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It's All Social
Social is: Learning, Technology, Design, Culture, PEOPLE :-)
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Donald Clark Plan B: Mager – Mr learning objectives. In this course you will…..yawn, yawn!

Donald Clark Plan B: Mager – Mr learning objectives. In this course you will…..yawn, yawn! | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Robert Mager published the second edition of his book Preparing Instructional Objectives in 1975 (first edition1962). It was an attempt to bring some rigour to the often woolly world of education and training by making learning professionals start with clear goals. It essentially says, start with the end point and work backwards. Additionally, his Criterion Referenced Instruction (CRI), an extension of Gagne’s method of instruction, is a method for the design and delivery of training. His aim was to produce a more rigorous and precise approach to the design of learning experiences based on competences and assessment that relate to defined learning or performance objectives."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Tulving (1927 - ) Cue memory: episodic & semantic memories and, encoding

Donald Clark Plan B: Tulving (1927 - ) Cue memory: episodic & semantic memories and, encoding | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Endel Tulving, in 1972, made an important distinction in our long-term memory between episodic memory (remembered experiences and events in time and space) and semantic memory (facts, ideas, concepts, rules independent of time and space). This was largely based on an analysis of internal memory states, and the experimental testing of memories, an anathema to pure behaviourists. It was also confirmed by brain damage studies. His 1983 paper Elements of Episodic Memory has become a classic in memory theory."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Atkinson & Shiffrin - three-stage model of memory (sensory, STM, LTM)

Donald Clark Plan B: Atkinson & Shiffrin - three-stage model of memory (sensory, STM, LTM) | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"As memory research moved away from the purely behaviourist, stimulus- response (S-R) model, and its offspring the stimulus- organism -response (S-O-R) model towards information processing, psychologists started to think of memory in term of information processing. This proved to be useful in determining models for memory, models that could be tested in laboratory experiments. Although distinctions between different types of memory had been present in the literature, Atkinson & Schiffrin, in 1968, laid down the first solid schema for memory that acted as a solid foundation for further research and refinement."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Ebbinghaus- memory genius: forgetting curve, spaced practice, primacy & recency

Donald Clark Plan B: Ebbinghaus- memory genius: forgetting curve, spaced practice, primacy & recency | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Hermann Ebbinghaus published a landmark book in 1885, Uber das Gedachtis (On Memory), translated into English in 1913. In this he put the study of memory on a sure, scientific footing using rigorous experiments, exploring retention and the effects of sequencing and patterns of practice on memory. Indeed, most subsequent research into learning and memory has been footnotes to his work."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Black & Wiliam Don’t praise the child! Formative feedback is key to better learning.

Donald Clark Plan B: Black & Wiliam Don’t praise the child! Formative feedback is key to better learning. | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Feedback is seen as a key feature of good teaching, yet precise research and theory is hard to find. Black and Wiliam published a well-researched and influential paper, Inside the Black Box, that recommended methods of feedback, making it more focused and potent. William claims that this is the sweet spot in improving productivity in schools, even beyond lower class sizes."

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Donald Clark Plan B: White (1934 - ) What is education for? Autonomy

Donald Clark Plan B: White (1934 - ) What is education for? Autonomy | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"What is education for? This key question still elicits puzzled looks, ill-formed answers, even platitudes, from students, parents, policy makers and even learning professionals. Few can fully articulate the purpose of education. John White has clear views on the subject that escapes the usual formulations to focus on the idea of autonomy. A product of London’s Institute of Education, he asks what we should do in a world where the old certainties of religion and a job for life are gone. How should we define education in a more liberal, complex, fragmented and technological world?"

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Donald Clark Plan B: Freire (1921-1997) educator & activist

Donald Clark Plan B: Freire (1921-1997) educator & activist | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Paulo Feire is more than an educational theorist. Arrested and exiled from Brazil by the Military Dictatorship in 1964 he continued to work as an activist and educator in South America, Central America and Africa, teaching literacy and defining education for the poor and oppressed. After being appointed at Harvard he went back to Brazil to implement the ideas he had developed over his lifetime."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Montessori (1870-1952) method, materials and self-directed

Donald Clark Plan B: Montessori (1870-1952) method, materials and self-directed | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"The founders of Google and Amazon, have Montessori schooling in common. Sergei Brin and Larry Page both attended Montessori schools. Both credit their Montessori education for much of their success. It was the Montessori experience, they claim, that made them self-directed, think for themselves and pursue their real interests. Jeff Bezos's mother tells of his single-mindedness at his Montessori school, being so absorbed in the tasks he chose, that they had to drag him off to give him a change, the same, self-directed, single-mindedness that was a feature of his Amazon adventure."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Erikson (1902 – 1994) lifelong identity crises, 8 stages

