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New York City's Disappearing Mom-and-Pop Storefronts

New York City's Disappearing Mom-and-Pop Storefronts | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
Two photographers set out to see what happened to small family businesses in New York City in a decade

Via Seth Dixon
Jake Reardon's insight:

To be honest I am surprised that "Mom and Pop" storefronts lasted this long in New York City. It just seems to me that as a city grows and rent prices go up the smaller store fronts would naturally be pushed out by larger conglomerates who would be more suited to handle the rent prices. Of course it is an old addeage of capitalism that as long as you offer a good product that consumers would be inclined to consume you can stay above water in even the most competitive locations. Although to me that would appear to have its limits. Perhaps the economic tides of the present in New York are that limit.

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Heidi Ames's curator insight, April 10, 2014 10:49 AM

Awesome to use when studying the Northeast and Immigration.  How scenes change in a short time due to economy!

Ms. Harrington's curator insight, April 12, 2014 7:28 AM

What a decade can do to a cultural landscape.

L.Long's curator insight, April 15, 2014 6:55 PM

Changing nature of world cities

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Medical Student Blogs: 15 Year Old Incan Girl Found after 500 Years

Medical Student Blogs: 15 Year Old Incan Girl Found after 500 Years | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

Via Axuedu
Jake Reardon's insight:

Many of these cases gain quick noteriety once they crop up. What is especially interesting is that paleontoligists have been able to find these mummies from all over the world and from many differents walks of lifes and from cultures that were very different from each other. It seems like much of the puzzle of the past can hel be compoleted through these preservations.

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Axuedu's curator insight, February 12, 2014 6:06 AM
History has the weirdest way of uncovering itself! A more contemporary version of a mummy was found in the form of a 15 year old Incan girl in 1999 near
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Ecuador and Its Mountains and Volcanoes

Ecuador and Its Mountains and Volcanoes | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
Ecuador, despite its small size, is considered one of the countries with the most variety in the world.

 

Ecuador Geography

Ecuador, despite its small size, is considered one of the countries with the most variety in the world. The country is divided into three distinct regions by the narrowing points of the Andean range.

Towards the eastern part of Central Sierra, the tropical rainforest Oriente is situated. To the west lies the coastal lowlands, a hot and humid region but it is a more accessible area.

About 200 kilometers from the western lowlands to the eastern jungle stand two peaks of 6310 m that form the two mountain ranges or cordilleras.

(...)


Via harry
Jake Reardon's insight:

The variety of the South American Biosphere is put on display in Ecuador. It is a country boarders by much larger neighbors Columbia and Peru. Ecuador is also home to the famous Galapgos Islands. This site of course makes the countrys biodiversity all the more telling.

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American ancestors got stuck on Bering land bridge for 10,000 years before crossing

American ancestors got stuck on Bering land bridge for 10,000 years before crossing | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

Genetic and environmental evidence indicates that after the ancestors of Native Americans left Asia, they spent 10,000 years in shrubby lowlands on a broad land bridge that once linked Siberia and Alaska. Archaeological evidence is lacking because it drowned beneath the Bering Sea when sea levels rose.

 

University of Utah anthropologist Dennis O'Rourke and two colleagues make that argument in the Friday, Feb. 28, issue of the journal Science. They seek to reconcile existing genetic and paleoenvironmental evidence for human habitation on the Bering land bridge – also called Beringia – with an absence of archaeological evidence.

 

O'Rourke says cumulative evidence indicates the ancestors of Native Americans lived on the Bering land bridge "in the neighborhood of 10,000 years," from roughly 25,000 years ago until they began moving into the Americas about 15,000 years ago once glacial ice sheets melted and opened migration routes.

 

O'Rourke co-authored the Science Perspective column – titled "Out of Beringia?" – with archaeologist John Hoffecker of the University of Colorado at Boulder, and Scott Elias, a paleoecologist at the University of London.

 

"Nobody disputes that the ancestors of Native American peoples came from Asia over the coast and interior of the land bridge" during an ice age called the "last glacial maximum," which lasted from 28,000 to at least 18,000 years ago, O'Rourke says,

 

The ice sheets extended south into the Pacific Northwest, Wyoming, Wisconsin and Ohio. Large expanses of Siberia and Beringia were cold but lacked glaciers.

