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A possible signal from dark matter?

A possible signal from dark matter? | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

Galaxies are often found in groups or clusters, the largest known aggregations of matter and dark matter. The Milky Way, for example, is a member of the "Local Group" of about three dozen galaxies, including the Andromeda Galaxy located about 2 million light-years away. Very large clusters can contain thousands of galaxies, all bound together by gravity. The closest large cluster of galaxies to us, the Virgo Cluster with about 2000 members, is about 50 million light-years away. The Perseus Cluster is one of the most massive objects in the Universe with thousands of galaxies immersed in an enormous cloud of superheated gas.

 

The space between galaxies is not empty. It is filled with hot intergalactic gas whose temperature is of order ten million kelvin, or even higher. The gas is enriched with heavy elements that escape from the galaxies and accumulate in the intracluster medium over billions of years of galactic and stellar evolution. These intracluster gas elements can be detected from their emission lines in X-ray, and include oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, argon, calcium, iron, nickel, and even chromium and manganese.

 

The relative abundances of these elements contain valuable information on the rate of supernovae in the different types of galaxies in the clusters since supernovae make and/or disburse them into the gas. Therefore it came as something of a surprise when CfA astronomers and their colleagues discovered a faint line corresponding to no known element. Esra Bulbul, Adam Foster, Randall Smith, Scott Randall and their team were studying the averaged X-ray spectrum of a set of seventy-three clusters (including Virgo) looking for emission lines too faint to be seen in any single one when they uncovered a line with no known match in a particular spectral interval not expected to have any features.

 

The scientists propose a tantalizing suggestion: the line is the result of the decay of a putative, long-sought-after dark matter particle, the so-called sterile neutrino. It had been suggested that the hot X-ray emitting gas in a galaxy cluster might be a good place to look for dark matter signatures, and if the sterile neutrino result is confirmed it would mark a breakthrough in dark matter research (it is of course possible that it is a statistical or other error). Recent unpublished results from another group tend to support the detection of this feature; the team suggests that observations with the planned Japanese Astro-H X-ray mission in 2015 will be critical to confirm and resolve the nature of this line.

 

More information: "Detection of an Unidentified Emission Line in the Stacked X-Ray Spectrum of Galaxy Clusters," Esra Bulbul, Maxim Markevitch, Adam Foster, Randall K. Smith, Michael Loewenstein, and Scott W. Randall, ApJ 789, 13, 2014.


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Daily #Science

Daily #Science | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
Daily #Science, by Marco Cardinale: A collection of scientific news from social media (Daily #Science is out!
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News - The complicated science of getting struck by lightning - The Weather Network

News - The complicated science of getting struck by lightning - The Weather Network | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
Lucky for me, I both heard the sizzle of the bolt as it arced by my head and saw the blinding flash of the main strike as the circuit between cloud and ground was completed.
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Network Science Course - 2012

Network Science Course - 2012 | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

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NASA: Earth escaped a near-miss solar storm in 2012

NASA: Earth escaped a near-miss solar storm in 2012 | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

Back in 2012, the Sun erupted with a powerful solar storm that just missed the Earth but was big enough to "knock modern civilization back to the 18th century," NASA said. The extreme space weather that tore through Earth's orbit on July 23, 2012, was the most powerful in 150 years, according to a statement posted on the US space agency website Wednesday.

 

However, few Earthlings had any idea what was going on. "If the eruption had occurred only one week earlier, Earth would have been in the line of fire," said Daniel Baker, professor of atmospheric and space physics at the University of Colorado. Instead the storm cloud hit the STEREO-A spacecraft, a solar observatory that is "almost ideally equipped to measure the parameters of such an event," NASA said. Scientists have analyzed the treasure trove of data it collected and concluded that it would have been comparable to the largest known space storm in 1859, known as the Carrington event. It also would have been twice as bad as the 1989 solar storm that knocked out power across Quebec, scientists said.

 

"I have come away from our recent studies more convinced than ever that Earth and its inhabitants were incredibly fortunate that the 2012 eruption happened when it did," said Baker. The National Academy of Sciences has said the economic impact of a storm like the one in 1859 could cost the modern economy more than two trillion dollars and cause damage that might take years to repair. Experts say solar storms can cause widespread power blackouts, disabling everything from radio to GPS communications to water supplies -- most of which rely on electric pumps.

 

They begin with an explosion on the Sun's surface, known as a solar flare, sending X-rays and extreme UV radiation toward Earth at light speed. Hours later, energetic particles follow and these electrons and protons can electrify satellites and damage their electronics.