Donald Clark Plan B: Erikson (1902 – 1994) lifelong identity crises, 8 stages | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Eric Erikson a German psychoanalyst and psychologist, spent most of his working life in the US. He expanded Freud’s childhood developmental theory, well beyond the first few years of life, into a lifelong development theory of identity, with an emphasis on the adolescent ‘identity crisis’ and the role of the ego."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Bandura (1925 - ) – Bobo dolls, aggression, mirror neurons & video

Donald Clark Plan B: Bandura (1925 - ) – Bobo dolls, aggression, mirror neurons & video | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Albert Bandura is a Canadian psychologist who marked a sea-change in psychology, towards cognitive investigation. Although steeped in, and influenced by, behaviourism, his theories transcend traditional behaviourism into what was called ‘Social Learning Theory’, although he now calls it ‘Social Cognitive Theory. The dropping of the word ‘learning’ is significant. Bandura’s awareness of the personal factors in learning, especially motivation, differentiates him from traditional behaviourism. He also forms a link to those theorists who emphasise social learning, such as Vygotsky."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Thorndike (1874 – 1949) – experimental rigour, transfer and why Latin is a waste of time

Donald Clark Plan B: Thorndike (1874 – 1949) – experimental rigour, transfer and why Latin is a waste of time | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Edward Thorndike deserves much more attention than he gets in the history of educational psychology. Inspired by William James, he was an assiduous experimenter, who revolutionised experimental psychology by introducing scientific rigour into his work. This led to ground-breaking work in important learning topics, such as ‘transfer’."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Bruner (1915- ) constructivist scaffolder

Donald Clark Plan B: Bruner (1915- ) constructivist scaffolder | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Jerome Bruner, a key player in the US Head Start initiative, has long been in favour of educational reform. The Process of Education (1960) laid out his general views on the subject, Bruner is still an active writer and The Culture of Education (1997) makes an appeal for a broad based culture of learning beyond the narrow confines of traditional schooling."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Habermas (1929- ): ideology, action but lost on new media

Donald Clark Plan B: Habermas (1929- ): ideology, action but lost on new media | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Habermas, building on the work of his teacher Adorno and Marx, critiqued capitalism and was firmly in favour of equality and democracy. We see here a neutered from of Marxism that looks for ideological causes of oppression in capitalism and a philosophy of action to bring about change, albeit in the context of social democracy. His influence on education has been considerable."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Kandel (1929 - ) Nobel Prize winning learning theorist

Donald Clark Plan B: Kandel (1929 - ) Nobel Prize winning learning theorist | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"With a Nobel Prize (with Arvid Carlsson & Paul Greengard) for his work on learning and memory, Eric Kandel’s is a towering figure in the science of learning. Yet he is barely known among learning professionals. His interest in memory came from an interest in psychoanalysis but also reflection on his own experiences as a child in Vienna and his escape from the Nazis in 1939. But it was solid science and laboratory work in the US, and the realisation that memory does not reside in neurons but in the reconfiguration of their connections that drove him forward."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Baddeley (1934) complexity of ‘working’ memory

Donald Clark Plan B: Baddeley (1934) complexity of ‘working’ memory | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Working memory is the door through which all learning must enter, so it is important to know what it is and its limitations. Baddeley looked specifically at ‘encoding’. to unpack what he called ‘working memory’ to replace the previous, simpler ‘short-term’ memory model. This is important as a working knowledge of ‘working’ memory can lead to better teaching and learning. By designing material which is optimised for getting through working memory to long-term memory, significant improvements are theoretically possible."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Miller (1920 - ) Magic number 7 plus & minus 2 - chunking

Donald Clark Plan B: Miller (1920 - ) Magic number 7 plus & minus 2 - chunking | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"George Miller is best known for his paper ‘The magic number 7 plus and minus 2’ (1956) which focused attention (literally) on a problem that plagues teaching and learning, the danger of ‘cognitive overload’. For this reason alone, he deserves mention. Short-term memory has a limited capacity and this capacity can be seen as being dependent on ‘attention’ i.e. our ability to attend to things in short-term memory. More than this Miller was one of the first to bring in cognitive information theory, famously saying the the mind had been brought back into psychology on the back of the machine."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Ignatius (1401-1556) Jesuit zeal, Latin and child-abuse

