The essential key to social power is the event as it is experienced by the subject(s), notSocial power is nowhere but in the hands of individual persons. Institutions do not exertpower; only the people in the institutions do soDefinition of social power, the universal force that drives the motor of all humanrelationships, meetings, groups, communities and organisations large and small; which issometimes benign or sometimes evil (often neither, occasionally both at once, dependingupon your viewpoint) and affects us all each day of our lives.Social power may be defined as that tension or potential difference of influence thatalways exists between any two or more people and which may enable one person,with or without intention, to exercise some degree of control or influence over theactions, ideas or life chances of others
What types of power are there?
How is power gained and lost?
Are some forms of power more valuable (more powerful) then others?
“white males have found that arguing against a policy like affirmative action or an instance of "reverse racism" is a sure way to be branded a racist or a troublemaker.”Racial discrimination exists on both ends of the racial spectrum“too often on campus, their race is seen as a negative, a weapon to be used to bludgeon them into silence or submission.”“Eight of the 12 men I interviewed support affirmative action. 10 of the 12 said the word "diversity" has a strong positive connotation for them. It is an optimistic group, and some even see the discomfort they feel as white men as a potentially positive force.Maybe if you're a partner's son, but any other kind of white male doesn't cut it. And that's ridiculous. To suggest somehow that minorities at Harvard, of all places, need a crutch to compete and win such jobs is patently false."
“You'd think people who are subject to racism themselves would be more sensitive.”Basically, if you're not connected or if you're not a racial minority, you can't get one.Well, I said this to a Black guy I know really well -- consider him a good friend -- and without hesitation he said that was a racist thing to say. So I apologized and shut my mouth."
Women went from earning fewer than 10 percent of law and medicine degrees in 1970 to earning almost half of them by the early 2000s.The assumption of continuous progress has become so ingrained that critics now write as if the feminist steamroller has already reached its destination.But in fact, the movement toward equality stopped. The labor force hit 46 percent female in 1994, and it hasn’t changed much since.Although women do earn a majority of academic degrees, their specialties pay less, so that earnings even for women with doctorate degrees working full time are 77 percent of men’s.Women developed new self-images, and the daughters of their generation — my students today — would never consider forgoing a career.First, despite the removal of many legal and social injustices, the movement away from traditional forms of gender segregation has remained decidedly unidirectional.
Women in the labor force have greatly increased their presence over the past 3 decadesHowever much work must be done (see evidence above)Movement away from traditional conceptions of gender roles has been stagnantMothers are still expected to take on the majority of paternal duties and as a consequence their careers suffer
Education is proven to a major factor in the success that a person experiencesThe number of women vs. men being educated is a good indicator of the power disparities that may existIn many regions (sub Saharan Africa) for every 100 boys educated (secondary education) 83 girls are educatedThe cause for this disparity can range from religious beliefs to familial duties and geographic constraintsEnabling women to be educated is proven to increase the economic prosperity of a nationExplanation: If only half of your population is producing at an industrial level then you are only producing at 50% capacityOn a global level looking at education more women are educated (on a tertiary level) then men
Development often coincides deeply with education (more developed=more education)Flat lining economies often coincide with flat lining educational progress
If you look at the total amount of money earned by women and divide by the number of women in the labor force and do the same for men women make about 75% of what men doThis can be accounted for by sexism of the differences in the choices men and women make.Differences in the human capital (according to gender) result in different career paths which in turn accounts for the difference in pay each gender experiencesWomen are pushed towards the humanities and social sciences while men are guided towards the fields like engineering and businessThe result is that women are placed into career paths that pay less then the ones their male counterparts occupyFurthermore the difference in paternal responsibility (and societal expectations that go towards that) lead women and men to make differing career choices (ie maternity leave)
Determine if the pressures guiding women towards these choices (and the choices themselves) if they are things that as a society we want to preserveWhat is the role of the family in this
Talks about gender roles in traditional societies and how conventional approaches to solving gender roles can often be counter productive.
Women with little power are often affected in negative ways across the board in their lives. Prominent repercussions include high infant mortality rates and increased domestic violence. Often taking a combined economic and social approach to solving gender inequality proves to be the most efficient solution.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that due to a male dominated power structure within the family, male members use their spouse to borrow the credit from credit programs and then use the borrowed credit for their own purpose. Since the female borrowers have to pay back the weekly installments for credit, they face violence from their spouse when they pressurize them for weekly installment and their husbands are unable or unwilling to repay itThe economic approach to forced prostitution indicates that, because of the profit margins at stake and the large number of beneficiaries involved, it will not wither away. Rather, its existence must be actively assailed by addressing the supply as well as the demand side
American teenagers spend: 31 hours a week watching T.V. (source) 17 hours a week listening to music (source) 3 hours a week watching movies(source) 4 minutes a week reading magazines (source) and 10 hours a week online (source)That’s 10 hours and 45 minutes of media consumption a day (source)
Media consumption has become a cultural norm and therefore the culture of this generation has been heavily dictated by the pop culture.53% of 13-year-old girls are unhappy with their bodies. That number increases to 78% by age 17. (source)7/8 people with eating disorders are womenDepression in women has doubled since 1970In nine states and the District of Colombia women who are victims of domestic abuse can be denied healthcare coverage because domestic abuse can be considered a preexisting condition.1 in 4 girls experience teen dating violence1 in 4 women are abused by a partner in their lifetimeRates of depression are the same among boys and girls until puberty, but twice as many women are diagnosed as depressed post-puberty (source)Men occupy 80 to 95-plus percent of the top decision-making positions in American politics, business, the military, religion, media, culture, and entertainment (source)
What causes this huge gender gapWhat steps can be taken to improve this situationShould we improve this situation? Why is this morally justifiable?What innate human facts could have led to this gender gap (what traits do males and females have)?
