Intellectual Disability
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Rescooped by Elizabeth W. from Celebrating Abilities
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Study: Half of intellectual disability caused by random, not inherited ... - CBS News

Study: Half of intellectual disability caused by random, not inherited ... - CBS News | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
CBS NewsStudy: Half of intellectual disability caused by random, not inherited ...CBS News(AP) BERLIN - More than half the cases of severe intellectual disability caused by genetic defects are the result of random mutations, not inherited mutations...

Via Sunrise Northeast
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

This article is saying that there have been evidence found that more than half of the cases with children born with intellectual disability are  random and not inherited. So intellectual disabilities aren't necessarily always passed down from parent to child. What I wonder is the percentage of people who weren't born with an intellectual disability but experienced some type of trauma that led to the disability. Also, this article did not specify which intellectual disabilities were caused by what they call "random mutation".  For example, is this more present in autism, Down syndrome, or other intellectual disabilities?

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Rescooped by Elizabeth W. from Accessible Attitudes
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Autism and intellectual disability incidence linked with environmental factors - Medical Xpress

Autism and intellectual disability incidence linked with environmental factors - Medical Xpress | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
Medical Xpress
Autism and intellectual disability incidence linked with environmental factors
Medical Xpress
Although autism and intellectual disability have genetic components, environmental causes are thought to play a role.

Via Kerry Bignell
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

While we know that there are genetic factors that contribute to someone having an intellectual disability, this article states that environmental factors can also play a role. For example, the article states that there is a strong relationship between autism and congenital malformation perhaps due to exposure to a toxin. Researchers have recorded statistical data of the occurrence of autism across the U.S. to create a baseline to compare to. After that they looked at rates of autism and found that in different areas and places, the rates deviated from the baseline meaning that environmental factors were definitely involved.  

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Rescooped by Elizabeth W. from Diversity Action Campaign
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Why I Am Taking a Stand on Intellectual Disability in Africa - Huffington Post (blog)

Why I Am Taking a Stand on Intellectual Disability in Africa - Huffington Post (blog) | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
Nyasa Times
Why I Am Taking a Stand on Intellectual Disability in Africa
Huffington Post (blog)
On Feb.

Via John Malherbe
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

I find this post very inspiring. I have a sister with an intellectual disability and I always wonder what opportunities she has or that she could have. There is much impact on me that there are advocates in Africa trying to change the current situation of people with intellectual disabilities in education, employment, financial support, and so much more. I also think it is great that Special Olympics is partnering and supporting this team and I hope to see good things come out of it and also inspire others to do the same.  

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Julia & Eva's curator insight, April 10, 2014 11:45 AM

this goes under  intellectual/arts. This is about a political leader in the republic of Malawi is trying to establish a ministry of people with disabilities. And she is also trying to help people with intellectual disabilities. 

Geography Jordan & Danielle's curator insight, April 10, 2014 12:53 PM

Intellectual: intellectual disability is an issue in Africa and someone needed to take a stand and come to a conclusion on how to stop it.

Kiann and Kenneth's curator insight, April 10, 2014 1:25 PM

This shows the intellectual arts in Africa. This lady is taking a stand on intellectual disabilities and acknowledging there struggles.

Rescooped by Elizabeth W. from Disability News Update
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Noticing the Signs of Intellectual Disability in Children

Noticing the Signs of Intellectual Disability in Children | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
To detect the signs of intellectual disability you have to first understand what intellectual disability is. A child with intellectual disability, once referred to as mental retardation, has below-average intelligence and lack of skills ...

Via Shaji Mathew
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

While I was reading this, I definitely kept my sister in mind. My older sister has an intellectual disability and while reading the types of behaviors for people with intellectual disability, I could definitely relate it to what I have observed with my sister. Particularly needing more help with learning  because it takes longer and what she can do is at about a 1st grader level, she also has difficulties with memory. This small post also included possible causes of intellectual disability such as the mother being very sick during her pregnancy,lack of oxygen at birth, or some kind of illness or trauma from childhood. In my sister's case, she wasn't born with any difficulties but when she was about six weeks old, she became sick with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). Because of this illness, my sister became really sick and the doctors said that she would most likely die. My family is grateful that she was able to live but because of the her low oxygen levels, it caused damage to her brain which is why she has this disability. This post also included the individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This act allows students with intellectual disabilities to receive special education in the public school system to meet their specific needs. My sister has had experience in deaf schools and also in special education programs. I know that she loves schools and learning and so I think this act is very good and helpful for those with the disability to participate, socialize, and learn the skills they need to play a part in their community.

