security and Welfare programs. I found it interesting that the two parties' approval of many issues such as quality of public education and quality of medical care are almost the same. Republicans show less concern for the environment and they do not support stricter gun laws, so these approval ratings make sense. Democrats endorse more support of scoial issuessuch as gay marriage and more government sponsored programs for the people to use. Their support of gay marriage and socil securoty and welfare makes sense. I believe both parties share the same approval or dissaproval on some issues because most people are moderate but call themselves a democrat or republican. Most take a republican view on most things and a democratic on others or vice versa.

3. Democrats will more likely favor policies such as the affordable health care act and support social welfare programs.Republicans will favor policies that involve less government control such as tax cuts and less strict gun laws.

4. This means that the data taken could be a lot closer than what is seen. Issues where the ratings seperated by 8% could lead to actual results of the same approval rating. This completely changes the readers' view on data taken over energy policies and federal taxes. Some of the data is so close that when the percentage error is taken into acoount, democrats may have more approval of an issue than republicans or vice versa. This can be seen in data taken for control of crime, quality of medical care, and race relations.

Jessica Markle's curator insight, April 15, 2014 12:04 AM

Yes, because ever since the economic downturn and 9/11 Americans have altered their views towards the economy and has lost confidence in the government and its policies.

Yes, because Democrats seem to be more for liberalism while Republicans are concerned lean towards conservatism.

Republicans would strengthen the economy, set immigration laws, and limit health care while Democrats would set strict gun regulations and preserve the economy.

It means that there is a possibility of a small percent error. However, it has no impact on the major interpretation of each side for each topic.

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Senate Balks at Obama Pick for Surgeon General

Senate Balks at Obama Pick for Surgeon General | Jorge's 5th Period GOPO | Scoop.it
The White House is considering putting off a Senate vote on Dr. Vivek H. Murthy, who has come under criticism from the National Rifle Association, or withdrawing the nomination altogether.

Via Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:

1. How is an interest group (the NRA) exercising its influence on this appointment? They show how the constitutuinal right of bareing arms is being excluded and aken away from many.  What are the NRA’s specific concerns with this nominee? That with the nominee, maybe gun control may be accepted. The acceptence of that bill would enrage republicans.

2. What is at stake for Senators, and where is the concern greatest? The stake is their position in the senate. The senators do not want their people to not renominate them back into office after a bill that passes that take away the right of the poeple.

3. How does the President/White House play a role in the confirmation process? They have the right to veto the law and spread their idea to the people in how they believe what should happen to the people's rights.

4. What strategies could the White House pursue in relation to this appointment? The white house could follow upon their idea which is taken over democractically to help pass the bill with power of influence to the voters.

Why did the White House learn from recent nominations that were not confirmed? The recent happenings will not control the loss of right to bare arms. Those happenings happen because of life. Just like a pencil doesnt write its own page, so that means the gun doesnt kill people, people kill people. This is the mind set of the Republicans which is very true.

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luke jester's curator insight, April 11, 2014 6:14 PM

1. They  sent out a "grass roots alert" to millions of people so they would tell their senators to not vote for the President's nominee . They don't like the fact that the nominee is extremely against guns.

2. democrats may lose control of the Senate because Senators are voting differently then they normally would because of the NRA .

3. The President chooses the positions of people.

4. they could hold Obama's vote for surgeon general or take out the nomination from the position. they need balance nominees in order to have support from both parties.

Jessica Markle's curator insight, April 11, 2014 9:28 PM

The NRA is influencing members of congress by personally emailing the voters and trying to rally members against the Surgeon General because they don't agree with his views on gun control and many other issues. The senators reelection is at stake and if they vote with gun control, they will lose the support of the NRA. From this incident, the White House should definitely learn to choose a more fitting person to represent, one that preferably agrees with the policies of the NRA.The white house learned to approach nominations differently in order to recieve better feedback

Lauren Sargent's curator insight, April 14, 2014 10:38 PM
The NRA is concerned about the appointment of nominee Murthy because he is actively against guns. They are going directly to citizens addressing them about the nominee and asking their opinion and going to senate, trying to get the nominee removed. The NRA are concerned that if the nominee is appointed, the gun-bans in the nation will go up, decreasing their value.The Senate is trying to maintain democratic leadership by listening to their constituents which, in states such as Alaska, Louisiana, and Arkansas, are opposed to gun-banning, which puts them against the nominee.The White House try to choose candidates who will help keep a mostly equal view on arguments and won’t anger any interest groups, such as the NRA, so there won’t be a lack of executive control or support.The White House should consider what is really good for the nation and what candidates are right for the job, rather than trying to please everyone. It is impossible, especially in politics, to please everyone, so they should try to think about what the candidate can offer to the executive process and what they can possibly change. The White House learned that they tend to overestimate democratic support and lean more toward their constituents than the rest of the nation.
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Just for fun: "About last night: Texas primary highlights"

Just for fun: "About last night: Texas primary highlights" | Jorge's 5th Period GOPO | Scoop.it
updated Wednesday at 8:45 am ET

(CNN) - The Lone Star state held its primary contests Tuesday, kicking off the 2014 election season with two top Republicans guarding their seats in Congress against conservative challengers and gubernatorial candidates Wendy Davis and Greg Abbott ready to square o...

