Chasing the Future
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Chasing the Future
information related to new technologies & innovation, developments in science and space exploration
Curated by Sílvia Dias
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Rescooped by Sílvia Dias from Rockstar Research!

These 5 Genes Predict What Kind of Diet and Exercise is Best For Your Body

These 5 Genes Predict What Kind of Diet and Exercise is Best For Your Body | Chasing the Future |

Via Louie Helm
Louie Helm's curator insight, February 28, 2014 7:40 AM

Researchers recently discovered the obvious: It's harder for some people to lose weight than others because of their genes. Let's go over the details and then dive into how this knowledge can guide your diet and exercise decisions.

It turns out that 88% of peoples' bodies resist burning fat during low intensity exercise. This is why most of your friends on Facebook either complain that exercise doesn't seem to "work" for them or they recommend high intensity things like CrossFit and HIIT. That is, except the 12% of your prick friends who tell you to "take it easy on your joints" since walking and other easier forms of exercise work just as well.

Similarly, most peoples' bodies will turn to blobs if they eat almost any carbs (45%) or almost any fat (39%). This is why the holy wars between paleo and atkins people are so intense. They don't realize there really are at least two correct diets to belong to... for two distinct classes of people. Researchers have found that people who do the diet that's matched to their genotype (for the 5 best markers scientists know of today) can lose weight 2.5x as fast as those on the opposite diet. Stanford is replicating the study right now if you want to personally join and find out first hand how big the effect is.

Is this the full and final understanding of dieting? No. These genes are probably only a small part of how human metabolism works. And as devotees of the physics diet will point out, these are "second order effects"... things that are less critical to dieting success than overall caloric intake - total physical exertion. That said, there's no way everyone has an equal ability to lose weight if 5 genes can predict a greater than twofold increase in difficulty losing weight.

Anyway, if you have a 23andMe file (w/ V2 + V3 chip data), you can check these 5 SNPs that tell you what kind of diet and exercise program is most likely to match your genes.

The only way I knew of doing this test before was deciphering a dense patent application that mentions the SNPs the researchers studied. But I just made it into a simpler flow chart. Enjoy the reckless, fun self-diagnosis!

Rescooped by Sílvia Dias from Longevity science!

RNA Interference: Nanocoatings on bandages could deliver RNAs to shut off disease-related genes

RNA Interference: Nanocoatings on bandages could deliver RNAs to shut off disease-related genes | Chasing the Future |

Medical researchers think specially tailored RNA sequences could turn off genes in patients’ cells to encourage wound healing or to kill tumor cells. Now researchers have developed a nanocoating for bandages that could deliver these fragile gene-silencing RNAs right where they’re needed (ACS Nano 2013, DOI:10.1021/nn401011n). The team hopes to produce a bandage that shuts down genes standing in the way of healing in chronic wounds.


Small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, derail expression of specific genes in cells by binding to other RNA molecules that contain the code for those genes. Biologists have developed siRNAs that target disease-related genes. But for these siRNAs to reach the clinic, researchers must find a way to deliver the molecules safely to the right cells. Unfortunately, free oligonucleotides like siRNAs don’t fare well inside the body or cells as enzymes and acids quickly chop them up, says Paula T. Hammond, a chemical engineer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Other groups have tackled this delivery challenge by attaching siRNAs to chemical carriers that protect the oligonucleotides as they travel through the bloodstream. The pharmaceutical company Sanofi-Aventis asked Hammond to design a vehicle that would work at the site of a wound or tumor, releasing the siRNAs over a long period of time. The company hoped that putting the biomolecules right where they’re needed, without them having to survive a trip through the bloodstream, would increase the efficacy of the treatment.


Hammond and her colleagues produced an siRNA-containing nanocoating that could be applied to a wide range of medical materials, such as bandages or biodegradable polymers doctors could implant during surgery to prevent an excised tumor from coming back. As the coating slowly dissolves, it releases siRNA molecules tethered to protective nanoparticles.


The thin films consist of two different materials: a peptide called protamine sulfate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles decorated with the therapeutic siRNAs. Other researchers have shown that similar nanoparticles help the nucleotides evade destruction once they’re taken up by cells (J. Controlled Release 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.11.008).


The team alternately dips whatever they want to coat in water solutions of the two materials. The RNA and nanoparticles are negatively charged, and the peptides are positively charged. The two substances cling together due to electrostatic force, producing a film when the water dries.


To test their delivery method, the researchers coated woven nylon bandages with 80-nm-thick films and applied the bandages to layers of human and animal cells in culture. In one experiment, a bandage loaded with 19 µg of siRNA per square centimeter released two-thirds of its load over 10 days. Other bandages made using siRNAs targeting the gene for fluorescent green protein almost completely shut down the protein’s production in cells expressing the gene. Hammond says the group is now testing bandages that knock down MMP9, a collagen-destroying protein associated with slow healing in chronic wounds.

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Ray and Terry's
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