Donald Clark Plan B: Ignatius (1401-1556) Jesuit zeal, Latin and child-abuse | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Ignatius was a soldier turned priest who formed the Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, a missionary order driven by a military-type zeal to spread the Catholic faith. Education was to be their primary and most successful weapon. Jesuit education is apostolic and the order demanded missionary and educational service in whatever part of the world they were sent. This is what drove Jesuit priests into many remote lands and ever remoter locations – the demand to defend the faith and, above all make converts. The Jesuits are still active with nearly 40,000 in the order and educational activities in 112 countries."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Confucius (551-479BC) 2500 years of order, state, meritocratic assessment

Donald Clark Plan B: Confucius (551-479BC) 2500 years of order, state, meritocratic assessment | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Like Plato and Aristotle, Confucius had his own school, started in 552BC. Despite a period of exile, like Freire, he became a very influential official and adviser but it was through his four texts, especially The Analects, that he has had an immense and constant influence on education in the China and the East over an astonishing 2500 years."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Illich (1926-2002) deschooling – school as the ‘new Church’

Donald Clark Plan B: Illich (1926-2002) deschooling – school as the ‘new Church’ | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"As an ordained priest Illich had worked with the poor in Peurto Rico but at 43 resigned from the Catholic Church because of what he saw as its institutional dominance and flaws. It was this that led to a similar evaluation of the ‘new Church’ schooling. This led to his seminal text Deschooling Society’ but this was not his title bt the title applied by his publisher. In fact it is misleading as he doesn’t argues not for the abolition of schools but their disestablishment, the separation of school and state, just as the Church and State were separated in the US."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Steiner (1861-1925) mysticism, three 7 year stages & eurythmics

Donald Clark Plan B: Steiner (1861-1925) mysticism, three 7 year stages & eurythmics | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Rudolph Steiner, a Hungarian, developed his own philosophical system, ‘Anthroposophy’ based on spirituality. It is, in fact, a mish-mash of Eastern thought, neo-Platonism, Christianity and Hegel. There is much talk of ‘inner experience’ and its amplification through the ‘secret society’ but its philosophical ideas are based on three realms, the physical, soul and spiritual."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Rogers (1902 - 1987) teaching as facilitator

Donald Clark Plan B: Rogers (1902 - 1987) teaching as facilitator | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Carl Rogers is known as the founder of 'client-centred' therapy and his promotion of counselling. He also had a keen interest in education and his therapy-oriented methods became widely adopted in education and training through coaching, mentoring and other student-centred Socratic techniques. Roger’s influence can be felt everywhere in modern learning with from open questioning techniques by tutors to counselling itself in schools and the workplace."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Freud (1856 – 1923) therapy culture lives despite being debunked

Donald Clark Plan B: Freud (1856 – 1923) therapy culture lives despite being debunked | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Freud (alongside Marx) is credited as being a theorist who practically shaped 20th century thought. He has had a deep and lasting influence in learning, not only through his theories on childhood development but also through psychoanalysis and therapy which in turn influenced counselling, coaching and mentoring."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Skinner (1904-1990) – radical behaviourism, teaching machines & pigeon guided missile

Donald Clark Plan B: Skinner (1904-1990) – radical behaviourism, teaching machines & pigeon guided missile | It's All Social | Scoop.it

>Doesn't he look like you thought he would? "B.F. Skinner, the American psychologist, promoted pure or radical (his term) behaviourism. Only observable phenomena are allowed as evidence, in this case stimuli and their behavioural responses. No mental events were to be considered admissible, as they were unobservable. His experimental work concentrated on animals and the famous Skinner Box, where rats had to press levers to get food."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Pavlov (1849-1936) education goes to the dogs & the dark side

Donald Clark Plan B: Pavlov (1849-1936) education goes to the dogs & the dark side | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, won the Nobel Prize for his work on digestion in 1904. The father of behaviourism, he identified conditioned reflexes in dogs using pouches that collected their saliva. This physiological response to external stimuli (Conditioned reflexes) was to shape the study of learning for most of the early and middle 20th century. Positively, it resulted in the detailed study of innate and conditioned stumulus-led behaviour. Negatively, it relied too much on animal studies and ignored the importance of mental events and an over-simplistic model of learning shaped by control through conditioning.."

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Donald Clark Plan B: Althusser (1918-1990) – schools as ISAs and filters for class and labour

Donald Clark Plan B: Althusser (1918-1990) – schools as ISAs and filters for class and labour | It's All Social | Scoop.it

"Althuser, born in Algiers, attempted to reconcile Marxism with structuralism. Like Gramsci, Althusser saw education as the means by which the class system perpetuates itself, stratifying people into workers, the petty bourgeoisie and capitalists. Schools are a means of control by the ruling class and capitalism, and a preparation for work (work being the defining characteristic of submission and class)."

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