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Mathematical Proof Reveals How To Make The Internet More Earthquake-Proof

Mathematical Proof Reveals How To Make The Internet More Earthquake-Proof | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Decentralised networks are naturally robust against certain types of attack. Now one mathematician says advanced geometry shows how to make them even more robust.

One of the common myths about the internet is that it was originally designed during the Cold War to survive nuclear attack. Historians of the internet are quick to point out that this was not at all one of the design goals of the early network, although the decentralised nature of the system turns out to make it much more robust than any kind of centralised network.

Nevertheless, the internet is still vulnerable. For example, the magnitude 9 earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011, caused huge damage to the Japanese telecommunications infrastructure.

The Japanese telecom company NTT says it lost 18 exchange buildings and 65,000 telegraph poles in the disaster which also damaged 1.5 million fixed line circuits and 6300 kilometres of cabling.

That raises an interesting question: could the spatial layout of the internet be made any more robust against this kind of damage?


Via Claudia Mihai
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

La géométrie avancée montre comment rendre les réseaux encore plus robustes et fiables.

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Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Complex World
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Sand Pile Model of the Mind Grows in Popularity

Sand Pile Model of the Mind Grows in Popularity | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Support is growing for a decades-old physics idea suggesting that localized episodes of disordered brain activity help keep the overall system in healthy balance

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2014 #Ebola Outbreak: Worldwide Air Transportation and Relative Import #Risk | #dataviz

2014 #Ebola Outbreak: Worldwide Air Transportation and Relative Import #Risk | #dataviz | Intelligence | Scoop.it

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luiy's curator insight, August 10, 4:04 PM
The Nodes: Nodes in the network represent the largest 1227 airports in the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) comprising approx. 95% of the entire global air traffic. The dataset used in our computational models contains more than 4000 airports, a total passenger flux of more than 3 billion passengers/year. Node size quantifies the capacity (size) of an airport. Colors correspond to geographical regions. Hover over a node for an additional info pop-up.
Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Intelligence stratégique et économique
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Les pays développés ne sont plus qu'à moitié riche

Les pays développés ne sont plus qu'à moitié riche | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Les pays développés produisent désormais moins de 50% de la richesse mondiale, dépassés par la poussée économique des grands pays émergents... et des pays en développement.

Via Aurélie Thev'
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

Voilà qui peut-être explique certaines choses !

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Physicists eye neural fly data, find formula for Zipf's law

Physicists eye neural fly data, find formula for Zipf's law | Intelligence | Scoop.it

Physicists have identified a mechanism that may help explain Zipf's law – a unique pattern of behavior found in disparate systems, including complex biological ones. The journal Physical Review Letters is publishing their mathematical models, which demonstrate how Zipf's law naturally arises when a sufficient number of units react to a hidden variable in a system.


Via Claudia Mihai
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

Maintenant, on sait pourquoi les terroristes du hamaSS volent, et surtout comment.

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Le vertige technologique masque un déficit majeur d'Innovation organisationnelle

Le vertige technologique masque un déficit majeur d'Innovation organisationnelle | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Les objets technologiques mettent parfois des années pour révéler les domaines sur lesquels ils agiront et quelles nouvelles applications ils (...)

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Stéphane NEREAU's curator insight, July 28, 5:56 AM

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Connecting Core Percolation and Controllability of Complex Networks

Connecting Core Percolation and Controllability of Complex Networks | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Core percolation is a fundamental structural transition in complex networks related to a wide range of important problems. Recent advances have provided us an analytical framework of core percolation in uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions. Here we apply the tools in analysis of network controllability. We confirm analytically that the emergence of the bifurcation in control coincides with the formation of the core and the structure of the core determines the control mode of the network. We also derive the analytical expression related to the controllability robustness by extending the deduction in core percolation. These findings help us better understand the interesting interplay between the structural and dynamical properties of complex networks.

Via Shaolin Tan, Alejandro J. Alvarez S., Tim Williamson, NESS, Claudia Mihai
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Sibout Nooteboom's curator insight, July 13, 3:52 AM

Fascinating advances

Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Intelligence stratégique et économique
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Espionnage : des politiciens allemands pensent à la machine à écrire

Espionnage : des politiciens allemands pensent à la machine à écrire | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Une chose est sûre (ou pas), une machine à écrire ne pourra jamais être piratée.

