|Scooped by ELICITRA|
Sphingolipids are emerging as second messengers in programmed cell death and plant defense mechanisms. However, their role in plant defense is far from being understood, especially against necrotrophic pathogens. Sphingolipidomics and plant defense responses during pathogenic infection were evaluated in the mutant of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) lyase, encoded by the dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate lyase1 (AtDPL1) gene and regulating long-chain base/LCB-P homeostasis. Atdpl1 mutants exhibit tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea but susceptibility to the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Here, a direct comparison of sphingolipid profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during infection with pathogens differing in lifestyles is described. In contrast to long-chain bases (dihydrosphingosine [d18:0] and 4,8-sphingadienine [d18:2]), hydroxyceramide and LCB-P (phytosphingosine-1-phosphate [t18:0-P] and 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate [t18:1-P]) levels are higher in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. Following Pst infection, t18:0-P accumulates more strongly in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants. Moreover, d18:0 and t18:0-P appear as key players in Pst- and B. cinerea-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Salicylic acid levels are similar in both types of plants, independent of the pathogen. In addition, salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is similar in both types of B. cinerea-infected plants but is repressed in Atdpl1-1 after treatment with Pst. Infection with both pathogens triggers higher jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine accumulation, and jasmonic acid-dependent gene expression in Atdpl1-1 mutants. Our results demonstrate that sphingolipids play an important role in plant defense, especially toward necrotrophic pathogens, and highlight a novel connection between the jasmonate signaling pathway, cell death, and sphingolipids. Plants have evolved a complex array of defenses when attacked by microbial pathogens. The success of plant resistance first relies on the capacity of the plant to recognize its invader. Among early events, a transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), known as the oxidative burst, is characteristic of successful pathogen recognition (Torres, 2010). Perception of pathogen attack then initiates a large array of immune responses, including modification of cell walls, as well as the production of antimicrobial proteins and metabolites like pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and phytoalexins, respectively (Schwessinger and Ronald, 2012). The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) are key players in the signaling networks involved in plant resistance (Bari and Jones, 2009; Tsuda and Katagiri, 2010; Robert-Seilaniantz et al., 2011). Interactions between these signal molecules allow the plant to activate and/or modulate an appropriate array of defense responses, depending on the pathogen lifestyle, necrotroph or biotroph (Glazebrook, 2005; Koornneef and Pieterse, 2008). Whereas SA is considered essential for resistance to (hemi)biotrophic pathogens, it is assumed that JA and ET signaling pathways are important for resistance to necrotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Thomma et al., 2001; Glazebrook, 2005). A successful innate immune response often includes the so-called hypersensitive response (HR), a form of rapid programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in a limited area at the site of infection. This suicide of infected cells is thought to limit the spread of biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes (Mur et al., 2008). During the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the cellular function of plant sphingolipids. Besides being structural components of cell membranes, sphingolipids are bioactive metabolites that regulate important cellular processes such as cell survival and PCD, occurring during either plant development or plant defense (Dunn et al., 2004; Berkey et al., 2012; Markham et al., 2013). The first evidence of the role of sphingolipids in these processes came from the use of the fungal toxins fumonisin B1 (FB1) and AAL, produced by the necrotrophic agent Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici. These toxins are structural sphingosine (d18:1) analogs and function as ceramide synthase inhibitors. They triggered PCD when exogenously applied to plants. Mutant strains in which the production of such toxins is abrogated failed to infect the host plant, implying that toxin accumulation is required for pathogenicity and that