 

Next are the coronal mass ejections, billion-ton clouds of magnetized plasma that take a day or more to cross the Sun-Earth divide. These are often deflected by Earth's magnetic shield, but a direct hit could be devastating.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Russ Roberts's curator insight, July 25, 8:54 PM

Thanks to Dr. Stefan Gruenwald for this interesting and somewhat scary story of how our modern, digitally connected world could have disappeared on 23 July 2012, but didn't.  On that date, a huge solar flare just missed the Earth.  According to NASA, the flare was "big enough to knock modern society back to the 18th century."  Daniel Baker, a professor of atmospheric and space physics at the University of Colorado, said data retrieved from the sun orbiting spacecraft STEREO-A supported the contention that this super flare was on the same level as the famous 1859 Carrington Event and the much weaker, though still serious, 1989 flare that crippled power distribution in Quebec, Canada.  Baker believes a direct hit from the 23 July 2012 flare would have rendered most solid state electronics, and hence, most of our digital world, inoperative.  Recovery would have cost trillions and modern society would take years to rebuild the damage communications infrastructure.  Such a flare would have "fried" most of our modern amateur radio transceivers, rendering some of us with no communications capability.  This is a cautionary tale for everyone.  It's not a matter of if, but when.  Are you prepared? Aloha de Russ (KH6JRM).

Tekrighter's curator insight, July 26, 7:44 AM

I have touched on this topic before in my blog (Is Technology a Trap for Humanity? - http://tekrighter.wordpress.com/page/3/). Perhaps it's time for an update.

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Scientists experimentally re-create conditions deep inside giant planets, such as Jupiter and many exo-planets

Scientists experimentally re-create conditions deep inside giant planets, such as Jupiter and many exo-planets | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
Using the largest laser in the world, scientists for the first time have experimentally re-created the conditions that exist deep inside giant planets, such as Jupiter, Uranus and many of the planets recently discovered outside our solar system.
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Biologists discover electric bacteria that eat pure electrons rather than ... - ExtremeTech

Biologists discover electric bacteria that eat pure electrons rather than ... - ExtremeTech | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
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Biologists discover electric bacteria that eat pure electrons rather than ...
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As you may recall from high school biology, almost every living organism consumes sugar to survive.
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Chemistry for Everyone: A Helpful Primer for High School or College Chemistry - Kindle edition by Suzanne Lahl, Cris Qualiana. Professional & Technical Kindle eBooks @ Amazon.com.

Chemistry for Everyone: A Helpful Primer for High School or College Chemistry - Kindle edition by Suzanne Lahl, Cris Qualiana. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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Chemistry puzzler Sokobond hits Steam on July 21 | Joystiq

Chemistry puzzler Sokobond hits Steam on July 21 | Joystiq | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
The developers behind the critically-lauded Sokobond have revealed a Steam launch date for the chemistry-focused puzzle game: July. ... Chemistry puzzler Sokobond hits Steam on July 21 ...
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Camp at OSU gives high school students a chance to explore engineering - Corvallis Gazette Times

Camp at OSU gives high school students a chance to explore engineering - Corvallis Gazette Times | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
Camp at OSU gives high school students a chance to explore engineering Corvallis Gazette Times As part of the camp, which is intended to help inspire minority and female students to enter science, technology engineering and math fields, the...
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How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra) - PJ Media

How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra) - PJ Media | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
PJ Media
How to Excel at Math and Science (Even If You Flunked Algebra)
PJ Media
I was actually pretty decent at math as my father was a mathematician and I grew up learning to love numbers.
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46th International Chemistry Olympiad will be held 20th, 29 July 2014 in Hanoi,Vietnam

46th International Chemistry Olympiad will be held 20th, 29 July 2014 in Hanoi,Vietnam | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
This year, the 46th International Chemistry Olympiad will be held on July 20-29, 2014 in Hanoi, Vietnam is a multi-tiered competition designed to stimulate and promote achievement in high school chemistry

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Officials work to broaden 'STEM' training access, reduce gender gap ...

