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Mycorhizes on the History Channel


Via Jean-Michel Ané
Agriculture Nouvelle's insight:

vidéo de 19 minutes en anglais

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Pierre-André Marechal's curator insight, May 18, 2014 6:59 AM

A vos commentaires....

 

Merci 

 

PAM

Darin Hoagland's curator insight, May 23, 2014 12:17 PM

Nice explainer video about the importance of Mycorrhizae and plant health.  Increasing agricultural food supply means maintaining good soil health and mycorrhizae are a big part of making soil nutrients to available plants.  Replenishing depleted soil especially after anti-fungal applications and reducing the myorrhizae application cost to farmers are key.  

Didier Vazel's curator insight, May 24, 2014 3:03 AM

Un début d'explication de leur fonctionnement.

Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture.
Innovations et actualités en agriculture : biocontrôle, micro-organismes, moyens de lutte alternative, intrants, pratiques culturales, OAD, agronomie... La sélection de l'actualité agricole par Lallemand Plant Care
www.agriculture-nouvelle.fr
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Genomic dissection of host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions for advanced plant breeding

Genomic dissection of host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions for advanced plant breeding | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Highlights



Sequencing plants and microbiota has identified mechanisms of communal interactions.


Identification of host traits, responsible for microbial community structure.


Plant microbiota members evolve at multiple speeds and vary in host specificity.


Niche formation is involved in the structuring of the host associated microbiome.


Niche customization for beneficial microbes is an important plant breeding trait.

Agriculture faces many emerging challenges to sustainability, including limited nutrient resources, losses from diseases caused by current and emerging pathogens and environmental degradation. Microorganisms have great importance for plant growth and performance, including the potential to increase yields, nutrient uptake and pathogen resistance. An urgent need is therefore to understand and engineer plants and their associated microbial communities. Recent massive genomic sequencing of host plants and associated microbes offers resources to identify novel mechanisms of communal assembly mediated by the host. For example, host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions are involved in niche formation, thereby contributing to colonization. By leveraging genomic resources, genetic traits underlying those mechanisms will become important resources to design plants selecting and hosting beneficial microbial communities.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Liste des produits phytopharmaceutiques de Biocontrole autorisés en France

Liste des produits phytopharmaceutiques de Biocontrole autorisés en France | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it

Liste complète à télécharger ici

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Jasmonates: biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription | Journal of Experimental Botany | Oxford Academic

Jasmonates: biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription | Journal of Experimental Botany | Oxford Academic | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
The lipid-derived phytohormone jasmonate (JA) regulates plant growth, development, secondary metabolism, defense against insect attack and pathogen infection, and tolerance to abiotic stresses such as wounding, UV light, salt, and drought. JA was first identified in 1962, and since the 1980s many studies have analyzed the physiological functions, biosynthesis, distribution, metabolism, perception, signaling, and crosstalk of JA, greatly expanding our knowledge of the hormone’s action. In response to fluctuating environmental cues and transient endogenous signals, the occurrence of multilayered organization of biosynthesis and inactivation of JA, and activation and repression of the COI1–JAZ-based perception and signaling contributes to the fine-tuning of JA responses. This review describes the JA biosynthetic enzymes in terms of gene families, enzymatic activity, location and regulation, substrate specificity and products, the metabolic pathways in converting JA to activate or inactivate compounds, JA signaling in perception, and the co-existence of signaling activators and repressors.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Francis Martin
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PRESTOP | LE Micro-Organisme Fongicide

PRESTOP | LE Micro-Organisme Fongicide | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Le micro-organisme fongicide PRESTOP® est un micro-organisme auxiliaire contre les maladies foliaires Botrytis et Dydimellia les maladies du
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Agriculture connectée : ARVALIS lance le projet digifermes en partenariat avec l’IDELE, l’ITB et Terres Inovia - Portail

Agriculture connectée : ARVALIS lance le projet digifermes en partenariat avec l’IDELE, l’ITB et Terres Inovia - Portail | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it

L’agriculture constitue un marché prometteur pour les acteurs des technologies numériques : fournisseurs de solutions, d’agro-équipements, acteurs de la robotique. Ces technologies sont aussi porteuses d’innovations permettant aux producteurs d’allier compétitivité, respect de l’environnement, et meilleures conditions d’exercice du métier. ARVALIS a donc décidé d’accompagner les agriculteurs utilisateurs dans la mise en oeuvre de ces technologies sur deux «digifermes » pour tester les outils connectés en conditions réelles. Elles serviront à la fois de laboratoire pour les instituts techniques et centres de recherche et de banc d’essai pour les prototypes et les outils en développement proposés par les entreprises et les start-up. En résumé l’ambition est de passer des concepts aux travaux pratiques, dans une logique de recherche ouverte.