Via Aurélie Thev'
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

FAUX ! C'est presque plus facile à pirater qu'un ordinateur !

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Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Intelligence stratégique et économique
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La NSA autorisée à espionner 193 pays et institutions dès 2010

La NSA autorisée à espionner 193 pays et institutions dès 2010 | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Non seulement la NSA a eu l'autorisation d'espionner à tout va, mais la liste fournie par le Washington Post est disponible dans cet article! Et quelle liste! Avec des "amis" comme cela, il n'y a v...

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Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Complex World
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Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks

Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks | Intelligence | Scoop.it

We show, via a massive (N = 689,003) experiment on Facebook, that emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. We provide experimental evidence that emotional contagion occurs without direct interaction between people (exposure to a friend expressing an emotion is sufficient), and in the complete absence of nonverbal cues.


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Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Influence et contagion
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The evolution of #memes on Facebook | #SNA #contagion

The evolution of #memes on Facebook | #SNA #contagion | Intelligence | Scoop.it

Via luiy
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luiy's curator insight, June 22, 10:36 AM

A meme is an idea that is readily transmitted from person to person. But we humans are not perfect transmitters. While sometimes we repeat the idea exactly, often we change the meme, either unintentionally, or to embellish or improve it. 

 

Take for example, the meme: 

“No one should die because they cannot afford health care, and no one should go broke because they get sick. If you agree, post this as your status for the rest of the day”. 

 

In September of 2009, over 470,000 Facebook users posted this exact statement as their status update. At some point someone created a variant by prepending "thinks that'' (which would follow the individual's name, e.g., “Sam thinks that no one…”), which was copied 60,000 times. The third most popular variant inserted "We are only as strong as the weakest among us'' in the middle. “The rest of the day” at one point (probably in the late evening hours) became “the next 24 hours”. Others abbreviated it to “24 hrs”, or extended it to “the rest of the week”.

 

 

Modeling memes as genes

 

So can memes really be modeled as genes? After all, Richard Dawkins originally coined the word "meme” to draw the analogy to genes when describing how ideas or messages replicate and evolve[1]. How would one test the hypothesis that memes undergo a process akin to biological evolution? First, tracing biological evolution is notoriously difficult because one must discern the lineage of specific genetic sequences through generations, without having the genetic sequence of many intermediate instances. But when studying Facebook memes, we have a very unique opportunity* to actually trace when copies and mutations occurred, and these are the two basic ingredients in the evolutionary process.

Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from e-Xploration
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Visualizing Categorical Data as Flows with Alluvial Diagrams | #dataviz #methods #tools

Visualizing Categorical Data as Flows with Alluvial Diagrams | #dataviz #methods #tools | Intelligence | Scoop.it

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luiy's curator insight, June 7, 12:04 PM

Alluvial diagrams are a type of flow diagram that  have traditionally been used to visually show changes in network structures over time. Density Design has included Alluvial Diagrams in their RAW online visualization tool and explored its use to show “relations between dimensions of categorical data.”

 

RAW is such a wonderfully easy tool to use that I wanted to explore the Alluvial diagram functionality with a few different data sets to see how the visualizations would come out.

 

Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Talks
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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube | Intelligence | Scoop.it

This course of 25 lectures, filmed at Cornell University in Spring 2014, is intended for newcomers to nonlinear dynamics and chaos. It closely follows Prof. Strogatz's book, "Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering." The mathematical treatment is friendly and informal, but still careful. Analytical methods, concrete examples, and geometric intuition are stressed. The theory is developed systematically, starting with first-order differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by phase plane analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations, and culminating with the Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling, renormalization, fractals, and strange attractors. A unique feature of the course is its emphasis on applications. These include airplane wing vibrations, biological rhythms, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with the mathematical theory. The theoretical work is enlivened by frequent use of computer graphics, simulations, and videotaped demonstrations of nonlinear phenomena. The essential prerequisite is single-variable calculus, including curve sketching, Taylor series, and separable differential equations. In a few places, multivariable calculus (partial derivatives, Jacobian matrix, divergence theorem) and linear algebra (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) are used. Fourier analysis is not assumed, and is developed where needed. Introductory physics is used throughout. Other scientific prerequisites would depend on the applications considered, but in all cases, a first course should be adequate preparation

 

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbN57C5Zdl6j_qJA-pARJnKsmROzPnO9V


Via Complexity Digest
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos

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Jean-Michel Livowsky's curator insight, June 2, 3:22 AM

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos...

Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Intelligence stratégique et économique
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Le dépôt des titres de propriété industrielle auprès de l'INPI évolue !

Le dépôt des titres de propriété industrielle auprès de l'INPI évolue ! | Intelligence | Scoop.it
L'Institut national de la propriété industrielle a pris une décision modifiant la procédure de dépôt des titres de propriété industrielle par télécopie.

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Israel, Gaza, #War & Data | #SNA #socialmedia

Israel, Gaza, #War & Data | #SNA #socialmedia | Intelligence | Scoop.it
social networks and the art of personalizing propaganda

Via luiy
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luiy's curator insight, August 9, 6:11 AM

It’s hard to shake away the utterly depressing feeling that comes with news coverage these days. IDF and Hamas are at it again, a vicious cycle of violence, but this time it feels much more intense. While war rages on the ground in Gaza and across Israeli skies, there’s an all-out information war unraveling in social networked spaces.

 

Not only is there much more media produced, but it is coming at us at a faster pace, from many more sources. As we construct our online profiles based on what we already know, what we’re interested in, and what we’re recommended, social networks are perfectly designed to reinforce our existing beliefs. Personalized spaces, optimized for engagement, prioritize content that is likely to generate more traffic; the more we click, share, like, the higher engagement tracked on the service. Content that makes us uncomfortable, is filtered out.

Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Complex World
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Computational Linguistics of Twitter Reveals the Existence of Global Superdialects

Computational Linguistics of Twitter Reveals the Existence of Global Superdialects | Intelligence | Scoop.it
The first study of dialects on Twitter reveals global patterns that have never been observed before.

Via Claudia Mihai
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

Les bases d'un meta-langage universel ?

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Competitive Dynamics on Complex Networks

Competitive Dynamics on Complex Networks | Intelligence | Scoop.it
We consider a dynamical network model in which two competitors have fixed and different states, and each normal agent adjusts its state according to a distributed consensus protocol. The state of each normal agent converges to a steady value which is a convex combination of the competitors' states, and is independent of the initial states of agents. This implies that the competition result is fully determined by the network structure and positions of competitors in the network. We compute an Influence Matrix (IM) in which each element characterizing the influence of an agent on another agent in the network. We use the IM to predict the bias of each normal agent and thus predict which competitor will win. Furthermore, we compare the IM criterion with seven node centrality measures to predict the winner. We find that the competitor with higher Katz Centrality in an undirected network or higher PageRank in a directed network is most likely to be the winner. These findings may shed new light on the role of network structure in competition and to what extent could competitors adjust network structure so as to win the competition.

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Hidden scaling patterns and universality in written communication

Hidden scaling patterns and universality in written communication | Intelligence | Scoop.it
The temporal statistics exhibited by written correspondence appear to be media dependent, with features which have so far proven difficult to characterize. We explain the origin of these difficulties by disentangling the role of spontaneous activity from decision-based prioritizing processes in human dynamics, clocking all waiting times through each agent's ``proper time'' measured by activity. This unveils the same fundamental patterns in written communication across all media (letters, email, sms), with response times displaying truncated power-law behavior and average exponents near $$-${}\frac{3}{2}$. When standard time is used, the response time probabilities are theoretically predicted to exhibit a bimodal character, which is empirically borne out by our newly collected years-long data on email. These perspectives on the temporal dynamics of human correspondence should aid in the analysis of interaction phenomena in general, including resource management, optimal pricing and routing, information sharing, and emergency handling.

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Le vertige technologique masque un déficit majeur d'Innovation organisationnelle

Le vertige technologique masque un déficit majeur d'Innovation organisationnelle | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Les objets technologiques mettent parfois des années pour révéler les domaines sur lesquels ils agiront et quelles nouvelles applications ils (...)

Via Aurélie Thev'
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Stéphane NEREAU's curator insight, July 28, 5:56 AM

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The 1% of scientific publishing

The 1% of scientific publishing | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Only a handful of researchers manage to publish one or more papers per year

Via Claudia Mihai
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

Pourquoi le 1 %...