Via Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:

With the Republican Party overtaking the Texas government, many Republican senators have to campiagn in order to even compete and stay in their chair or new senators to take thier chairs with many third party canidates seemingly increasing to the senate. Two of the running senators even pledge to go rn for the 2016 U.S. Capital, to run for president of corse. The new Republican party emerging from the Lone star state to pledge to run for president. What im thinking of what will happen is that maybe oin 2016, the new Republican canidates maybe the the new upcoming Republican president for that year. The new year for Republican to take the government that year.

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Shelby Payton Salkar's curator insight, March 20, 2014 11:31 AM

The Texas primaries starting off in 2014 consisted of a lot of movement and tenured roles being replaced. Headlines were spotlighted on the top two conservative challengers and gubernational candidates Wendy Davis and Greg Abbott battling out for the seat. Also The Tea Party made big strides this primary for Texas with 4 out of the 5 recomended candidates won with the last one getting a runoff. This helps The Tea Party with reconginition in this red state. On top of that the Lone Star State democrats are pushing to finally make Texas a blue state when Rick Perry tries for the presidency race. In effect, will cause mayhem in the senate for electoral seats. Very interesting Ms. Grossman. 

Shelby Mench's curator insight, March 20, 2014 11:59 AM

The basic foundation of the constitutional belies of the founders of the constitution was that in short, it was put into place to be fair and to avoid corruption from all levels so that everyone was getting an equal opportunity. The most common way of thinking and to get votes is to think of the fact that states which are larger, are allocated more electoral votes so people should look to gain their votes. The main objective is to get  those states and then also the states which typically vote the same way each year. If the college is not able to choose an obvious winner then the House votes for the top three. A lot of people don’t like this because they felt it did not work out right when Bush won the electoral votes and AlGore won the popular vote and this was reiterated with the recounts. In my opinion this is a good thing because I think a majority of states should have electoral votes because it helps to not only eliminate any doubts but it help to prevent any flaw and to ease people’s minds.

Linda Pierre's curator insight, March 20, 2014 12:11 PM

www.scoop.it/t/ap-u-s-government-politics

Rescooped by Jorge Lopez0408 from AP U.S. Government & Politics
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Due by 4/11-Obama going it alone, pressing ahead on reforms for federal contractors with executive orders

Due by 4/11-Obama going it alone, pressing ahead on reforms for federal contractors with executive orders | Jorge's 5th Period GOPO | Scoop.it
President pushing contractor changes with executive orders, moving without help from Congress

Via Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:

Why has President Obama chosen to enact an executive order regarding pay of federal employees? With the law coming into place, it would help the steady increase of jobs that would help many people who have been discriminated from government contractors who have been payed less to work for them than the minimum wage which would encourage other companies to increase their wages. What are the limitations on Obama’s executive order and executive orders in general? he can not just pass the law under the dislikes of others as the republican still disagrees with the idea of the president having so much executive power that will pass the law. The president may have a white house approval but can not pass the law on his own. What criticism is being levied against presidents’ use of executive orders? The criticism of the republican party calling him too power hungry which is causing an argument with the gay rights movement group which is arguing to the president not wanting to pass the law.  What is the criticism of this specific executive order? The criticism of the order is the president following and supporting gay rights and woman's rights. What policy area has the White House chosen not to address with executive orders? The have chosen not to let the idea of the white house of supporting gay rights groups and ideas. Why might the Obama administration be hesitant to address this area? Many of the administration may not support gay rights as much as others which would ruin their job with the president himself.

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Shelby Mench's curator insight, April 15, 2014 2:39 PM

1.)    Why has President Obama chosen to enact an executive order regarding pay of federal employees?

President Obama has chosen to enact an executive order regarding the pay of federal employees because he has not been able to get the support that he needs from Congress.

2.)    What are the limitations on Obama’s executive order and executive orders in general?

However there are certain limitations on Obama’s executive order and executive orders in general such as the fact that they can be put into a trial for legality and it can create a division with congress when Obama really needs them to back him!

3.)    What criticism is being levied against presidents’ use of executive orders? What is the criticism of this specific executive order?