Via Mediadoc - centre de documentation ASD
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Research priorities for harnessing plant microbiomes in sustainable agriculture

Research priorities for harnessing plant microbiomes in sustainable agriculture | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it

Feeding a growing world population amidst climate change requires optimizing the reliability, resource use, and environmental impacts of food production. One way to assist in achieving these goals is to integrate beneficial plant microbiomes—i.e., those enhancing plant growth, nutrient use efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance—into agricultural production. 


This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers, and farmers to understand and manage plant-microbiome interactions in the context of modern agricultural systems. 


Here, we identify priorities for research in this area: 

(1) develop model host–microbiome systems for crop plants and non-crop plants with associated microbial culture collections and reference genomes, 

(2) define core microbiomes and metagenomes in these model systems, (3) elucidate the rules of synthetic, functionally programmable microbiome assembly, 

(4) determine functional mechanisms of plant-microbiome interactions, 

and (5) characterize and refine plant genotype-by-environment-by-microbiome-by-management interactions. 

Meeting these goals should accelerate our ability to design and implement effective agricultural microbiome manipulations and management strategies, which, in turn, will pay dividends for both the consumers and producers of the world food supply...


Bonne lecture (PAM)



Via Pierre-André Marechal
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Compter les vers de terre dans son sol - 2017

J'effectue un état des lieux de la population en vers de terre de mes terres. La technique de la moutarde permet de faire remonter à la surface le
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Start-up: Chouette aide les viticulteurs à soigner leurs vignes

Start-up: Chouette aide les viticulteurs à soigner leurs vignes | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Chouette a développé un logiciel et un drone muni d’une caméra multispectrale qui analysent « de manière chirurgicale » l’état des vignes. Objectifs: épauler au quotidien les viticulteurs et les aider à répandre moins de pesticides grâce à une meilleure connaissance des vignes. 

Via Nadine COURAUD, Pierre-André Marechal
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Large-Scale Screening of Intact Tomato Seeds for Viability Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)

Large-Scale Screening of Intact Tomato Seeds for Viability Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS), a non-destructive and rapid analytical method, was used to examine the possibility of replacing a method for the large-scale screening of tomato seed viability. A total of 368 tomato seed samples were used for development and validation of an NIRS calibration model. The accelerating aging method (98 ± 2% R.H., 40 °C) was employed for preparation of a calibration set (n = 268) and a validation set (n = 100) with wider seed viability. Among the tomato NIRS calibration models tested, the modified partial least square (MPLS) regression produced the best equation model. Specifically, this model produced a higher RSQ (0.9446) and lower SEC (6.5012) during calibration and a higher 1-VR (0.9194) and lower SECV (7.8264) upon cross-validation compared to the other regression methods (PLS, PCR) tested in this study. Additionally, the SD/SECV was 3.53, which was greater than the criterion point of 3. External validation of this NIRS equation revealed a significant correlation between reference values and NIRS-estimated values based on the coefficient of determination (R2), the standard error of prediction (SEP (C)), and the ratio of performance to deviation (RPD = SD/SEP (C)), which were 0.94, 6.57, and 3.96, respectively. The external validation demonstrated that this model had predictive accuracy in tomato, indicating that it has the potential to replace the germination test.
Via Luigi Guarino
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Plant mycorrhizal status, but not type, shifts with latitude and elevation in Europe

Plant mycorrhizal status, but not type, shifts with latitude and elevation in Europe | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it

Identifying the factors that drive large-scale patterns of biotic interaction is fundamental for understanding how communities respond to changing environmental conditions. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is a key interaction between fungi and most vascular plants. Whether plants are obligately (OM) or facultatively (FM) mycorrhizal, and which mycorrhizal type they form – arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM), ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) or non-mycorrhizal (NM) – can have strong implications for plant species distribution at the continental scale and on the responses of plants to environmental gradients.