 

 

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Managing the patient with an intellectual disability. »

Managing the patient with an intellectual disability. » | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it

Some tips on managing the patient with an intellectual disability.


Via impactednurse
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

This posting has interesting and useful tips for medical staff treating a patient with an intellectual disability. They include being patient because they don't process the information as quickly, observe what may cause them to panic or misbehave,  even when they are in distress and you (the medical staff) are frustrated, it is important to remain calm and try to help them as efficiently as possible. One thing that I thought was interesting and pretty concerning is the pain that people with intellectual disability have. This post states that pain is usually under evaluated and under treated. I think this is an important issue because I feel that a medical staff should know to take more effort and observing any signs of pain because the patient may not have the communication skills to tell the staff and being in pain when you can't tell anybody to help you, I can only imagine, is very scary and this issue should be addressed.  

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An Open Letter to Ann Coulter from John Franklin Stephens

An Open Letter to Ann Coulter from John Franklin Stephens | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it

An Open Letter to Ann Coulter

John Franklin Stephens

The following is a guest post in the form of an open letter from Special Olympics athlete and global messenger John Franklin Stephens to Ann Coulter after this tweet during last night’...s Presidential debate:

"I highly approve of Romney's decision to be kind and gentle to the retard."

Dear Ann Coulter,

Come on Ms. Coulter, you aren’t dumb and you aren’t shallow. So why are you continually using a word like the R-word as an insult?

I’m a 30 year old man with Down syndrome who has struggled with the public’s perception that an intellectual disability means that I am dumb and shallow. I am not either of those things, but I do process information more slowly than the rest of you. In fact it has taken me all day to figure out how to respond to your use of the R-word last night.

I thought first of asking whether you meant to describe the President as someone who was bullied as a child by people like you, but rose above it to find a way to succeed in life as many of my fellow Special Olympians have.

Then I wondered if you meant to describe him as someone who has to struggle to be thoughtful about everything he says, as everyone else races from one snarkey sound bite to the next.

Finally, I wondered if you meant to degrade him as someone who is likely to receive bad health care, live in low grade housing with very little income and still manages to see life as a wonderful gift.

Because, Ms. Coulter, that is who we are – and much, much more.

After I saw your tweet, I realized you just wanted to belittle the President by linking him to people like me. You assumed that people would understand and accept that being linked to someone like me is an insult and you assumed you could get away with it and still appear on TV.

I have to wonder if you considered other hateful words but recoiled from the backlash.

Well, Ms. Coulter, you, and society, need to learn that being compared to people like me should be considered a badge of honor.

No one overcomes more than we do and still loves life so much.

Come join us someday at Special Olympics. See if you can walk away with your heart unchanged.

A friend you haven’t made yet,
John Franklin Stephens
Global Messenger
Special Olympics Virginia

http://specialolympicsblog.wordpress.com/2012/10/23/an-open-letter-to-ann-coulter/

 


Via Velvet Martin
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

I think this person's letter is a great response to Ms. Coulter's use of the "r-word" that hopefully can be seen as a learning opportunity. I support this encouragement to not use "retarded" to describe what most of us would call "stupid" situations. There are people who use the word "gay" to also express this, which is also very offensive and should not use it and encourage others to not use it because of how hurtful it can be. I know that I have heard this argument before to not use words that describe who a person is in a negative context. However, I think this is the first time I am able to more fully understand the hurt. I don't have an intellectual disability and I am not gay but I thought about what words a person could say that describes me in a negative way. If someone were to describe a negative situation or thing with a word that is important to me, it would be really hurtful because that means that the person is expressing what I am negatively which means that I must be the definition of that negativity. I don't think that all people who use words  in insult ing and hurtful ways know what it comes across so I think it is important for people to try and see other people's point-of-views and also respectively educate people on what impact their words have on others. 

