INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL
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INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL
La RED de conocimientos compartidos a través de las nuevas TICs
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Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization

Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To gain a better understanding of how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped rat AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate receptor subtypes in their major functional states and analysed the resulting structures using cryo-electron microscopy. We show that transition to the active state involves a ‘corkscrew’ motion of the receptor assembly, driven by closure of the ligand-binding domain. Desensitization is accompanied by disruption of the amino-terminal domain tetramer in AMPA, but not kainate, receptors with a two-fold to four-fold symmetry transition in the ligand-binding domains in both subtypes. The 7.6 Å structure of a desensitized kainate receptor shows how these changes accommodate channel closing. These findings integrate previous physiological, biochemical and structural analyses of glutamate receptors and provide a molecular explanation for key steps in receptor gating. (...) - by Meyerson JR et al., Nature, published online 03 August 2014


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Autaptic self-inhibition of cortical GABAergic neurons: Synaptic narcissism or useful introspection?

Autaptic self-inhibition of cortical GABAergic neurons: Synaptic narcissism or useful introspection? | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

Highlights: 

-  Specific connectivity patterns between interneurons and excitatory cells.

- Cortical disinhibition is necessary for behavioral functions.

- Cortical disinhibition is provided by specific interneuron–interneuron connections.

- Autaptic self-inhibition of PV cells: a very efficient disinhibition stratagem.

- A dual role of autaptic inhibition in temporally coordinating PV basket cells. (...) - by Deleuze C et al., Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Volume 26, June 2014, Pages 64–71


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Biomarkers could predict Alzheimer's before it starts

Biomarkers could predict Alzheimer's before it starts | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

Study identifies potential blood test for cognitive decline.

A simple blood test has the potential to predict whether a healthy person will develop symptoms of dementia within two or three years. If larger studies uphold the results, the test could fill a major gap in strategies to combat brain degeneration, which is thought to show symptoms only at a stage when it too late to treat effectively. (...) - by Alison Abbott, Nature, 09 March 2014


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Neurophysiology of HCN channels: From cellular functions to multiple regulations

Neurophysiology of HCN channels: From cellular functions to multiple regulations | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

Highlights

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels are involved in multiple physiological processes.HCN channels are excellent targets of various cellular signals to finely regulate neuronal responses to external stimuli.Dysregulation of HCN channels is involved in a variety of neurological disorders.by He C et al., Progress in Neurobiology, Volume 112, January 2014, Pages 1–23
Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Julien Hering, PhD's curator insight, April 3, 2014 6:37 AM

An interesting review about HCN these must-known ion channels that are involved in numerous physiological processes and brain diseases.

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Neuroscience thinks big (and collaboratively)

Despite cash-strapped times for research, several ambitious collaborative neuroscience projects have attracted large amounts of funding and media attention. In Europe, the Human Brain Project aims to develop a large-scale computer simulation of the brain, whereas in the United States, the Brain Activity Map is working towards establishing a functional connectome of the entire brain, and the Allen Institute for Brain Science has embarked upon a 10-year project to understand the mouse visual cortex (the MindScope project). US President Barack Obama's announcement of the BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Initiative) in April 2013 highlights the political commitment to neuroscience and is expected to further foster interdisciplinary collaborations, accelerate the development of new technologies and thus fuel much needed medical advances. In this Viewpoint article, five prominent neuroscientists explain the aims of the projects and how they are addressing some of the questions (and criticisms) that have arisen. - by Kandel ER et al., Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14, 659–664 (2013) 


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Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization

Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. To gain a better understanding of how structural changes gate ion flux across the membrane, we trapped rat AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate receptor subtypes in their major functional states and analysed the resulting structures using cryo-electron microscopy. We show that transition to the active state involves a ‘corkscrew’ motion of the receptor assembly, driven by closure of the ligand-binding domain. Desensitization is accompanied by disruption of the amino-terminal domain tetramer in AMPA, but not kainate, receptors with a two-fold to four-fold symmetry transition in the ligand-binding domains in both subtypes. The 7.6 Å structure of a desensitized kainate receptor shows how these changes accommodate channel closing. These findings integrate previous physiological, biochemical and structural analyses of glutamate receptors and provide a molecular explanation for key steps in receptor gating. (...) - by Meyerson JR et al., Nature, published online 03 August 2014


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Brain-mapping projects to join forces

Brain-mapping projects to join forces | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

US and European research programmes will begin coordinating research.

 

It seems a natural pairing, almost like the hemispheres of a human brain: two controversial and ambitious projects that seek to decipher the body's control center are poised to join forces.

The European Union’s €1-billion (US$1.3-billion) Human Brain Project (HBP) and the United States’ $1-billion Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative will launch a collaboration later this year, according to government officials involved in both projects.(...) - by Sara Reardon, Nature, 18 March 2014


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Gephyrin: a master regulator of neuronal function : Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Gephyrin: a master regulator of neuronal function : Nature Reviews Neuroscience | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

[Review] The neurotransmitters GABA and glycine mediate fast synaptic inhibition by activating ligand-gated chloride channels — namely, type A GABA (GABAA) and glycine receptors. Both types of receptors are anchored postsynaptically by gephyrin, which self-assembles into a scaffold and interacts with the cytoskeleton. Current research indicates that postsynaptic gephyrin clusters are dynamic assemblies that are held together and regulated by multiple protein–protein interactions. Moreover, post-translational modifications of gephyrin regulate the formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses by altering the clustering properties of postsynaptic scaffolds and thereby the availability and function of receptors and other signalling molecules. Here, we discuss the formation and regulation of the gephyrin scaffold, its role in GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic function and the implications for the pathophysiology of brain disorders caused by abnormal inhibitory neurotransmission. - by Tyagarajan SK & Fritschy JM, Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 141–156 (2014)


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Neuroeducation: 25 Findings Over 25 Years - InformED

Neuroeducation: 25 Findings Over 25 Years - InformED | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it

"It’s been 25 years since the field of neuroeducation first reared its head in academia...To celebrate the progress of this monumental discipline, we have compiled a list of the 25 most significant findings in neuroscience education over the past 25 years."


Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, November 25, 2013 9:48 PM

What does neurology tell us about education? This post looks at 25 discoveries over the last 25 years. Some may be new to you and remember this is a field that is changing rapidly.

Below are a few of the discoveries that are covered.

* Brain plasticity - "...the brain changes constantly as a result of learning, and remains ‘plastic’ throughout life."

* "The brain’s response to reward is influenced by expectations and uncertainty."

* "Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral attention."

For more information on these discoveries and 22 additional click through to the post. You might want to check out the 3D interactive brain that explores learning strategies. It is located at http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/learning-strategies/

Miloš Bajčetić's curator insight, November 26, 2013 1:57 AM

Some of them:

- Brain plasticity

- The discovery of mirror neurons

- Both nature and nurture affect the learning brain

- Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences- The brain’s response to reward is influenced by expectations and uncertainty- The brain has mechanisms for self-regulation- Education is a powerful form of cognitive enhancement- Neuroscience informs adaptive learning technology- Dyslexia and other learning disorders- Social and emotional intelligence- The brain thrives on variety- Memorization and learning are not the same thing- Metacognition enhances learning- The brain is a parallel processor.- “Cells that fire together wire together.”etc
Lee Hall's curator insight, November 26, 2013 2:35 PM

Make sure you click the link to see the interactive brain, too.

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The Real Neuroscience of Creativity

The Real Neuroscience of Creativity | INTELIGENCIA GLOBAL | Scoop.it
'The latest findings from the real neuroscience of creativity suggest that the right brain/left brain distinction is not the right one when it comes to understanding how creativity is implemented in the brain.

Via Beth Dichter
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Gary Faust's curator insight, August 30, 2013 8:53 PM

In experience creativity seems to be volitional not physiological, now there is some science to counteract this socially accepted point of view. 

Regis Elo's comment, September 18, 2013 7:01 PM
Sorry again for the delay.thankx for your comments. I add that it seems coherent to agree with both of you Kathy and Louise , inclueing the possibility to care about the individual self-consciousness and empathy as a specific human condition to be eternally unsatisfied WITHOUT SPIRITUALITY?....IT'S BEYOND! i guess
Saberes Sin Fronteras OVS's comment, September 19, 2013 1:18 PM
Thanks for the comments.