There is criticism that is being levied against the president’s use of executive orders such as the point that Obama needs to put forward a better effort to work with congress and to step back and review the stress he is placing on other companies financially.

4.)    What policy area has the White House chosen not to address with executive orders?

There is the policy of gay rights which The White House has chosen not to address using executive orders.

5.)    Why might the Obama administration be hesitant to address this area?

The Obama administration might be hesitant to address the area because Obama does not want to lose any of the public’s support! He is hoping that the Senate will pass a bill and will be able to protect all Americans rather than just a few.

Courtney OConnor's curator insight, April 15, 2014 6:57 PM

I was absent Wednesday-Friday with no access to computer/ internet.

 

President Obama has chosen to enact an executive order due to complications compromising with Congress. This executive order would prevent contractors from retaliating against employees discussing their pay as well as require the Labor Department to require contractors to provide data regarding pay based on race and gender. His limitations are that his order may be challenged and deemed unlawful by Congress. There is criticism that President Obama may be stepping out of line by not agreeing with Congress about this decision, and that he's using his power too far. Also, Federal Contractors believe that releasing this data would call for an increase in lawsuits and the creation of a two tier system. The White House has not chosen to deal with the agenda that would protect gays and lesbians working for these Federal Contractors. He might be hesitant to address this issue due to the growing support of protection of gays and lesbians in Congress as it is and further provocation to Congress would be harmful for his administration.

Katie Nissen's curator insight, April 17, 2014 5:40 AM

President Barack Obama chosen to put in place an executive order so he can control more of the economy by keeping federal contractors from hurting employees who would like a raise. His executive order was denied by congress. The order might be considered unlawful. Republicans know that he is using his power to much and needs to be working with congress. People know that his executive order will give a burden to companies and hurt their inflow of money. The white house has not said anything about protecting gays and lesbians working from federal contractors. The white house’s goal is to spread protection to all Americans. 

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Due by 3/6: Larry J. Sabato's Crystal Ball » 2016 presidential ratings update: Nothing but questions on the Republican side

Due by 3/6: Larry J. Sabato's Crystal Ball » 2016 presidential ratings update: Nothing but questions on the Republican side | Jorge's 5th Period GOPO | Scoop.it

Via Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:

1. Based on this article, what would you say that the media is looking for in an ideal candidate for 2016? Is it the same for both parties? The conservitave side is the new side that has been wanting to be used and hired for the new seat of the White House. The conservitive side is wanted for the both parties to maybe have a chance to help control the economy.

2. To what extent is Sabato focused on the issues (platform) of the candidates? What the disadvantages and advantages are for the runnign canidates for the points they they will attack and what they will focu on.

3. Sabato refers to the “permanent presidential campaign.” What does this mean, and what are the implications for government? The permanent campaign is the non stop of action being attacked. The new canidates will keep running for their own worries and ideas, not for the people.

4. Do you think that there is an advantage to being identified as an early leader in the presidential race? Why or why not? Yes, the earlier you come out, the earlier your ideas spread to the people about your campaign run.

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Maggie Kimling's curator insight, April 1, 2014 1:06 PM

1. I think that republicans are based more on older ideoligies and Democrats concern themselves with more modern issues with more modern ideas.

 2. He focuses on their past ideologies and histories. 

3. He implies that the task of being the president, though thrilling is extremely difficult hard and most people are not equipped to handle it.

4. Both yes and no. Yes, if everyone is on your side, no because it causes a lot of rumors to form just to bring you down.

Jessica Markle's curator insight, April 14, 2014 11:56 PM

The media is looking for  both a woman candidate to run for the Democraticparty and someone fresh who has not been in the spotlight. because of this they have been keeping their eye on Hilary Clinton. However for the Republican Party, the media is looking for a clear-cut candidate as they let the scandals fall as they may. Sabato is not very interested on the party platforms of candidates, but rather their popularity and faults. He is making broad assumptions of each possible candidate and listing the general pros and cons of each.Sabato describes the permanency of campaigns by acknowledging that campaigning is a continuous process. He seems to imply that it is a good thing, and it allows voters to be more informed and aware of possible candidates.It is not an advantage to be identified early as a leader in the presidential race because this puts the candidate in the media spotlight. It also creates boredom in voters as they tire of constantly seeing information on a particular candidate.           