Officials work to broaden 'STEM' training access, reduce gender gap ... | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
"If you want to improve the economy in Arkansas and get students interested in math and science and produce jobs with a better way of life and wealth, you have to have good STEM education and have choices." ...
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App Shopper: Science Lab for Kids - funny video tutorials experiences and scientific discoveries for your child (Education)

App Shopper: Science Lab for Kids - funny video tutorials experiences and scientific discoveries for your child (Education) | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
Mac Apps, Mac App Store, iPad, iPhone and iPod touch app store listings, news, and price drops (#joemacintosh Science Lab for Kids - funny video tutorials experiences and scientific discoveries...
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Adults Attempt To Do Middle School Science Experiments

How much do you remember from science class? Share on Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1uPs8rA Like BuzzFeedVideo on Facebook: Share on Twitter: http://bit.ly/1zDBAx9 MUSIC Pop Vibration Licensed...
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NASA - our Blue Dot Seen from Space: Incredible Pictures of a Warming World

NASA - our Blue Dot Seen from Space: Incredible Pictures of a Warming World | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

Flood. Drought. Heat waves. Ice melt. The impact of a warming world is being manifested in a variety of ways, and we can see it from space. Browse through our gallery of pictures taken by NASA satellites looking down at planet Earth.

 

Less than a year after a devastating 2003 heat wave killed over 37,000 people across Europe, another heat wave struck the region. On July 1, 2004, this image from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) recorded land surface temperatures of 138°F (59°C) in Spain. In this false-color image, red represents the warmest temperatures, yellow is intermediate, and light and dark blue are progressively cooler. Air temperatures in both countries soared over 104°F (40°C). Three days after this image was taken, Spain set a new air temperature record for the nation: 117°F (47°C). Climate models predict more extreme weather events, including heat waves, in the coming decades due to man-made climate change.

 

Found at the intersection of four different countries in West Africa, Lake Chad was once one of the African continent's largest bodies of fresh water, close in surface area to North America's Lake Erie. But today it is a ghost of its former self, reduced to only about 1/20th its former size in just four decades, thanks to prolonged drought and human demand for water.

 

A warming world also makes heavily populated coastal areas more vulnerable to flooding: higher global temperatures produce warmer seawater, which expands and causes a rise in sea level. Approximately 400 million people live within 20 meters (0.01 miles) of sea level and 20 km (12 miles) of a coast; modest increases in sea level could displace millions of people.

 

Wildfire activity in the western U.S. has increased markedly since the mid-1980s, with more frequent large fires and longer fire seasons. Climate models predict increased wildfire risk across many areas of the globe in coming decades.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Smartphones Are the New Stethoscopes

Smartphones Are the New Stethoscopes | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

Among the many instruments your doctor uses — stethoscope, thermometer, scale — the most valuable one may be in her pocket: a smartphone.  

Due to increasingly compressed office visits, patients are becoming more active participants in managing their healthcare, and a new generation of Internet-savvy physicians is using social media to improve the way they run their practices. The goal isn’t to replace face time with patients but to provide teaching tools, stay abreast of breaking medical research, and communicate more efficiently with patients.

Currently, 67 percent of physicians use social media — sites like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Pinterest — for professional purposes, according to a recent report released by the Federation of State Medical Boards. And patients are taking their relationships with their medical providers online. One Yahoo Facebook user reported that her nurse practitioner gives advice over the social networking site, while another said sharing photos and videos can even save her a trip to the office.  

“Social media is changing the way people give and receive information and, as a result, the medical profession is changing, too,” Lee Aase, social media director at the Mayo Clinic, tells Yahoo Health. “Twitter has been invaluable. For example, if a patient tweets a photo of their symptoms to a doctor, he or she probably wouldn’t diagnose them online, but they could tweet back a link to a resource or a number to call to set up an in-person visit.” The clinic was one of the earlier organizations to adapt to social media and hosts regular “tweet camps” and residencies where doctors learn to use Twitter responsibly. 

On the extreme end, surgeons are even live-tweeting their operations (with patient permission) to educate medical students and demystify the experience for prospective patients and nervous family members in the waiting room. Three such operations took place in 2009. One at Henry Ford Hospital in Michigan, where doctors removed a cancerous tumor from a man’s kidney; another at Aurora Health Care in Wisconsin, where orthopedic surgeons performed a double-knee replacement surgery; and a third at Sherman Hospital in Illinois, where a woman’s uterus was removed. Two more occurred in 2012 at Houston’s Memorial Hermann Hospital where doctors removed a brain tumor from a 21-year-old patient. Details of every snip and stitch were live-tweeted and photos and videos were posted on Pinterest and YouTube, ultimately reaching an audience of 14.5 million people. Several months prior, the hospital was the first to live-tweet open-heart surgery, broadcasting to 125 million people.