Gender norms are enforced by four agents: “family, education, peer groups, and mass media. Each agent reinforces gender roles by creating and maintaining normative expectations for gender-specific behavior. Exposure also occurs through secondary agents such as religion and the workplace. Men tend to outnumber women in professions such as law enforcement, the military, and politics. Women tend to outnumber men in care-related occupations such as childcare, healthcare, and social work.There are sever consequences for those who step outside of the gender normsAdhering to gender norms often runs tangent to personal preference
Gender roles are based on norms, or standards, created by society. In the United States, masculine roles are usually associated with strength, aggression, and dominance, whilefeminine roles are usually associated with passivity, nurturing, and subordination.Gender socialization starts at birth, and occurs through four major agents of socialization: family, education, peer groups, and mass media.Repeated socialization over time leads men and women into a false sense that they are acting naturally rather than following a socially constructed role.The attitudes and expectations surrounding gender roles are typically based not on any inherent or natural gender differences, but on stereotypes, or overgeneralizing about the attitudes, traits, or behavior patterns of women or men.Gender stereotypes form the basis of sexism, or the prejudiced beliefs that value one sex over another.Transgender, genderqueer, and other non-conforming gender people face discrimination, oppression, and violence for not adhering to society's traditional gender roles.
Women constitute 52% of the population yet only 13.8% of congress is female19 female CEOs of fortune 500 companies1 women campaign manager
Women should share equally in paternal dutiesWomen should overcome social stigmas against aggressionSimultaneously society should jettison ideas surrounding aggressive womenI see three primary causes of the political consulting industry’s glass ceiling: 1.) Women have children, which means they are not available to their clients 24/7/365 and loose that edge to their male competitors, 2.)Being a committee ED or a partner in a firm requires a killer instinct and some women shy away from being that aggressive and 3.) People in powerful positions (usually men) are loath to move out and give others a leg up.
This article was written by an extreme feminist and should be taken with a grain of saltIt is a very biased articleThere is much truth to it
Pay for executives is extremely biased towards menWomen are paid about half as much in bonuses as men are (at the executive position)The appeal process for wage inequality is often counter productive having negative affects on the individuals careerFurthermore the cout process is lengthy taking many years (in tandem few cases get heard)
Executive gender wage gap difference (25%)Bonus difference (100%)
measured as the difference between male and female earnings expressed as a percentage of male earnings. (bench mark for evidence)
The income inequality gap has been getting progressively smaller over the past decade. (see chart for evidence)In the US income inequality (with respect to gender) is most prominent at the higher earning positions (CEO ect.)Global average income difference…17.3%
In the 70’s income inequality was a 50%In come inequality does not vary greatly by level of education
Outrage. Shock. Despair. Each of these emotions describe my initial reaction to Kwa-Zulu Natal Premier S?bu Ndebele?s comments made at the Sport and Recreation Stakeholder Conference last week. ?
James Rogers's insight:
This article talks about rape in South Africa, shedding light on some astounding facts concerning sexual assault. This article also goes on to state that the root of these sexual crimes are “unequal power relations” calling them “the crux of sexual violence against women”.
Golden Ideas/Ouch moments
Women should not have to live in fear of men. The author talks about self-defense as not being a necessity but a choice.Fact: Because according to a recent study among female youth in South Africa, 71 percent of girls had experienced sex against their will. Because gender based violence causes more death and disability among women between the ages of 15-44 than cancer, malaria, traffic accidents and even war. Fact: Because even though 45 percent of those arrested on allegations of rape are HIV positive, it is very likely that the majority of women will have not access to potentially life-saving post-exposure prophylaxis treatment. Because many girls are scared to go to school – in fear of their teachers who are meant to protect and teach them; in fear of their peers with whom they are meant to learn and grow with. The onus should be on society to prevent these atrocities not on women to defend themselves against them.
Questions: What does this situation look like globally? In the US?
Intersection of Power and Gender
How does gender affect an individuals “success” in life?
What are the intersections between financial success and gender? Where is society inequitable towards the varying genders?
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