Lauren Sargent's curator insight, April 17, 2014 10:16 PM
So far, the media seems to be looking for candidates with successful political record, is liked by the public and their party, and isn’t too harsh on their views but also isn’t too loose. These credentials seem to be the same for both parties. They as well want a candidate with a good political record and popularity vote.Sabato is less concerned with their political platforms, because they can easily be changed, and more with their political experience and records and financial capabilities.Sabato’s reference to the “permanent presidential campaign” means that candidates now are more concerned with their media coverage and appearances when campaigning themselves. The government itself has become increasingly concerned with the media and its perception of what happens in the government and with running candidates. This causes some candidates to change their political platforms to fit what they think the media will want, which has caused some of them to become less popular.I think that there is an advantage to being known as an “early leader” in the presidential race because the leaders are the ones who other candidates will form their candidacies around. Other candidates will sway their opinions and fit what they think fits to the media and what the media wants rather than what they believe. This would not be as big of a problem for early runners because they start out on top because of their political ideologies and then gain media support, not the other way around.
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Due by 3/28 -- Gerrymandering: the recipe for dysfunctional government?

Video on msnbc.com: The age-old practice of politicians re-drawing Congressional districts to find friendly voters, or, gerrymandering, has allowed members of the House of Representatives from both sides of the aisle to stay in power regardless of...


Via Teresa Herrin, Kelly Grossman
Jorge Lopez0408's insight:

What is gerrymandering and how did it get its name? Gerrymandering is a practice in which politicians find ways to find the right kind of voters in their districts by drawing certain pictures on maps which showed the true powers of voters and what they followed in their candidates ideas. 

What are some of the characteristics of redrawn districts? The characteristics are a salamander for power and fear, a man flexing his muscles for pride and strength, a pterodactyls broken wing for the weakness, a split coffee cup for its vast spread of the district, and a pair of ear muffs that showed the stubborn group that would stay to its own techniques. 

When are House seats reapportioned? Every two years they are reappointed.

What is a potential solution to gerrymandering provided in the video? Gerrymandering is a showcase of criticizing the districts and how they work. The solution would be to quit the criticizing that may inflict future problems to party members as they would be bashed on.

What implications would this have for an incumbents’ future reelection? The more the gerrymandering continues, it has the chance to show the bad vibe an incumbent may seem. The bashing on other parties may cause the mind set of a voter to change to the party that is getting pain inflicted to it. 

Are there any similarities that can be drawn between potential outcomes with the Electoral College and gerrymandering? If so, describe. Gerrymandering comes from both parties of the electoral college as they are the ones who control their districts and how they are speaking of other parties in different ways that would cause problems. Yes, the electoral college does have connection to the gerrymandering that is a fight between both parties and maybe even secondary parties.


~Jorge

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Mason Paul Lyman's curator insight, April 2, 2014 9:41 PM

1. The House redraws the congressional districts every 10 years on the census in an attempr to make the districts lend their support to whoever the current party majority is.

2. Gerrymandering allows incumbents to get reelected multiple times. 

3. Have a computerized, neutral program that would create districts based on geography and demography. A program such as this would make it more difficult for incumbents to get reelected.

4. Yes, there are. One party could earn more votes than another but still lose the election.

5. No because it is an unhonorable way to earn the respective benefits.

Jessica Markle's curator insight, April 12, 2014 2:09 PM

gerymandering is the act of redrawing a district and its has gotten its name from Albridge Garry who redrew a district in the beginning of our country in order for him to win a vote. The redrawing of the districts almost guarantees a win in voting because it allows the politicians to choose their voters. In the video, suggested possible solutions to gerrymandering would be to redraw district lines according to geography, demographics, and population density but it would cause a disruption in the current system and would make it very difficult for a representative to be reelected to a district that doesn't have the same advantages. Gerrymandering can be compared to the electoral college because these systems don't work in the favor of the public, or the majority vote because with the representatives picking the districts containing people they know will vote for them along with the electoral college being able to override the public vote, it has caused question in the democratic system of the United States.

Lauren Sargent's curator insight, April 17, 2014 9:47 PM

The term gerrymandering comes from an 1810 law that was created by Elbridge Gerry, Governor of Massachusetts, which repositioned and defined congressional districts based on population changes. After the law was passed, newspaper articles came out with pictures of the re-drawn districts in concerning shapes, such as a salamander. They linked the two words “salamander” and “Gerry” and called it gerrymandering. As time has gone on, gerrymandering has been manipulated by both the Republican and Democratic parties by them re-drawing districts specifically to change the possible outcome of their “political cartoon” if you will. House seats are being re-apportioned every presidential election year. The video suggested that these means of politics have made it so that “the politicians are choosing their voters, rather than the voters choosing their politicians”. This is causing major distrust in candidates and decrease in voter participation. Gerrymandering has been beneficial to incumbents because they change their districts to work in favor of their election. Both the Electoral College and gerrymandering can be seen as unfair or corrupt government practices because they can sometimes both not accurately depict the peoples' votes by changing their districts. With the Electoral College, they could win a majority of the electoral votes, but not the majority vote. With gerrymandering, a politician would be elected just because of the re-drawn, manipulated districts, which is ridiculous.