the induction of plant PCD could be considered a virulence tool used by necrotrophic pathogens (Berkey et al., 2012). Moreover, several studies revealed that ceramides (Cers) and long-chain bases (LCBs) are also potent inducers of PCD in plants. For example, exogenously applied Cers and LCBs (d18:0, d18:1, or t18:0) induced PCD either in cell suspension cultures (Liang et al., 2003; Lachaud et al., 2010, 2011; Alden et al., 2011) or in whole seedlings (Shi et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2009; Saucedo-García et al., 2011). AAL- and FB1-induced PCD seemed to be due to the accumulation of free sphingoid bases (dihydrosphingosine [d18:0] and phytosphingosine [t18:0]; Abbas et al., 1994; Brandwagt et al., 2000; Shi et al., 2007). Spontaneous cell death in lag one homolog1 or L-myoinositol1-phosphate synthase mutant could be due to trihydroxy-LCB and/or Cer accumulation (Donahue et al., 2010; Ternes et al., 2011). Deciphering of Cer participation in the induction of HR and associated PCD also came from studies on accelerated cell death5 (acd5) and enhancing resistance to powdery mildew8 (RPW8)-mediated hypersensitive response (erh1) mutants, which displayed overaccumulation of Cers. These mutants exhibited spontaneous cell death and resistance to biotrophic pathogens, which seemed to be linked with SA and PR protein accumulation (Liang et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2008). Altogether, these data provide evidence of a link between PCD, defense, and sphingolipid metabolism. However, the fatty acid hydroxylase1/2 (atfah1/atfah2) double mutant that accumulates SA and Cers was more tolerant to the obligate biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum but did not display a PCD-like phenotype, suggesting that Cers alone are not involved in the induction of PCD (König et al., 2012). Moreover, Saucedo-García et al. (2011) postulated that dihydroxy-LCBs, but not trihydroxy-LCBs, might be primary mediators for LCB-induced PCD. The sphingoid base hydroxylase sbh1/sbh2 double mutant completely lacking trihydroxy-LCBs showed enhanced expression of PCD marker genes (Chen et al., 2008). On the contrary, increase in t18:0 was specifically sustained in plant interaction with the avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain and correlated with a strong PCD induction in leaves (Peer et al., 2010). Thus, the nature of sphingolipids able to induce PCD is still under debate and may evolve depending on plants and their environment. The phosphorylated form of LCBs (LCB-Ps) could abrogate PCD induced by LCBs, Cers, or heat stress in a dose-dependent manner (Shi et al., 2007; Alden et al., 2011). Furthermore, blocking the conversion of LCBs to LCB-Ps by using specific inhibitors induced PCD in cell suspension culture (Alden et al., 2011). Recently, overexpression of rice (Oryza sativa) LCB kinase in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants reduced PCD after treatment with FB1 (Zhang et al., 2013). Genetic mutation on LCB-P lyase encoded by the AtDPL1 gene, modifying the LCB-LCB-P ratio, could impact PCD levels after treatment with FB1 (Tsegaye et al., 2007). Altogether, these data point to the existence of a rheostat between LCBs and their phosphorylated forms that controls plant cell fate toward cell death or survival. Data on plant sphingolipid functions are still fragmentary. Only a few reports have described interconnections between sphingolipids, cell death, and plant defense responses, almost exclusively in response to (hemi)biotrophic pathogens. Knowledge about such relations in response to necrotrophic pathogens is still in its infancy (Rivas-San Vicente et al., 2013; Bi et al., 2014). In this report, the link between sphingolipids, cell death, and plant defense has been explored in response to Botrytis cinerea infection and in comparison with Pst infection. For this purpose, Atdpl1 mutant plants, disturbed in LCB/LCB-P accumulation without displaying any phenotype under standard growth conditions (Tsegaye et al., 2007), have been analyzed after pathogen infection. Our results revealed that modification of sphingolipid contents not only impacted plant tolerance to hemibiotrophs but also greatly affected resistance to necrotrophs. Whereas the SA signaling pathway is globally repressed in Atdpl1-1 compared with wild-type plants, the JA signaling pathway is significantly enhanced. Cell death and ROS accumulation are markedly modified in Atdpl1-1 mutant plants. We further demonstrated that phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (t18:0-P) and d18:0 are key players in pathogen-induced cell death and ROS generation. Here, we thus established a link between JA signaling, PCD, and sphingolipid metabolism.
Article rédigé par des membres du réseau