“In these cases, the physician will usually wear a headset that takes photos and videos and dictate his tweets to a public relations rep sitting in the operating room,” Kevin Pho, MD, co-author of “Establishing, Managing, and Protecting Your Online Reputation: A Social Media Guide for Physicians and Medical Practices,” tells Yahoo Health. “It’s a great way for surgeons to be transparent, as long as Twitter doesn’t cause distractions.” Pho uses his own blog to “share stories from behind the curtain” — clarify medical misinformation, publish posts written by his colleagues, and answer common patient questions such as, “Why is my doctor so late to appointments?”

Physicians are also using YouTube to publicize their skill sets and dehumanize the doctor-patient relationship. “If a doctor has a certain specialty, posting a YouTube video enables them to highlight their expertise for prospective patients,” says Aase. “It’s also a way for patients to get acquainted with their doctor so the upcoming visit feels more personable.” The videos can also serve as a time saver — by watching a two-minute segment on say, car-seat safety or vaccination basics, patients gain baseline knowledge and, as a result, use their office visit time more efficiently.

For practices such as MacArthur OB/GYN in Irving, Texas, patients use the group’s Facebook page to foster a sense of community by uploading funny photos from doctor visits and get invitations for doctor-patient meet-and-greets. The group’s Twitter account also boasts nearly 4,000 followers who can get answers to questions such as, “Is it safe to fly while pregnant?”

There are also a slew of apps that serve both patients and doctors. “First Derm” users can diagnose a sexually transmitted disease within 24 hours for a $40 fee, according to TechCrunch. That’s more expensive than a co-pay, the website points out, but it saves people the time and potential embarrassment of schlepping to an office visit. Users snap two photos of the area (one close up, the other from far away), then fill out an online form (identifying details are not required) and provide a credit card number. The app claims that more than 70 percent of its cases can be treated with over-the-counter medication and the rest require office visits.

The app “Figure 1” is also gaining popularity among the medical set. Dubbed “Instagram for doctors,” it allows professionals to swap and discuss medical photos. The app’s founder, Canadian internist Josh Landy, MD, told Business Insider that his colleagues now have the ability to view photos of rare diseases on real patients whose identities are obscured. “This is no substitute for caring for a patient, but now instead of saying there is a red rash, you can say this is what it looks like,” he told the website. “Now everybody has that capability in their pocket all day long.” 

While there’s no doubt that social media is improving patient-doctor relationships — for example, during the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, emergency responders were able to act faster after checking Twitter for real-time updates — social media-savvy doctors can also pose privacy risks. In May, an Ohio woman being treated for Syphilis sued the University of Cincinnati for posting the results of her tests, along with her name, on Facebook. And in December, an intoxicated Chicago woman treated in the ER at Northwestern Memorial Hospital sued her doctor after he allegedly posted photos of her on Facebook and Instagram along with the hashtags “Cuvee #bottle #service #gone #bad.” There are also laws preventing doctors from practicing medicine from across state lines, so if a Twitter user in Indiana tweets a doctor in Los Angeles, the MD may not actually be allowed to give him the answer he’s looking for. And national HIPAA laws are put in place to protect the privacy of patient’s identifiable health information online.

But there’s one more inevitable drawback of the medical community’s foray into social media. “It’s difficult to have my own private life,” says Pho. “I keep my personal social media accounts very private. At the end of the day, even off the clock, I’m still a doctor.”

 


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One smart day in Woods Hole - Boston Globe

One smart day in Woods Hole - Boston Globe | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
One smart day in Woods Hole Boston Globe Woods Hole is a kind of summer camp for inquiring minds, and even visitors who didn't do their high school science projects on the taxonomy of cephalopods can tap into some of that salt-air, gee-whiz...
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High school chemistry homework help: Makes You Efficient in Solving Intricate Problems | Online Tutoring, Math Online Help, Algebra Help, Test Prep, Homework Help for Math, Science, English, Essay ...

High school chemistry homework help: Makes You Efficient in Solving Intricate Problems | Online Tutoring, Math Online Help, Algebra Help, Test Prep, Homework Help for Math, Science, English, Essay ... | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

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Does Science Trump Personal Experience? ~ Health Minute Protip #566

These are the two articles mentioned in the video: http://www.nature.com/news/publishers-withdraw-more-than-120-gibberish-papers-1.14763 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101115210944.ht...
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Int'l chemistry Olympiad to take place in Vietnam's capital this month - Tuoitrenews

Int'l chemistry Olympiad to take place in Vietnam's capital this month - Tuoitrenews | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
Int'l chemistry Olympiad to take place in Vietnam's capital this month
Tuoitrenews
Vietnam will organize the 46th International Chemistry Olympiad in the capital city of Hanoi later this month.
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How existing cropland could feed billions more - Science Daily (2014)

How existing cropland could feed billions more - Science Daily (2014) | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it

Feeding a growing human population without increasing stresses on Earth's strained land and water resources may seem like an impossible challenge. But... focusing efforts to improve food systems on a few specific regions, crops and actions could make it possible to both meet the basic needs of 3 billion more people and decrease agriculture's environmental footprint. 