 

The absence of archaeological sites and the inhospitable nature of open, treeless landscape known as tundra steppe mean that "archaeologists have not given much credence to the idea there was a population that lived on the Bering land bridge for thousands of years," he adds.

 

O'Rourke and colleagues say that in recent years, paleoecologists – scientists who study ancient environments – drilled sediment cores from the Bering Sea and Alaskan bogs. Those sediments contain pollen, plant and insect fossils, suggesting the Bering land bridge wasn't just barren, grassy tundra steppe but was dotted by "refugia" or refuges where there were brushy shrubs and even trees such as spruce, birch, willow and alder.

 

"We're putting it together with the archeology and genetics that speak to American origins and saying, look, there was an environment with trees and shrubs that was very different than the open, grassy steppe. It was an area where people could have had resources, lived and persisted through the last glacial maximum in Beringia," O'Rourke says. "That may have been critical for the people to subsist because they would have had wood for construction and for fires. Otherwise, they would have had to use bone, which is difficult to burn."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Jake Reardon's insight:

The bering land bridge is often assumed to be the origin of human life on the South African continent. Also called Beringia it connected North America to Asia and was thought to be the catalyst for a great deal of prehistoric migration. This land bridge could have sparked the first human movement from The Asian Continent over to the North American Continent, and the migrants could have filtered down into South America as time passed.

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New York City's Disappearing Mom-and-Pop Storefronts

New York City's Disappearing Mom-and-Pop Storefronts | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
Two photographers set out to see what happened to small family businesses in New York City in a decade

Via Seth Dixon
Jake Reardon's insight:

To be honest I am surprised that "Mom and Pop" storefronts lasted this long in New York City. It just seems to me that as a city grows and rent prices go up the smaller store fronts would naturally be pushed out by larger conglomerates who would be more suited to handle the rent prices. Of course it is an old addeage of capitalism that as long as you offer a good product that consumers would be inclined to consume you can stay above water in even the most competitive locations. Although to me that would appear to have its limits. Perhaps the economic tides of the present in New York are that limit.

more...
Heidi Ames's curator insight, April 10, 2014 10:49 AM

Awesome to use when studying the Northeast and Immigration.  How scenes change in a short time due to economy!

Ms. Harrington's curator insight, April 12, 2014 7:28 AM

What a decade can do to a cultural landscape.

L.Long's curator insight, April 15, 2014 6:55 PM

Changing nature of world cities

Rescooped by Jake Reardon from Geography of North America
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How Many People will Yellowstone National Park Kill When it Blows?

How Many People will Yellowstone National Park Kill When it Blows? | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
Beneath Yellowstone Park a monstrous plume of hot rock is causing the earth to heave and tremble. Past volcanoes have erupted with a thousand times the power of Mount St. Helens. The future is anybody’s guess.

Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

This is a scary aspect of the study of geography. Being able to know a cataclysmic event lurks somewhere on the horizon, yet being unable to pinpoint a time in which this event is likely to occur. The Yellowstone National park is in fact itself one of the largest volcaneos on earth. The scariest part is that it is not extinct and will someday explode. The power of that inevitable explosion promises to be incredible, and the damage it causes will be devastating.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 7, 2013 4:17 PM

The world'lst three vocano super-eruptioins have been at Yellowstone.  "An eruption 2.1 million years ago was more than twice as strong, leaving a hole in the ground the size of Rhode Island."  Scientists believe that it could blow again in our lifetimes, or not for hundreds of years.  While it looks like the park sits inside a large basin, it's really the opening of an active volcano.  This article is a bit longer than average, but is interesting the whole way through.  


Author: Joel Achenbach

Arzu Ahmadova's curator insight, April 30, 2014 3:56 AM

Yellowstone milli parkı partlayarsa nə qədər insan öləcək?

Gene Gagne's curator insight, October 13, 2015 9:32 AM

I must be living under a rock. This is the first time I hear of this.

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North America's Rainforests. You Thought They Were Just in Brazil?

