Viruses cannot only cause illnesses in humans, they also infect bacteria. Those protect themselves with a kind of 'immune system' which -- simply put -- consists of specific sequences in the genetic material of the bacteria and a suitable enzyme. It detects foreign DNA, which may originate from a virus, cuts it up and thus makes the invaders harmless. Scientists from the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig have now shown that the dual-RNA guided enzyme Cas9, which is involved in the process, has developed independently in various strains of bacteria. This enhances the potential of exploiting the bacterial immune system for genome engineering.
An international team of astronomers has answered a long-standing question about the enigmatic jets emitted by black holes. Jets are narrow beams of matter spat out at high speed from near a central object, like a black hole.
Jets are narrow beams of matter spat out at high speed from near a central object, like a black hole. "Although they have been observed for decades, we're still not sure what they are made of, or what powers them," ESO astronomer Dr María Díaz Trigo, lead author of the study, said.
The team studied the radio waves and X-rays emitted by a small black hole a few times the mass of the Sun. The black hole in question was known to be active, but the team's radio observations did not show any jets, and the X-ray spectrum didn't reveal anything unusual.
However, a few weeks later, the team took another look and this time saw radio emissions corresponding to the sudden appearance of these jets, and even more interestingly, lines had appeared in the X-ray spectrum -- the tell-tale signature of ordinary atoms -- around the black hole.
"Intriguingly, we found the lines were not where they should be, but rather were shifted significantly," Dr James Miller Jones from the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), who led the radio observations, said.
The same effect occurs when a siren from a vehicle changes pitch as it moves towards or away from us, as the sound wave is shortened or lengthened by the movement.
"It led us to conclude the particles were being accelerated to fast speeds in the jets, one directed towards Earth, and the other one in the opposite direction," team member Dr Simone Migliari from the University of Barcelona said.
Dr Miller-Jones said this is the first strong evidence of such particles in jets from a typical small black hole. "We've known for a long time that jets contain electrons, but haven't got an overall negative charge, so there must be something positively charged in them too," Dr Miller Jones said.
Don't Take Federal Science for Granted (Op-Ed) LiveScience.com The impact of shuttering federal science for 16 days may not be immediately obvious to many Americans, at least not as obvious as closing national parks or Smithsonian museums.
Paul MacInnes: A recently published Harvard study suggests that we're more likely to be economical with the truth when our brain gets tired
Good afternoon, how are you doing? I have to say your hair looks wonderful, and whatever perfume that is, it's delightful. In fact, it's precisely the same scent as Alexa Chung wears. Yes, she was telling me as much just last week when we were in that hot tub together in Berne waiting for Vladimir. Vladimir Putin. He's just hired me and Alexa as consultants in the campaign to preserve the Siberian tiger. Yeah, it's a really great job. I get paid in pelts.
Sorry about that, couldn't help myself. You see it's past midday and I find it very easy not to lie. Sorry, I mean very difficult. Neither am I alone – or am I? – as results of a study at Harvard University this week have found that lying in the afternoon comes naturally to humans. And not just humans, but animals, fish and even trees.
"As ethics researchers, we had been running experiments examining various unethical behaviors, such as lying, stealing, and cheating," said ethics researchers Maryam Kouchaki and Isaac Smith in a highly attentive press release. "We noticed that experiments conducted in the morning seemed to systematically result in lower instances of unethical behaviour."
Almost a third of large clinical trials in the US still not published five years after being finished, scientists write in BMJ (Scientists voice fears over #ethics of #drug trials remaining unpublished #pharma
Palms sweaty, heart racing, too panicked to even breathe? No, you aren't being stalked by some monster ): you're about to speak in public!
While some would claim public speaking is a fate "worse than death," public speaking might actually feel worsethan death: at least you won't feel stage fright in death! If public speaking is so nerve-racking, do genetics cause social anxiety?
At some point in your life, you will have to communicate in front of people. Learning what stage fright really is could make you more comfortable doing so. Basically you, as a human, are wired to care about your reputation or what people think of you. So what happens if you get up there and forget a few lines or completely bomb a speech? This fear of being considered an idiot by your peers is a natural instinct called the flight or fight response, a primitive function in your brain that acts to self-protect at all times. The flight or fight response is a very difficult thing to control. Though it's present in all animals, most creatures don't have to get up in front of the entire animal kingdom to make any speeches!
The success of analytics within a business is not just about numbers, technology and processes, it's about how we integrate between analysts and marketers. set out six principles of psychology which affect analytics and decision making...
Mark Zuckerberg has described his social network as a "personalized newspaper" — and for seasoned users with a wide-range of like-minded friends, it's hard not to argue that the articles that pop up in your news feed constitute the most engrossing...