 

The report... focuses on 17 key crops that produce 86 percent of the world's crop calories and account for most irrigation and fertilizer consumption on a global scale. It proposes a set of key actions in three broad areas that that have the greatest potential for reducing the adverse environmental impacts of agriculture and boosting our ability meet global food needs. For each, it identifies specific "leverage points" where nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, businesses and citizens can target food-security efforts for the greatest impact. The biggest opportunities cluster in six countries -- China, India, U.S., Brazil, Indonesia and Pakistan -- along with Europe... 

 

The major areas of opportunity and key leverage points for improving the efficiency and sustainability of global food production are:

 

1. Produce more food on existing land. Previous research has detected the presence of a dramatic agricultural "yield gap" -- difference between potential and actual crop yield -- in many parts of the world. This study found that closing even 50 percent of the gap in regions with the widest gaps could provide enough calories to feed 850 million people. Nearly half of the potential gains are in Africa, with most of the rest represented by Asia and Eastern Europe.

 

2. Grow crops more efficiently. The study identified where major opportunities exist to reduce climate impacts and improve the efficiency with which we use nutrients and water to grow crops. 

 

Agriculture is responsible for 20 to 35 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, largely in the form of carbon dioxide from tropical deforestation, methane from livestock and rice growing, and nitrous oxide from crop fertilization. The... biggest opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas production are in Brazil and Indonesia for deforestation; China and India for rice production; and China, India and the United States for crop fertilization. 

 

With respect to nutrient use, ... worldwide, 60 percent of nitrogen and nearly 50 percent of phosphorus applications exceed what crops need to grow. China, India and the U.S. -- and three crops, rice, wheat and corn -- are the biggest sources of excess nutrient use worldwide, so offer the greatest opportunity for improvement.

 

With respect to water, rice and wheat are the crops that create the most demand for irrigation worldwide, and India, Pakistan, China and the U.S. account for the bulk of irrigation water use in water-limited areas. Boosting crop water use efficiency... could reduce water demand 8 to 15 percent...

 

3. Use crops more efficiently... making more crop calories available for human consumption by shifting crops from livestock to humans and reducing food waste. 

 

The crop calories we currently feed to animals are sufficient to meet the calorie needs of 4 billion people. The... U.S., China and Western Europe account for the bulk of this "diet gap," with corn the main crop being diverted to animal feed. Although cultural preferences and politics limit the ability to change this picture, ... shifting crops from animal feed to human food could serve as a "safety net" when weather or pests create shortages. 

 

In addition, some 30 to 50 percent of food is wasted worldwide. Particularly significant is the impact of animal products: The loss of 1 kilogram of boneless beef has the same effect as wasting 24 kilograms of wheat due to inefficiencies in converting grain to meat... U.S., China and India... reducing waste in these three countries alone could yield food for more than 400 million people.

 

"Sustainably feeding people today and in the future is one of humanity's grand challenges. Agriculture is the main source of water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and habitat loss, yet we need to grow more food... Fortunately, the opportunities to have a global impact and move in the right direction are clustered. By focusing on areas, crops and practices with the most to be gained, companies, governments, NGOs and others can ensure that their efforts are being targeted in a way that best accomplishes the common and critically important goal of feeding the world while protecting the environment." ... 

 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140717141957.htm

 

Original article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1246067

 


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Organic Chemistry App for iOS, Android, Blackberry and Web

Organic Chemistry App for iOS, Android, Blackberry and Web | iScience Teacher | Scoop.it
We are producing an Organic Chemistry Tutor app for iOS, Android and Blackberry. Online Organic Chemistry Knowledge Database (Read about cause that will help change higher education?
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New drug active against most aggressive type of lung cancer cells ...

source : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140710081308.htm.
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Science

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Homeschool Connections: High School Physics: Online Classes (Homeschool Connections: High School Physics: Online Classes http://t.co/at3j9RD8Xe)
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