North America's Rainforests.  You Thought They Were Just in Brazil? | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

This is an incredibly interesting region of the world. The article describes most notably the diverse range of wildlife that are unique to the region.There are over 250 types of tree species which can only be found in this rainforest. In addition to this there are over 60 types of bird species, as well as over 30 types of animal species exclusive to the rainforest. Naturally with such a unique population of animal life, there are many efforts in place to attempt to protect these species from jeopardizing human interactions. Considering the precious uniqueness of the area it is vital to the entire planet that these efforts are successful and the rainforest is preserved.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 7, 2013 6:58 PM

The islands of the Caribbean (a sea off the southeast coast of North America) are home to forests that have been protected since the Spanish set that land aside from development since 1876.  Just a few facts that are revealed in the article; the types of trees (there are over 250), birds (over 65 species), and more than 30 types of animals that can be found nowhere else in the world.  You'll also read about what efforts are being made to protect the natural resources of this area.

Also read about temperate rainforests on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state:

http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/temperate-rain-forests.htm.

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How the Grand Canyon was Created

How the Grand Canyon was Created | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

To me the grand canyon is a great example of how the earth's physical composition has been drastically changed over the course of time. A pivotal phenomenon that causes the earth's gradual change in physical landscape is of course erosion. Both wind and waterfall cause erosion as they gradually move soil and earth and in the process change the composition of the areas which they effect. It is amazing to think of how this process occurs so gradually, yet on such a large scale and over such a long period of time that it can cause such massive changes to particular areas such as the grand canyon. To think of how this area was once a fertile and level tract of land, yet over time wind and water altered it into the cavernous barren landscape that we see today is both amazing and humbling.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 7, 2013 11:52 PM

How could water have created such an amazing collection of buttes, mesas, cliffs, and valleys in an area that looks like a desert?  Author Bob Ribokas gives an in depth look at how a once large sea covered the continent and created what we see today (that explains why fossils of creatures found only at coastlines are found in the area).  If you've ever wondered why the dirt and rocks that make up the canyon walls are so colorfully striped, this will answer your questions.  

Ribokas explains how the area went from a mountain range, to a flat plain, to the canyon we see now that is up to a mile deep in some places.

See awesome photos: http://www.flickr.com/groups/thegrandcanyon/ 

Marissa Roy's curator insight, October 15, 2013 12:49 PM

I've always wanted a better understanding of how the Grand Canyon is formed. It is so interesting that this article also includes pictures to help show what was made where. This would be a great resource for a Geography classroom.

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Driving Along the Inca Trail

Driving Along the Inca Trail | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

Many people are interested in visiting or travelling along the Inca trail in Peru.  To be able to see the most important sights of this once great civilisation is absolutely amazing.  You will feel as if you have travelled several hundred years back in time, finding yourself wondering how much o... ( #travel source http://www.luxurytravel.org/driving-along-the-inca-trail/)


Via Miki Mo
Jake Reardon's insight:

It seems to me that we hear much more of the Mayan and Aztec civilazations when it comes to studying the ancient civilizations of South America. The Incan's seem to have less attributed to them and have a less documented history that makes them slightly more ambiguous and mysterious. What i do know is that it was the largest pre columbus civilization in South America and it was located in modern day Peru.

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The Inca city of Machu Picchu

The Inca city of Machu Picchu | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

I did the hike in 2008, but I did a longer version that was 8 days and we actually climbed a different mountain (trail, not mountain-climbing) and then descended to Macchu Picchu's base (and then climbed that). If you are going to walk, I recommend one of these longer versions, because the 4 day hike is so popular it's basically like standing in line for 4 days with other hikers.

There is a train that takes you from Cuzco to the base of the mountain, a town called Aguas Calientes (there are hot springs somewhere nearby). You might want to spend some time in Cuzco before you head over to Macchu Picchu. The altitude is crazy high and if you're like me and aren't used to mountains, you might want time to adjust. Aguas Calientes is touristy but it was a breath of fresh air for my group after our long hike! From there, you can either climb the incan stairs to the top of the mountain, or you can take the bus up switchbacks to get up there. I don't think either the bus or the train are particularly dangerous. The stairs are a bitch if you have knee problems, though.

You should go up on the mountain as early in the day as possible. We started before dawn so that the group could go up the second peak (I chose not to due to knee problems) which is an additional climb that is capped - only the first couple hundred are able to go up to the other part. That other climb is where most of the pictures of Macchu Picchu are taken from, so there you will find the best views.