In 1993, after five years of grad school and low-wage postdoctoral research, Michael Kremer got a job as a professor of economics at MIT. With his new salary, he finally had enough money to fund a long-held desire: to return to Kenya’s Western Province, where he had lived for a year after college, teaching in a rural farming community. He wanted to see the place again, reconnect with his host family and other friends he’d made there.
When he arrived the next summer, he found out that one of those friends had begun working for an education nonprofit called ICS Africa. At the time, there was a campaign, spearheaded by the World Bank, to provide free textbooks throughout sub-Saharan Africa, on the assumption that this would boost test scores and keep children in school longer. ICS had tasked Kremer’s friend with identifying target schools for such a giveaway.
While chatting with his friend about this, Kremer began to wonder: How did ICS know the campaign would work? It made sense in theory—free textbooks should mean more kids read them, so more kids learn from them—but they had no evidence to back that up. On the spot, Kremer suggested a rigorous way to evaluate the program: Identify twice the number of qualifying schools as it had the money to support. Then randomly pick half of those schools to receive the textbooks, while the rest got none. By comparing outcomes between the two cohorts, they could gauge whether the textbooks were making a difference.
Christian Science Monitor Scientists find black hole spewing iron, nickel in powerful jets Los Angeles Times Writing in the journal Nature, a team of scientists said it found traces of nickel and iron in the powerful jets shooting out of black hole...
Three Reasons Why The CD Is Still Important Forbes The only problem with that statement is that the CD is not yet deceased by a long shot, and it's still a real tool in the belt of artists and bands everywhere.
Machines that can think for themselves attached to a global brain with the ability to self replicate? Yeah, we're making that happen.
We have seen the future, and it's starting to look a lot like Skynet.
That self-aware computer system—yes, the one that tries to exterminate the human race in the Terminator movies (and one TV show)—is a potent symbol of Frankensteinian hubris. It is mirrored in the Singularity, the idea that technological progress will soon hit exponential growth, leading to self-aware robots and artificial intelligence that seize control of their own destiny, rendering humans irrelevant if not extinct. (Unless people go transhuman first, although that's another article entirely.)
The Singularity may never happen. Artificial intelligence—long predicted, never realized—may be much harder to achieve than we think. An emerging computer consciousness might pass through a period of infancy, during which humanity might be able to take countermeasures of one sort or another. Self-aware robots might turn out to be benevolent, or even completely uninterested in humanity. It's impossible to predict.
Quantum computing and quantum communications; these concepts were invented just 30 years ago, after scientific journals refused to issue earlier publications regarding these subjects because it looked more like science-fiction. Nowadays, quantum systems really do exist, with some of them reaching the stage of commercial sales. Quantum computers raise and answer new questions in the security field, primarily in cryptography.
We surf the net, stream our films and save stuff in the cloud. Can we get all the nature we need from the digital world?
But what do we mean when we refer to ‘nature’? It’s a common term that seems to have an assumed collective meaning, often romanticised and sentimental. We speak of ‘getting back to nature’ as if there was once a prelapsarian baseline before we humans interfered and spoiled it. Gary Snyder, the American poet and environmentalist, offers alternative definitions from which we can choose. In The Practice of the Wild (1990), he distils down to two ways in which the term ‘nature’ is usually interpreted. One, he argues, is the outdoors: ‘the physical world, including all living things. Nature by this definition is a norm of the world that is apart from the features or products of civilisation and human will. The machine, the artefact, the devised, or the extraordinary (like a two-headed calf) is spoken of as “unnatural”.’The other meaning is much broader, taking the first and adding to it all the products of human action and intention. Snyder calls it the material world and all its collective objects and phenomena. ‘Science and some sorts of mysticism rightly propose that everything is natural,’ he writes. In this sense, ‘there is nothing unnatural about New York City, or toxic wastes, or atomic energy, and nothing — by definition — that we do or experience in life is “unnatural”.’ That, of course, includes the products of technology. This is Snyder’s preferred definition — and mine too. However, though it’s not always made clear, I’d venture a guess that environmental psychologists might have a preference for the former, human-free definition of nature.
Meet Bose SoundTouch, a combination of hardware and software aimed at making the easiest, most seamless wireless music system ever. It's a direct shot at Sonos's excellent system from one of the most recognizable names in consumer audio.
Sharing your scoops to your social media accounts is a must to distribute your curated content. Not only will it drive traffic and leads through your content, but it will help show your expertise with your followers.
How to integrate my topics' content to my website?
Integrating your curated content to your website or blog will allow you to increase your website visitors’ engagement, boost SEO and acquire new visitors. By redirecting your social media traffic to your website, Scoop.it will also help you generate more qualified traffic and leads from your curation work.
Distributing your curated content through a newsletter is a great way to nurture and engage your email subscribers will developing your traffic and visibility.
Creating engaging newsletters with your curated content is really easy.