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Brain Study May Shed Light on Autism, Schizophrenia, and other Disorders

Brain Study May Shed Light on Autism, Schizophrenia, and other Disorders | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
Scientists know that disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability are the result of differences in the brain.

Via Autism Daily Newscast
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

This is an interesting proposal on how maybe diseases and disorders may occur and to see if they can be prevented. According to this article, SIRP-Alpha proteins help our immune system and act by spreading to other cells and attaching to a CD47 receptor. When this happens, a message is sent saying that it attached and that the synapse is good. Researchers believe that if the protein does not attach itself to the receptor, then that means it is sending a message to let that synapse whither away. It is believed that if successful research is able to be done on this study, then disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy may be able to receive successful treatments.I particularly think that it is interesting that the potential findings of this study could be used to not only help people with autism but also epilepsy, schizophrenia, and perhaps other disorders or disabilities greatly affected by the electrical wiring of the brain.

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Undoing Down syndrome? Sonic Hedgehog reverses learning deficits in mice with trisomy 21 traits

Undoing Down syndrome? Sonic Hedgehog reverses learning deficits in mice with trisomy 21 traits | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it

For people with trisomy 21 – more commonly known as Down syndrome – learning and remembering important concepts can be a struggle, since some of their brain’s structures do not develop as fully as they should.

But now, researchers may have found a way to reverse the learning deficits associated with Down syndrome, after having discovered a compound that can significantly bolster cognition in mice with a condition very similar to trisomy 21.

 

In a new study published in the Sept. 4 issue of Science Translational Medicine, scientists injected a small protein known as a sonic hedgehog pathway agonist into the brains of genetically engineered mice on the day of their birth.  The treatment enabled the rodents’ cerebellums to grow to a normal size, allowing them to perform just as well as unmodified mice in behavioral tests.

 

“We’ve been working for some time to characterize the basis for how people with trisomy 21 diverge in development from people without trisomy 21,” Roger Reeves, a professor in the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, told FoxNews.com. “One of the early things we see is that people with Down syndrome have very small cerebellums, which does a lot more things than we used to think it did.”

 

Down syndrome is a condition that occurs when people receive three – rather than the typical two – copies of chromosome 21. Because of this “trisomy,” Down syndrome patients have extra copies of the more than 300 genes contained in that chromosome.  This leads to a range of symptoms, including mild to moderate intellectual disability, distinct facial features, heart defects and other health problems.

 

Through previous research, Reeves found that another distinct trait of people with Down syndrome is a cerebellum that’s approximately 60 percent of the normal size.  In order for this important brain region to grow and form, a small population of cells in the brain must quickly divide and multiply shortly after birth. This cell population requires a specific growth factor known as the sonic hedgehog pathway to stimulate the cells, triggering them to divide.

 

However, the trisomic cells in people with Down syndrome do not respond as well to this growth factor, stunting the development of the cerebellum – a region of the brain found to be important in cognitive processing and emotional control.

 

“We thought if we could stimulate these cells a bit at birth, we could make up the deficit,” Reeves said.  To test this theory, Reeves and his research team created a series of genetically engineered mice, all of which had extra copies of about half of the genes found in chromosome 21.  According to Reeves, this caused the mice to have many of the same characteristics seen in patients with Down syndrome, such as a smaller cerebellum and learning difficulties.

 

The researchers then injected the mice with a sonic hedgehog pathway agonist, which stimulates the growth factor pathway needed to trigger cerebellum development.   The compound was given to the mice just once on the day of birth. “From that one injection, we were able to normalize the growth of the cerebellum, and they continued to have a structurally normal cerebellum when they grew up,” Reeves said.

 

Going one step further, the researchers conducted a series of behavioral tests on the mice to better understand how normalizing this brain structure would affect their overall performance.  One of these tests was the Morris water maze test, an experiment that involves placing the mice in a pool of water and seeing how long it takes them to escape using a platform hidden below the water’s surface.  The test measures the rodents’ spatial learning and memory capabilities, which are primarily controlled by the hippocampus.