Machu Picchu is a 15th-century location which is located 2,430 meters above the sea level. The name Machu Picchu means "old peak", as it was built in the 1

Via Netizyn
Jake Reardon's insight:

I did the hike in 2008, but I did a longer version that was 8 days and we actually climbed a different mountain (trail, not mountain-climbing) and then descended to Macchu Picchu's base (and then climbed that). If you are going to walk, I recommend one of these longer versions, because the 4 day hike is so popular it's basically like standing in line for 4 days with other hikers.

There is a train that takes you from Cuzco to the base of the mountain, a town called Aguas Calientes (there are hot springs somewhere nearby). You might want to spend some time in Cuzco before you head over to Macchu Picchu. The altitude is crazy high and if you're like me and aren't used to mountains, you might want time to adjust. Aguas Calientes is touristy but it was a breath of fresh air for my group after our long hike! From there, you can either climb the incan stairs to the top of the mountain, or you can take the bus up switchbacks to get up there. I don't think either the bus or the train are particularly dangerous. The stairs are a bitch if you have knee problems, though.

You should go up on the mountain as early in the day as possible. We started before dawn so that the group could go up the second peak (I chose not to due to knee problems) which is an additional climb that is capped - only the first couple hundred are able to go up to the other part. That other climb is where most of the pictures of Macchu Picchu are taken from, so there you will find the best views.

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South America: Physical Geography

South America: Physical Geography | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
Encyclopedic entry. South America is a continent of extremes. It is home to the world's largest river (the Amazon) as well as the world's driest place (the Atacama Desert).

Via Kate and Sierra, Christian and Asher
Jake Reardon's insight:

South America has an incredible physical composition. It is the most biologically diverse of all Earth's continents. In terms of natural resources South America has always been very rich. Throughout studying history i learned of how European governments practicAlly salivated over the country and invested head over heels in it. The Andes and the Amazon rainforest are also not the easiest of places to farm and to develop. It's also extremely hard to make roads to many towns in the Andes and it's hard to build roads crossing them. Same goes for the Amazon.

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Kate and Sierra's curator insight, March 7, 2014 11:07 PM

This site shows a slideshow of pictures of the geography of South America . It goes under the catagory of area/geography. South America has a wide range of physical geography from glaciers and Patagonia to flatlands and the Amazon Rainforest.

Christian and Asher's curator insight, March 12, 2014 10:37 PM

Area Geography:South America is has a wide variety of  geographical features

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Baja California Peninsula--2nd Longest in the World

Baja Facts - Basic information about the unique Baja California peninsula and its people!

Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

Baja California Peninsula is the second largest peninsula in the world. About 75% of the population of this peninsula lives in its two largest cities. Both of which are located along the boarder of the United States. The Baja peninsula is physically connected to the rest of Mexico by a good sized coastal strip of land, even though it appears at a glance to not be physically connected. There were several   military operations to capture land for the U.S. planned, but Mexico managed to appease the U.S. with the Gadsden purchase, allowing the peninsula to remain a part of Mexico rather than allowing it to be ceded to the United States. U.S. corporations and settlers still had vast tracts of land along the coast for some time but eventually the Mexican government kicked them out.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 7, 2013 6:43 PM

This is a very basic article but presents facts about the Baja Peninsula in North America that many of you may not know.  It is longer than more famous peninsulas in Florida and Italy; only the Malay in Asia is longer.  It is mostly considered a wild, untamed frontier.  Almost all of the people live in two cities tucked near the U.S./Mexican border.  A good, quick read to introduce you to our little known peninsula.

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The World's Largest Archipelago...What's an Archipelago?

The World's Largest Archipelago...What's an Archipelago? | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
Chain of small islands that separate the Bering Sea (north) from the main portion of the Pacific Ocean (south) and extend in an arc southwest, then northwest, for about 1,100 miles (1,800 km) from the...

Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

Archipelago is a term which i have seen more and more of since taking up the study of geography. Naturally this article struck me as important. Archipelagos are a chain or cluster of islands. the word is derived from the Greek words archi, meaning chief, and pelagos, meaning sea. The Aleutian islands, which this article is about is located in North America and has the distinction of being the world's largest archipelago. This archipelago occupies a total area of 6,821 square miles in the volcanic range often referred to as the ring of fire.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 7, 2013 6:33 PM

A chain of islands is called an archipelago, and the world's biggest is in North America.  Home to many species of animals, coral that could be up to 500 years old, possibly 30 millioin birds, and countless types of sea life; it's worth taking a look at.  Natives of the area can trace their history back some 8000 years.  Read more about this great physical feature of North America at http://www2.cec.org/nampan/ecoregion/aleutian-archipelago.

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Mississippi River Delta to "Drown" by 2100?

Mississippi River Delta to "Drown" by 2100? | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it
A combo of dams and sea-level rise could wipe out vast acres of the U.S. river's delta plain, according to new research that predicts the surrounding coastline will be significantly reshaped.

Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

This seems like an incredibly important area for present day geographer. The ability to predict changes in the earth's landscape and be able to predict how they will affect human life in that area in the future is a science which is important for all mankind. In this instance we see a heavily populated area of a disadvantage demographic that will inevitably be rendered as uninhabitable thanks to the impending expansion of the river delta. this information will enable the government and the residents of the area to have a contingency plan that will allow them to transition in a more prepared manner as the area transitions into a period of time in which the area will no longer be habitable.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 7, 2013 11:10 PM

The title to this article by Rebecca Carroll should worry any American.  Looking at the two pictures, you can see what the delta looks like now compared to what it may look like at the turn of the next century.  Water from 41 states drains into the Gulf of Mexico at the delta, but the amount of sediment that makes it that far has, and will, continue to drop unless changes are made.  You can learn more about the plant and animal life of the region at the website below.  Pictures and videos can also be found at the link.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/385622/Mississippi-River/39995/Plant-and-animal-life

http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/mississippi-river-delta/view/?service=0

 
Marissa Roy's curator insight, October 15, 2013 12:59 PM

This is an alarming prediction. WIth the water level rising and moving faster and the delta weakening, a new coastline would be created. This could have devastating effects on the surrounding areas.

 

Tracy Galvin's curator insight, February 4, 2014 5:54 PM

Unfortunately, many years of land alteration has caused the natural environment of the area to become uninhabitable. The river deposits that have been diverted are no longer being deposited and the current silt levels are being compacted, which is why some areas of New Orleans are actually below sea level. That was why there was so much destruction when the levees broke in Katrina, water runs downhill. The sad part is that the people that live there are low income and cannot afford to relocate. There are areas like this around the world. I do not think there is a solution that will work for the people that currently live there, the only solution I see is relocate and let the planet take its part of the planet back.

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Mojave Desert: Hottest Place on Earth

Mojave Desert: Hottest Place on Earth | Jake GEO Portfolio (Spring '14) | Scoop.it

Mojave Desert, Death Valley, extremes of nature and geography


Via Ken Patson
Jake Reardon's insight:

This desert area occupies a significant portion of the American Southwest. It is home to one of the most extreme climates in North America. Ground temperatures in the Mojave Desert can be in excess of 200 degrees Fahrenheit and it average a sparse 13 inches of rainfall annually. Clearly, in such extreme conditions the wildlife that populates this desert has to be extremely specialized. Personally I marvel at the amount of species throughout time that would have had to be snuffed out from this region over time as it developed into the scorching landscape that it is today. Coyotes, snakes, bats, rabbits, tortoises and lizards are the fauna which dominate the landscape today. All of which have highly specialized traits that allow them to sustain and proliferate in such a hazardous terrain. As someone who is interested in the process of natural selection and the development of particular species over time in particular areas, the Mojave desert presents an area of great interest because of its diverse animal population.

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Ken Patson's curator insight, July 8, 2013 12:11 AM

In this most extreme climate, where air temperatures have stayed over 120 degrees for forty days at a time, and ground temperatures have been recorded at over 200 degrees (http://www.weather.com/news/science/nature/extreme-places-death-valley-20130505), plants, animals, and most recently humans, try to exist.

Shayna and Kayla's curator insight, November 26, 2013 11:39 PM

This is part of North America's geography because it has the most extreme climate. This is the Mojave Desert and it covers a big part of North America, in parts of California, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona.