Italian Neorealism 1944-1952
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Italian Neorealism 1944-1952
A look into the movement that arose in Italy at the end of the second World War.
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The Beginnings of Italian NeoRealism

The Beginnings of Italian NeoRealism | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it

Once World War II ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, Italy faced many economic, social, and moral hardships which changed the nation's point of  view (or psyche, rather)- all the while the Italian film industry was falling and losing its center. Italian NeoRealism style films (1944-1952) convey Italian sentiment of opression, desperation,and injustice and portrays the poverty and other challenges faced by the nation during that period of time.


Via Edmarie Torres Pellerano
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Neorealism in Postwar Italy

Neorealism in Postwar Italy | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it

With the country in ruins, it was something of a miracle that any feature films at all were made in the immediate postwar period, but that a high proportion of them turned out to be classics is an even greater wonder.  The budget of these films was small and the equipment was scarce but, the films were able to capture the audience and the real life events that had happened or were still happening.


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Film 2700 Group 's comment, March 22, 2013 2:23 PM
This article about Italian Neorealism emphasizes the use of a low budget and unknown actors in the postwar films.
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1860 - I Mille di Garibaldi

1860 - I Mille di Garibaldi | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Alessandro Blasetti's film like 1860 (1934), was shot mostly on location and used many nonprofessional actors, offering a visual starkness in keeping with his socially conscious message. 

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Luchino Visconti

Luchino Visconti | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Luchino Visconti was one of the major directors who emerged from Neorealism. Visconti was more foucsed on left-wing causes. His first film, Ossessioine, was a major part of the realist revival during the last few years of fascist cinema. Visconti claims that the term neo-realism was born along with his film. He also worked with operas as well, including sumptuous costumes and overpowering music. As Visconti continued with his films, they tended to evoke the lifestyles of the rich but at the same time reflected the class conflict that the lifestyles tend to hide. 

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Nyisha Jones's curator insight, March 27, 2014 11:25 AM

·         1906 – 1976

·         Realistic of modern society after the war.

·         His movie Ossessione established who he was in the industry.  Considered a work of art of realism. 

·         His films included some professional actors and also the locals, natural settings, and different camera shots to add more realistic value.

·         He had a company that provided actors.

·         His work also let Italy in the light of everything around them including pieces from France and even the United States. 

·         Later on in his years, he mostly worked with operas.

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Opening scene of Obsessione

Considered to be one of the first Italian Neorealism films, Obsessione. The plot of the story is a man who wanders around and falls in love/has an affair with the wife of an owner of a resteraunt. As you can see, the plot is introduced not even 3 minutes into the film. They proceed to plot the murder of her husband so they can live "Happily ever after." 


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Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Known as one of the Italian Neorealism's first films, Luchino Visconti made Obessessione in 1943. This was also Visconti's first feature film. 

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R0/\/\E 0PE/\/ (ITY 1 1945

During the Nazi occupation of Rome, the resistance leader Giorgio Manfredi aka Luigi Ferraris is chased by the Gestapo. His friend Francesco, who is going to...
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Open City (1945) by Roberto Rossellini depicts many main principles of the neorealism movement, showing the struggle of normal Italian people living day to day under extreme difficulties caused by the German occupation of Rome. 

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Hildegard Knef "Im achtzigsten Stockwerk"

Incredible Burner on her debut LP ___ www.beyondthegroove.net

Via Catarino™
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Hildegard Knef was a German actress, singer, and writer that rose in popularity during the post-war period.

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Vittorio de Sica

Vittorio de Sica | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it

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Italian Neorealism's curator insight, March 15, 2013 12:01 PM

Vittorio de Sica is known for the films Benditi a Orgosolo (Bandits of Orgosolo) 

Bicycle Thieves, Miracle In Milan, and Umberto D.

Bicyle Thieves is arguably his most important and most famous work. Umberto D is regarded as the film that ended the movement. 

Film 2700 Group 's comment, March 17, 2013 9:49 PM
One of the major director's involved with the Italian Neorealist Movement.
Nyisha Jones's curator insight, March 27, 2014 11:27 AM

·         1902 – 1974

·         Considered one of the most influential directors during the movement.

·         He focused on working with nonprofessional actors and fully exploring and understanding the character.

·         His movies worked with the social and political problems during the era.

·         Later on in his years, he worked with comedies.

·         Like Roberto, his work soon also grew less favorable until today.

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The Bicycle Thieves and Italian Neorealism | filmosophy

The Bicycle Thieves and Italian Neorealism | filmosophy | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
This realist approach was exemplified in the period of filmmaking which has come to be known as Italian Neorealism. Italian Neorealism was a brief but hugely influential film movement, lasting from the end of WWII until 1951.
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Impacts of Italian Neo-Realism on Naturalist Filmmaking

Impacts of Italian Neo-Realism on Naturalist Filmmaking | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Surrounded by the chaotic ruins of World War II, darker and more sober attitudes began to reflect in people’s artistic expressions.  Specifically, the fall of Mussolini’s Fascist regime in 1943 spawned a new and provocative branch of Italian cinema...
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

The Impacts of Italian Neorealism on Naturalist Filmmaking. 