Using published sources, we compiled the most complete dataset yet of plant mycorrhizal and geographical information for Europe, comprising 1442 plant species. We mapped the European distributions of plant mycorrhizal status (OM and FM) and type (AM, ECM, ERM and NM) and analysed their relationships with climatic, edaphic and plant productivity drivers on a 50 km × 50 km equal-area grid.


Via Francis Martin
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Matthias Carrière de Naïo Technologies « Un gros tracteur autonome ou une flotte de petits robots, il faudra choisir !»

Matthias Carrière de Naïo Technologies « Un gros tracteur autonome ou une flotte de petits robots, il faudra choisir !» | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Selon Matthias Carrière de Naïo Technologies, deux visions de la robotique s’affrontent. D’une part de grosses machines avec beaucoup d’énergie qui se guident toutes seules. Et d’autre part, de petits robots travaillant en flotte. Voilà ce que nous réserve la robotique agricole d’ici cinq ans.
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Terr'au Bio 7 et 8 juin 2017 - 1er salon des techniques bio

Terr'au Bio 7 et 8 juin 2017 - 1er salon des techniques bio | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
1er Salon des techniques biologiques en Hauts-de-France: vitrines végétales, démos, conférences, cabaret des savoir-faire paysans
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Devenir éleveur, pourquoi pas moi ? Ep. 5 Éleveurs de Veaux Bio

C'est au tour de Guillaume de nous raconter son parcours d'installation depuis ses débuts en temps que salarié à son installation en éleveurs de veaux sou
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Septoriose : observer pour décider d’une intervention

Septoriose : observer pour décider d’une intervention | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
La septoriose est la maladie foliaire du blé la plus fréquente en France. Sa nuisibilité varie de 15 à 25 q/ha selon les régions et les conditions climatiques.
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Quel est le taux de semis optimal pour le soya ? Vidéo du recordman de rendement aux USA

Quel est le taux de semis optimal pour le soya ? Vidéo du recordman de rendement aux USA | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it

Randy Dowdy, producteur de la Géorgie, détient le record de rendement du soya aux États-Unis avec 11,5t/ha en 2016, alors que le rendement moyen aux États-Unis est de 3.1 t/ha. Un de ses secrets pour arriver à ce niveau, il s’assure d’avoir un couvert végétal bien dense au solstice d’été afin de bénéficier des longues heures d’ensoleillement de cette période. Plus le plant aura un bon couvert végétal, plus le potentiel de rendement sera élevé.

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PLoS Pathogens: Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor–like kinase NILR1 is required for induction of innate immunity to parasitic nematodes (2017)

PLoS Pathogens: Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor–like kinase NILR1 is required for induction of innate immunity to parasitic nematodes (2017) | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
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Via The Sainsbury Lab
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, April 18, 7:16 AM
Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive pests causing losses of billions of dollars annually. An effective plant defence against pathogens relies on the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised receptors leading to the activation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Extensive studies have been conducted to characterise the role of PTI in various models of plant-pathogen interactions. However, far less is known about the role of PTI in roots in general and in plant-nematode interactions in particular. Here we show that nematode-derived proteinaceous elicitor/s is/are capable of inducing PTI in Arabidopsis in a manner dependent on the common immune co-receptor BAK1. Consistent with the role played by BAK1, we identified a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, termed NILR1 that is specifically regulated upon infection by nematodes. We show that NILR1 is essential for PTI responses initiated by nematodes and nilr1 loss-of-function mutants are hypersusceptible to a broad category of nematodes. To our knowledge, NILR1 is the first example of an immune receptor that is involved in induction of basal immunity (PTI) in plants or in animals in response to nematodes. Manipulation of NILR1 will provide new options for nematode control in crop plants in future.
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PRESTOP FOR BEE* lutte biologique contre le Botrytis

PRESTOP FOR BEE* lutte biologique contre le Botrytis | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Premier produit de lutte biologique appliqué par des bourdons baptisés Flying Doctors. 

Prestop4B est un micro-organisme bénéfique, 1er produit de lutte biologique appliqué par des insectes pollinisateurs .

Couramment utilisés comme pollinisateurs dans les serres de fraisiers, les bourdons et les abeilles vont de charger de délivrer intelligemment le produit. En sortant de leur ruche, les insectes vont passer obligatoirement dans un pédiluve dans lequel ils vont se charger les pattes de produit.

Au cours de leur travail de pollinisation, ils déposeront le micro-organisme exactement là où il est nécessaire, dans les fleurs de fraisiers dont les sépales sont la porte d’entrée du Botrytis, maladie ciblée par le Prestop.

* Prestop pour bourdons

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QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE NEEDS IN THE USE OF AGROBIODIVERSITY INFORMATION | gbif.pt

QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE NEEDS IN THE USE OF AGROBIODIVERSITY INFORMATION | gbif.pt | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Today we launched the Questionnaire on the Needs in the Use of Agrobiodiversity Information. Take the survey at https://t.co/AM9Xafju3v https://t.co/FiUfe4UNzd
Via Luigi Guarino
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The rice LysM receptor-like kinase OsCERK1 is required for the perception of short-chain chitin oligomers in arbuscular mycorrhizal signaling

The rice lysin-motif (LysM) receptor-like kinase OsCERK1 is now known to have a dual role in both pathogenic and symbiotic interactions. Following the recent discovery that the Oscerk1 mutant is unable to host arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we have examined whether OsCERK1 is directly involved in the perception of the short-chain chitin oligomers (Myc-COs) identified in AM fungal exudates and shown to activate nuclear calcium (Ca2+) spiking in the rice root epidermis. An Oscerk1 knockout mutant expressing the cameleon NLS-YC2.60 was used to monitor nuclear Ca2+ signaling following root treatment with either crude fungal exudates or purified Myc-COs. Compared with wild-type rice, Ca2+ spiking responses to AM fungal elicitation were absent in root atrichoblasts of the Oscerk1 mutant. By contrast, rice lines mutated in OsCEBiP, encoding the LysM receptor-like protein which associates with OsCERK1 to perceive chitin elicitors of the host immune defense pathway, responded positively to Myc-COs. These findings provide direct evidence that the bi-functional OsCERK1 plays a central role in perceiving short-chain Myc-CO signals and activating the downstream conserved symbiotic signal transduction pathway.

Via Francis Martin
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Production d'énergie à la ferme Un contexte très incertain pour la méthanisation à petite échelle

Production d'énergie à la ferme Un contexte très incertain pour la méthanisation à petite échelle | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
La méthanisation à petite échelle ou méthanisation à la ferme est une installation intégrée aux activités d’élevage, capable de valoriser la biomasse disponible sur la ferme. Solution innovante de production d’énergie renouvelable, son développement en France est toutefois limité par un contexte incertain.
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En route pour le semis direct (épisode 3) - Entraid

En route pour le semis direct (épisode 3) - Entraid | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Troisième et dernier volet de la journée avec Frédéric Thomas autour de la transition vers l'agriculture de conservation. Comment développer des sols performants ? En garantissant la circulation de l’eau et de l’air, en limitant le poids des machines et la circulation des outils et en insérant des couverts performants.
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Aller plus loin que le pH avec la bioélectronique - Agro Perspectives

Aller plus loin que le pH avec la bioélectronique - Agro Perspectives | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
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BMC Biology: Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thalian...

BMC Biology: Albugo-imposed changes to tryptophan-derived antimicrobial metabolite biosynthesis may contribute to suppression of non-host resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Arabidopsis thalian... | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
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Via The Sainsbury Lab
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, March 22, 8:01 AM
Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular basis of host defense suppression in this complex plant–microbe interaction is unclear. Here, we investigate specific defense mechanisms in Arabidopsis that are suppressed by Albugo infection.
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Viticulture / oenologie : L’eudémis prend son envol !

Viticulture / oenologie : L’eudémis prend son envol ! | Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture. | Scoop.it
Les vols de première génération d’Eudemis ont d’ores et déjà été détectés en Provence, région connue pour la précocité du phénomène. Etat des lieux avec
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