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The Network Structure of Jewish Texts

The Network Structure of Jewish Texts | Intelligence | Scoop.it

Sefaria, is an open source database of Jewish texts and recently, Liz Shayne of UC Santa Barbara attempted to extract the relationships between the texts found there—annotations, allusions, and such—and visualize them. Unfortunately, Sefaria is very much a work-in-progress, so conclusions are likely to early to be drawn, but here is a quick visualization that Shayne performed of the complete network of more than 100,000 nodes and 87,000 links


Via Claudia Mihai
Jean-Michel Livowsky's insight:

Une structure neuronale dans l'organisation des textes sacrés ?

Voilà qui me réconcilie avec la religion !

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Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Intelligence stratégique et économique
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Espionnage économique : la guerre des services secrets

Espionnage économique : la guerre des services secrets | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Infiltrer des sociétés de hautes technologies pour voler des secrets industriels, espionner pour mieux gagner des marchés : la guerre économique est bel et bien lancée ! Le journal de l’Intelligence Economique d’Ali Laïdi a enquêté sur les heures les...

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Lancement du premier club Intelligence Economique dédié à l’innovation

Lancement du premier club Intelligence Economique dédié à l’innovation | Intelligence | Scoop.it
Le préfet d’Ile-de-France a lancé avec le gouvernement le premier club d’Intelligence économique dédié à l’innovation. L’initiative a pour but d’«ancrer une culture de l’intelligence économique au sein des structures innovantes ». La première réunion s’est tenue le jeudi 19 juin.

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This map reveals exactly where Silicon Valley gets its talent | #mexico #TechImmigrants #dataviz

This map reveals exactly where Silicon Valley gets its talent | #mexico #TechImmigrants #dataviz | Intelligence | Scoop.it

Above: Tech Immigrants: A Map of Silicon Valley's Imported Talent

Image Credit: Graphic by Bloomberg Businessweek


Via luiy
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luiy's curator insight, June 8, 5:54 AM

Where does Silicon Valley’s talent come from? This incredibly detailed map tells all.

 

The visualization, made by Bloomberg Businessweek, shows the top 100 sources of “imported talent,” from both U.S. states and foreign countries.

 

According to Bloomberg, “Asian Americans became the majority of the tech workforce in the Valley” in 2010; and one third of Valley startups “are founded by Indian Americans.” In addition, Mexico, Texas, and Arizona rank among the top ten sources of Silicon Valley talent, Bloomberg claims.

Rescooped by Jean-Michel Livowsky from Social Network Analysis #sna
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Network Research Centers - Social Network Analysis (SNA)

Network Research Centers - Social Network Analysis (SNA) | Intelligence | Scoop.it

Via ukituki
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luiy's curator insight, June 5, 8:34 AM

An open wiki of Network Research Centers, originally curated by John Maloney and Raffaele Vacca. It includes a list and a map of centers. Please use the NRC Submit Form to add or adjust entries in the list.

 

The map can be edited by anyone in Google Maps.  Note: In most cases, the "Year Created" variable (year in which the center was created) is an estimate based on the publication date of the oldest center publication listed in the center website. Please correct it if you have more accurate information on a specific center.


To be added to the site/wiki access lists contact Colabria. This open Website and curated lists are supported by your donations. 

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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University - YouTube | Intelligence | Scoop.it

This course of 25 lectures, filmed at Cornell University in Spring 2014, is intended for newcomers to nonlinear dynamics and chaos. It closely follows Prof. Strogatz's book, "Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering." The mathematical treatment is friendly and informal, but still careful. Analytical methods, concrete examples, and geometric intuition are stressed. The theory is developed systematically, starting with first-order differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by phase plane analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations, and culminating with the Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling, renormalization, fractals, and strange attractors. A unique feature of the course is its emphasis on applications. These include airplane wing vibrations, biological rhythms, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with the mathematical theory. The theoretical work is enlivened by frequent use of computer graphics, simulations, and videotaped demonstrations of nonlinear phenomena. The essential prerequisite is single-variable calculus, including curve sketching, Taylor series, and separable differential equations. In a few places, multivariable calculus (partial derivatives, Jacobian matrix, divergence theorem) and linear algebra (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) are used. Fourier analysis is not assumed, and is developed where needed. Introductory physics is used throughout. Other scientific prerequisites would depend on the applications considered, but in all cases, a first course should be adequate preparation

 

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos - Steven Strogatz, Cornell University

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbN57C5Zdl6j_qJA-pARJnKsmROzPnO9V


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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos...

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Jean-Michel Livowsky's curator insight, June 2, 3:23 AM

Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos