Examined whether an aspect of interpersonal behavior, (i.e., empathy) may be related to compromises in cognitive flexibility following brain injury. 50 persons (aged 19–72 yrs) with cerebral lesions were administered standardized measures of cognitive flexibility (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Alternate Uses) and empathy (Hogan Empathy Scale). There was no difference between self-reported empathy scores and those of significant others. Brain-injured Ss obtained lower empathy scores than the comparison group. Correlations were found between cognitive flexibility and empathy. Findings may suggest that flexibility is a prerequisite skill for empathy; that the 2 variables share common neural and/or cognitive processes; and that empathic change after brain injury occurs as an emotional reaction to acquired disabilities, including inflexibility.
Humans are perhaps the most social animals. Although some eusocial insects, herd mammals and seabirds live in colonies comprising millions of individuals, no other species lives in such a variety of social groups as Homo sapiens. We live in many different sized societies, from small, nomadic hunter-gatherer societies to cities consisting of millions of people living in close proximity; we form special social bonds with kin and many of us make lifelong commitments to one socio-sexual partner, represented in the shape of a marriage.
Deception has been studied extensively but still little is known about individual differences in deception ability. We investigated the relationship between self-awareness and deception ability. We enlisted novice actors to portray varying levels of deception. Forty-two undergraduates viewed the videotaped portrayals and rated the actors’ believability. Actors with high private self-awareness were more effective deceivers, suggesting that high self-monitors are more effective at deceiving. Self-awareness may lead to knowledge of another’s mental state (i.e., Theory of Mind), which may improve an individual’s deception ability.
The concept of “social situatedness,” that is, the idea that the development of individual intelligence requires a social (and cultural) embedding, has recently received much attention in cognitive science and artificial intelligence research, in particular work on social or epigenetic robotics. The work of Lev Vygotsky, who put forward this view as early as the 1920s, has influenced the discussion to some degree but still remains far from well known. This article therefore is aimed at giving an overview of his cognitive development theory and a discussion of its relation to more recent work in primatology and socially situated artificial intelligence, in particular humanoid robotics.
The social brain hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding schizophrenia. It focuses attention on the core Bleulerian concept of autistic alienation and is consistent with well-replicated findings of social brain dysfunction in schizophrenia as well as contemporary theories of human cognitive and brain evolution. The contributions of Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Wittgenstein allow us to arrive at a new "philosophy of interpersonal relatedness", which better reflects the "embodied mind" and signifies the end of Cartesian dualistic thinking. In this paper I review the evolution, development and neurobiology of the social brain - the anatomical and functional substrate for adaptive social behaviour and cognition. Functional imaging identifies fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal cortical networks as comprising the social brain, while the discovery of "mirror neurons" provides an understanding of social cognition at a cellular level. Patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities in a wide range of social cognition tasks such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and affective responsiveness. Furthermore, recent research indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder of functional and structural connectivity of social brain networks. These findings lend support to the claim that schizophrenia represents a costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Individuals with this disorder find themselves seriously disadvantaged in the social arena and vulnerable to the stresses of their complex social environments. This state of "disembodiment" and interpersonal alienation is the core phenomenon of schizophrenia and the root cause of intolerable suffering in the lives of those affected.
Mirror self-experience is re-casted away from the cognitivist interpretation that has dominated discussions on the issue since the establishment of the mirror mark test. Ideas formulated by Merleau-Ponty on mirror self-experience point to the profoundly unsettling encounter with one’s specular double. These ideas, together with developmental evidence are re-visited to provide a new, psychologically and phenomenologically more valid account of mirror self-experience: an experience associated with deep wariness.
Me parece perfecto que Manuel reaccionara indignado frente a la apología de la interacción (barata) desconociéndose la base cultural del interaccionismo simbólico que le debemos a Ervin Goffman como propusiera en la ...