From donamajicshow.tumblr.com

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And Suddenly It was Over

And Suddenly It was Over | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Megan Ratner tells of the abrupt end to the Italian Neorealism movement and the works that contributed to the short-lived film movement, on greencine.com

 

"In general, people look backwards when talking about neo-realism, acknowledging its roots, according it artifact status. But the films stand on their own even without the movement they've come to represent. More important, they pointed out new directions for filmmakers in Italy and elsewhere. Both Fellini and Antonioni worked on neo-realist films and even in Fellini's later, extremely fanciful work and Antonioni's brooding studies of men and women, there's a similar urge to document Italy's social realities." (Megan Ratner)

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Ideological Characteristics of Italian Neorealism

Ideological Characteristics of Italian Neorealism | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it

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Film 2700 Group 's comment, March 21, 2013 3:13 PM
Italian Neorealism puts an emphasis on raw emotions as opposed to abstract and complex ideas. They had a new democratic spirit that emphasised the importance of your average person. Therefore, these films were interested in the everyday life of ordinary people, particularly the poor lower working class.
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La Biennale di Venezia - The 30s

La Biennale di Venezia - The 30s | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Venice International Film Festival History
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

The 1932 Festival was held on the terrace of the Hotel Excelsior on the Venice Lido.


In the postwar era, film festivals helped define the public's conception of advanced European cinema. Festivals also showcased films that might attract foreign distributors. Winning a prize gave a film an economic advantage; and the director, producer, and stars gained fame (and perhaps investment for their next ventures). 

 

 (Edwards 196)

 

Edwards, Tonia. Film History 2700. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 08/2011. <vbk:0077551877#outline(10.2.2.5)>.


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Toni (Trailer)

Dir. Jean Renoir 1931
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Jean Renoir's film, Toni (1931), was a precursor for the Italian Neorealism with the use of on-site filming and use of unknown actors.The film was shot entirely on location in the south of France - Martigues, Bouche du Rhône to be precise - with the supporting cast made up of ordinary people living in the area.  None of the actors wears make-up and each speaks in the local dialect.  Deep focus, wide-angle lenses are employed to bring a near-documentary realism to the film and stress the importance of the location in the story.  The only sound that is heard is that which is directly recorded - none of the dialogue is dubbed and there is no score. 

 

Toni (1934) is a tragedy that stems from the poverty and hopelessness of its characters.

 

Source:

http://filmsdefrance.com/FDF_Toni_rev.html

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Arriflex

Arriflex | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

The Arriflex was invented in 1936 by Eclair and Debrie. This camera allowed the operator to view what was being filmed precisely. To create exposure the mirror was tilted to shine the image directly on the film.

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Four Steps in the Clouds(1942)

Adriana Benetti con Gino Cervi in una scena del film Quattro passi fra le nuvole (1942) Questi video sono creati per ricordare,vedere gli attori/attrici (dic...
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Alessandro Blasetti influenced the Italian Neorealism movement with his film Four Steps in the Clouds in 1942.

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Roberto Rossellini

Roberto Rossellini | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Roberto Rossellini was a major player in the Italian Neorealism movement. In his movies he depicted various scenes and happenings during World War Two. He strove to show his viewers the struggles, conflicts and misunderstanding of real life during the war. In particular his documentary-style film, Paisan (1946), showed struggles between Italian partisans and the occupying forces.

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Nyisha Jones's curator insight, March 27, 2014 11:29 AM

·         1906 - 1977

·         Is considered the founder of Italian neorealism

·         His films at the time were more documentary and less fiction

·         Had a war trilogy starting with his first movie Rome Open City and then was followed by Paisan and Germany Year Zero.

·         In his career he had an affair with Ingrid Bergman who was a Swedish actress. She was in his second trilogy, Stromboli, Europa ’51, and Voyage to Italy. At the time these films didn’t have much interest from the audience but now, they are admired.

·         He didn’t always stay in documentary type films. He tested the waters in religion and drama.

·         His most famous movie would be II Generale Della Rovere which is war drama.

·         During the end of this movement, he worked on television with historical drama in major figures.

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Giulio Andreotti

Giulio Andreotti | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

As a result of excess American Films and Italian neorealism films, in 1949 Giulio Andreotti inacted the Andreotti Act. This act limited American film imports and screen time, along with providing loans to Italian production firms and Italian censorship. 

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Filmbeispiel 14a Die Mörder sind unter uns

Geschichte des deutschen Kinos Cours de civilisation allemande LEA 1ère année Die Mörder sind unter uns (1946) von Wolfgang Staudte. Der Sozialist Staudte sc...
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

The vision of this film is to expose to destruction done throughout Germany. The village people in the film express their unhappy day-to-day lives while they must try to rebuild from all of the destruction. These sort of movie were very typical in those days.

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The Bicycle Thieves Trailer

A trailer I made for Ladri Di Biciclette (The Bicycle Thief / Thieves)
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Film 2700 Group 's comment, March 17, 2013 9:51 PM
A film with the essence of Italian Neorealism: non-preofessional actors, realistic setting, hardships of the working classes.
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Cesare Zavanttini- Scripwriter

Cesare Zavanttini- Scripwriter | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Cesare Zavattini was one of the biggest advocates in attempting to keep the pure Neorealism's documentary movement going. He believed that films should express the hidden drama and repetitiveness of everyday life.

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MOTION PICTURE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA

MOTION PICTURE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA | Italian Neorealism 1944-1952 | Scoop.it
Film 2700 Group 's insight:

Putting somewhat of a damper on independentt foreign films that were produced during World War Two, in 1953 The Motion Picture Export Association of America fought tirelessly to put their movies back into the foreign film market. American film companies were limited during the war and were eager to make  the lucrative profits post-war in the European markets. Thereafter, American films took up about half of the movie showing times limiting the indigenous artist's films. 

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