The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that in a large sample of invasive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, 72% were positive for HPV and 62% were positive for high-risk HPV types 16 and 18, which are covered by the 2 commercially available vaccines (Gardasil, Merck & Co.; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline).
Patients with Caprini VTE risk scores greater than 7 were less likely to have a VTE with perioperative chemoprophylaxis (5.3% vs 10.4%; P = .06). Of patients with VTE chemoprophylaxis, 3.5% developed a bleeding complication compared with 1.2% of patients without prophylaxis (P < .001). Bleeding complications were associated with concomitant use of antiplatelet medications and chemoprophylaxis. Among patients undergoing free tissue transfer, chemoprophylaxis significantly decreased the incidence of VTE (2.1% vs 7.7%; P = .002) and increased bleeding complications (11.9% vs 4.5%; P = .01). In all other patients, VTE chemoprophylaxis did not significantly influence the likelihood of VTE (1.0% vs 0.6%; P = .12) or bleeding (1.5% vs 0.9%; P = .15).
Xianglei WU's insight:
Effectiveness and safety of VTE chemoprophylaxis differed between patient subgroups, defined by Caprini risk score and by procedure. Effectiveness was most evident in patients with high Caprini risk scores and microvascular free tissue reconstruction. Bleeding complications were associated with VTE chemoprophylaxis administered in close proximity to potent antiplatelet therapy. The Caprini risk assessment model appears to be an effective tool to stratify otolaryngology patients by risk for VTE. Patients undergoing free tissue reconstruction merit further study before developing recommendations for VTE prophylaxis because of their higher risk of both VTE and bleeding.
We have prepared this document, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update”, according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2009”, available at http://www.waojournal.org. Namely, these comprise: “Mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy;” “Clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy” – reporting all the data of all controlled trials published after 2009; “Safety of sublingual immunotherapy” – with the recently published Grading System for adverse reactions; “Impact of sublingual immunotherapy on the natural history of respiratory allergy” – with the relevant evidences published since 2009; “Efficacy of SLIT in children” – with detailed analysis of all the studies; “Definition of SLIT patient selection” – reporting the criteria for eligibility to sublingual immunotherapy; “The future of immunotherapy in the community care setting”; “Methodology of clinical trials according to the current scientific and regulatory standards”; and “Guideline development: from evidence-based medicine to patients' views” – including the evolution of the methods to make clinical recommendations.
Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is expressed in human nasopharyngeal and respiratory epithelium and has demonstrated antimicrobial activity. SPLUNC1 is now referred to as bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1). Reduced BPIFA1 expression is associated with bacterial colonization in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Interleukin 13 (IL-13), predominately secreted by T helper 2 (T H 2) cells, has been found to contribute to airway allergies and suppress BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism of IL-13 perturbation of bacterial infection and BPIFA1 expression in host airways remains unclear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BPIFA1 expression in nasal epithelial cells was mediated through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway and AP-1 activation. We further demonstrated that IL-13 downregulated the LPS-induced activation of phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun, followed by attenuation of BPIFA1 expression. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis showed that IL-13 prominently suppressed BPIFA1 expression in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients with bacterial infection. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-13 plays a critical role in attenuation of bacteria-induced BPIFA1 expression that may result in eosinophilic CRSwNP.
When evaluation of vocal fold function is indicated in patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery, TLUSG should not be considered as an alternative to the current practice of flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy.
This study examines surgical decisions made for patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules who underwent gene expression classifier (GEC) testing and compares actual vs recommended treatments to determine the effects on management of GEC testing.
Xianglei WU's insight:
This study suggested a debate vs. previous reports
(relevant references: Walsh PS et al, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2012; Chudova D, et al, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2010; Duick DS et al, Thyroid, 2012; Alexander EK et al, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2014)
Transoral robotic surgery appeared associated with favorable oncologic outcomes for patients with head and neck cancers, according to the results of a multi-institutional study.Patients with oropharyngeal cancer derived the greatest benefit from transoral robotic surgery (TORS), a minimally invasive surgical technique, according to the researchers.
Research from JAMA — Effect of Subcutaneous Dupilumab on Nasal Polyp Burden in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis and Nasal Polyposis — A Randomized Clinical Trial
Xianglei WU's insight:
Among adults with symptomatic chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis refractory to intranasal corticosteroids, the addition of subcutaneous dupilumab to mometasone furoate nasal spray compared with mometasone alone reduced endoscopic nasal polyp burden after 16 weeks.
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The last decade has seen an increase in the frequency of unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma (UPSCC) of the head and neck, and human papillomavirus (HPV) is behind most of these cases, new research suggests.
. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of combined saliva and plasma pretreatment HPV-16 DNA status for detecting tumor HPV-16 status were 76%, 100%, 42%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of pretreatment saliva or plasma alone were 52.8% and 67.3%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, positive posttreatment saliva HPV status was associated with higher risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 10.7; 95% CI, 2.36-48.50) (P = .002). Overall survival was reduced among those with posttreatment HPV-positive status in saliva (HR, 25.9; 95% CI, 3.23-208.00) (P = .002) and those with HPV-positive status in either saliva or plasma but not among patients with HPV-positive status in plasma alone. The combined saliva and plasma posttreatment HPV-16 DNA status was 90.7% specific and 69.5% sensitive in predicting recurrence within 3 years.
Helicobacter pylori colonization was not found to be more prevalent on tonsillar tissue with chronic or recurrent infections. The reviewed studies provide no evidence that H pylori infection plays a role in the pathogenesis or development of chronic tonsillitis.
Use of a computer-based CT program with a putative neuroplasticity-sensitizing drug, D-cycloserine, was feasible and well tolerated. With the limited sample size, the adjuvant use of D-cycloserine was no more effective than placebo at improving tinnitus bother. The finding that D-cycloserine use was more effective than placebo at improving self-reported cognitive difficulties could be important given the high rate of concern for cognitive deficits in patients with tinnitus. D-cycloserine and other putative neuroplasticity-facilitating agents could be investigated in the future as a strategy to enhance neuroplasticity–based tinnitus treatments.
Xianglei WU's insight:
Cycloserine is restricted for use only against multiple drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Another reason for limited use of this drug is the neurological side effects it causes, since it is able to penetrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cause headaches, drowsiness, depression, dizziness, vertigo, confusion, paresthesias, dysarthria, hyperirritability, psychosis, convulsions, and shaking (tremors).
the efficacy of only preseasonal subcutaneous AIT was demonstrated for tree and grass pollen. Sublingual AIT was shown to be effective and well tolerated in allergic rhinitis and asthma with tablets and with highly concentrated liquid formulations (ragweed, house dust mite), but not cockroach. For food allergy, oral immunotherapy is promising, but close attention should be paid to the exact administration schedule, maintenance dose, and the definition of efficacy (desensitization or real tolerance, as defined by a negative challenge test at least 4 months off treatment).
No synchronous primary esophageal carcinomas were detected. The incidence of synchronous esophageal malignant neoplasms found on screening endoscopy based on literature review and on SEER data set analysis was very low and has decreased from 1980 to 2010 in North America. The incidence reported in South America and Asia was relatively high.
Xianglei WU's insight:
For patients in South America and Asia, how to evaluate its value ?
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