 

The sonic hedgehog agonist has yet to be proven effective in humans with Down syndrome, and future research is needed to determine exactly how the injection improved the mice’s cognitive abilities and whether or not the agonist has any side effects.  But Reeves remains hopeful that these findings could have translational potential.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

This article is proposing the possibility of treating people born with Down syndrome. It has been found that people with Down syndrome  have cerebellum's that are 60% of the size of a normal cerebellum which we plays a part in our cognitive and emotional functioning. The researchers are now studying if they can help the cerebellum grow at birth with an injected agonist. The study has been done with mice and showed some promising results but whether or not the mice are healthy overall still hasn't been determined. It will also take awhile before this is used on anybody with Down syndrome. 

If this is able to work and show promising results to help people with Down syndrome, it would be an amazing and radical change. However, from my perspective it seems that this type of thing would naturally have costs or risks associated with injecting the agonist and also there could be some ethical issues. "Do I inject my child with this agonist in hopes they will not experience the obstacles with Down syndrome or do I not knowing there could be a risk child?" I'm not sure what procedures would be taken place for this but I could see this issue coming up. 

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Nick Ure's curator insight, December 17, 2014 11:18 AM

?- Questions 

Star- Important

Vocab- words you dont understand

HgI- How you get it

E- Effects on Life

D- Description of disease

 

in text citation (tristomy)

 

Vocab- Trisomy also know as down syndrome

 

E- Learning and remembering important concepts can be a real struggle  

 

E- Their brain structure does not fully develop as fully as they should

 

* They injected a small molecule known as a sonic hedgehog pathway agonist  into the brains of little mice that just were born. it enabled them to grow a normal size, allowing them to perform just as well.

 

D- One thing we see is that people with down syndrome have very small cerebellums.

 

D- Down syndrome is a common condition that occurs when people receive three. Than a two copies of chromosome 21. Patients have extra copies of more than 300 genes in the chromosome. This will lead to many symptoms like mild to moderate intellectual disability, distinct features, heart and other problems.

 

Cerebellum- is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control

 

HgI- If a small population of cells in the brain dont quickly divide and multiply shortly after birth you could get it. This requirers a current growth factor known as the sonic hedgehog pathway to stimulate the cells.  

 

D- They thought they could fix this disease a bit and they tried there medicine on mice first. They would inject them one on the day of birth.  From this one inject they are able to normalize the growth of the cerebellum and they continue to have a normal Cerebellum when they grow up. 

 

* This medicine has yet to be texted on humans with this disability and future research will be needed before they try and find how what the injection will do and why it improves the micas abilities. They dont know yet if it has side effects yet. If this works that would be amazing cause it could help a lot of people with down syndrome. 

 

 

 

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Protein regulation linked to intellectual disability - ScienceBlog.com (blog)

Protein regulation linked to intellectual disability - ScienceBlog.com (blog) | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
Protein regulation linked to intellectual disabilityScienceBlog.com (blog)Genetics researchers at the University of Adelaide have solved a 40-year mystery for a family beset by a rare intellectual disability – and they've discovered something new...

Via Iris Machado de Oliveira
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

It has been found that the HCFC1 gene produces a protein that is "the cause of intellectual disability" with this insight, people can be tested to see if they carry that genetic information that they could possibly pass down to their children. The article states that this would be really helpful but part of me is wondering if it would be or not. Intellectual disability cannot be prevented so I think knowing in advance could go either two ways. Either, the parent decides to accept the possibly and be ready and prepared if it does happen, or the parent deciding they don't want the baby and either try to get an abortion r giving their baby up for adoption. It's controversial of what is the best choice and because it depends greatly on the mother and family but I would like to explore the possible benefits of using this technology.

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360 Degree Diagnosis Project Instructions.docx: Abnormal Psychology Sect. 01 14SP

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A leisure club for people with intellectual disability

A leisure club for people with intellectual disability It all starts when the new parents are told that their newborn has a disability.


Via Shaji Mathew
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

I think that this is a very interesting idea and from what I have read, it seems like it could be very beneficial. I have a sister with an intellectual disability and also a hearing disability. She grew up learning sign language and went to a deaf school for many years. She has many deaf friends and the deaf community is able to host and participate in activities at the Sanderson Community Center. I know that my family has spent much time there and it is a great place for deaf people to hang out and bond. I don't see why this couldn't work for people with intellectual disabilities and it would give them a fun and safe environment to participate in activities, develop relationships, and socialize with one another. 

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CRACKING THE ENIGMA: Autism and intellectual disability in DSM-5

CRACKING THE ENIGMA: Autism and intellectual disability in DSM-5 | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it

CRACKING THE ENIGMA: #Autism and intellectual disability in DSM-5 http://t.co/uk1PRDuZ...


Via Marie Schoeman
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

There are going to be new criteria in the DSM-5 for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) so that people who do not have ASD will not be diagnosed with this disorder. However, people who do not have the criteria to be diagnosed with ASD will be diagnosed with Social Communication Disorder. This new criteria is designed to not have so many cases of ASD diagnosed because some people may not have ASD but they are being diagnosed as such. This posting makes a point that because someone has ASD, it doesn't mean that they don't have an intellectual disability disorder. However, it is stated in this post that people with an intellectual disability will be excluded from the criteria which I think it is interesting and I'm wondering how the new criteria of ASD affect the ASD population and those with other intellectual disabilities. 

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Supreme Court To Consider What Defines Intellectual Disability - Disability Scoop

LikeHow should states decide if someone has an intellectual disability? This spring the Supreme Court will wade back into these murky waters.


Via MyHealthShare
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

Like the title, this article is trying to explore what should be considered as the standard for having an intellectual disability because whether or not they have an intellectual disability greatly impacts the outcome of a perpetrator's case (such as going to jail or being sentenced to death). This article states that mental health professionals define intellectual disability as a great limitation in cognitive functioning such as problem-solving and reasoning. Also, there must be some kind of evidence of the disability before the age of 18. This article also states that most states go by this definition of the criteria for intellectual disabilities but Georgia, Texas, Florida, and Mississippi define their own criteria. Florida for example has set their IQ score to indicate basically who can be sentenced to death. Their cut off is 70, therefore if you score above a 70, you are eligible to be sentenced to death in a crime. I personally don't think this may be the best information to go off of to decide a person's fate. I personally don't know too much about IQ testing but I wonder if there is a way for someone to fake the test to get a lower score and therefore not be prosecuted as harshly. Maybe this is impossible but it is something I wonder. Margaret Nygren, "executive director and CEO of the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities" states that the court should go by clinical descriptions and criteria for what constitutes as intellectual disability that are done scientifically and takes into account each individual, which will hopefully help with current cases now and future ones as well. From reading this article, another possibility I have thought of is someone with an intellectual disability being manipulated to commit a crime by someone else. I think it would be hard to find that information and there would probably be a whole different criteria for that situation as well.

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MyHealthShare's curator insight, December 11, 2013 8:02 AM
Supreme Court To Consider What Defines Intellectual Disability @myhealthshare @disabilityscoop
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Hospital Sorry For Handling Of Girl With Disability - Disability Scoop

Hospital Sorry For Handling Of Girl With Disability - Disability Scoop | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it
A Philadelphia hospital is apologizing for how it handled the case of a 3-year-old who was reportedly denied a transplant because she has an intellectual disability.

Via Velvet Martin
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

This is a very interesting case. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia denied a girl with an intellectual disability with a kidney transplant. The mother of the girl, in response, posted on a blog about what happened and over 40,000 people signed an online petition to have the hospital do the transplant. The hospital in response only said that they were sorry about how they communicated their policies to the family and that they are sensitive to the needs of families and children with disabilities. The hospital has also agreed to reevaluate the girl's need for the kidney transplant but we do not know what the outcome will be. The parents of the girl have stated that they hope they can support and promote the sensitivity and awareness in the medical community for other people with intellectual disabilities. I think this can be a very controversial topic. I know personally, if my sister ,who has an intellectual disability, was denied of a medical procedure to save her life based on the fact that she has an intellectual disability would make me heart-broken. I personally don't think that people with intellectual disabilities should be denied medical procedures to save their lives. Criminals such as murderers, rapists, thieves, and more aren't denied medical attention when they need it. Why should people with intellectual disabilities. Again, I'm mostly thinking from the point-of-view of my family and I would like to know more about the reasoning behind denying someone medical attention based on having an intellectual disability. 

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Rosa's Law | Why We Use The Term Intellectual Disability | The Brambles Virginia

Rosa's Law | Why We Use The Term Intellectual Disability | The Brambles Virginia | Intellectual Disability | Scoop.it

I tHave you wondered why we use the term Intellectual Disability? Learn about Rosa's Law and why it is important.


Via Stephanie Holland
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

It is an amazing thing for someone to stand up and try to change the word "mentally retarded" to intellectual disability. It is also very neat that the the bill was unanimously passed and put into action. The only thing I wonder is if the term "intellectual disability" will one day have a negative context and then eventually have another word to replace it. The term "mentally retarded" was replaced for "feeble-minded" and now intellectual disability is replacing "mentally retarded". I think it could definitely happen.  

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Stephanie Holland's curator insight, January 23, 2014 2:53 PM

Great short read on why we use "individual with an intellectual disability" thanks to a child who has Down syndrome.

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FDA allows marketing for first of-its-kind post-natal test to help diagnose developmental delays and intellectual disabilities in children

Today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized for marketing the Affymetrix CytoScan Dx Assay, which can detect chromosomal variations that may be responsible for a child’s developmental delay or intellectual disability. Based on a blood sample, the test can analyze the entire genome at one time and detect large and small chromosomal changes. According to the National Institutes of Health and the American Academy of Pediatrics, two to three percent of children in the United States have some form of intellectual disability. Many intellectual and developmental disabilities, such as Down syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome, are associated with chromosomal variations.   The FDA reviewed the Affymetrix CytoScan Dx Assay through its de novo classification process, a regulatory pathway for some novel low-moderate-risk medical devices. For the de novo petition, the FDA’s review of the CytoScan Dx Assay included an analytical evaluation of the test’s ability to accurately detect numerous chromosomal variations of different types, sizes, and genome locations when compared to several analytically validated test methods.  The FDA found that the CytoScan Dx Assay could analyze a patient’s entire genome and adequately detect chromosome variations in regions of the genome associated with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Additionally, the agency’s review included a study that compared the performance of the CytoScan Dx Assay to tests that are commonly used for detecting chromosomal variations associated with a developmental delay or intellectual disability. A comparison of test results from 960 blood specimens showed the CytoScan Dx had improved ability over commonly used tests, including karyotyping and FISH chromosomal tests, to detect certain chromosomal abnormalities. This device should not be used for stand-alone diagnostic purposes, pre-implantation or prenatal testing or screening, population screening, or for the detection of, or screening for acquired or genetic aberrations occurring after birth, such as cancer. The test results should only be used in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings, consistent with professional standards of practice, including confirmation by alternative methods, evaluation of parental samples, clinical genetic evaluation, and counseling as appropriate. Interpretation of test results is intended to be performed only by health care professionals who are board certified in clinical cytogenetics or molecular genetics. Affymetrix CytoScan Dx Assay is manufactured by Affymetrix, Inc., located in Santa Clara, Calif. The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.  


Via Krishan Maggon
Elizabeth W.'s insight:

This is an interesting study and concept but part of me is skeptical of how applicable it will be or useful. This article states that there is a tool that will be able to measure a whole genome and see its chromosomal pattern and therefore be able to identify if someone has an intellectual disability. By doing this, the article states then that support systems can be put into place to help the child. This ,however, should not be done to stand-alone diagnosing or be used for pre-implantation or prenatal screening. I am skeptical of this concept because I am not able to see its important use. Even when the intellectual disability can be identified, it cannot be prevented. The article does state that it can be useful for intervening but didn't go into specifics. Perhaps  there is more to this than I understand but the article didn't explain things in detail about what specific benefits it has and how it is different from our current system.

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