Innovation and the knowledge economy
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Google and the future of search: Amit Singhal and the Knowledge Graph

With Knowledge Graph, Google plans to radically transform the way we search the internet… again. Tim Adams went to California to meet the people redesigning the future
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Is scholarship a conversation?

Is scholarship a conversation? | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
“Conversation at Caffe Nero” by ktylerconk on Flickr
A few weeks ago I wrote that I was not too thrilled with the “threshold concept” theory underpinning the new ACRL information literacy framework.
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Opinion | You Still Need Your Brain

Opinion | You Still Need Your Brain | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

Outsourcing knowledge to Google keeps you from learning things the right way. Most adults recall memorizing the names of rivers or the Pythagorean theorem in school and wondering, “When am I ever gonna use this stuff?” Kids today have a high-profile spokesman. Jonathan Rochelle, the director of Google’s education apps group, said last year at an industry conference that he “cannot answer” why his children should learn the quadratic equation. He wonders why they cannot “ask Google.” If Mr. Rochelle cannot answer his children, I can. Google is good at finding information, but the brain beats it in two essential ways. Champions of Google underestimate how much the meaning of words and sentences changes with context. Consider vocabulary. Every teacher knows that a sixth grader, armed with a thesaurus, will often submit a paper studded with words used in not-quite-correct ways, like the student who looked up “meticulous,” saw it meant “very careful,” and wrote “I was meticulous when I fell off the cliff.” With the right knowledge in memory, your brain deftly puts words in context. Consider “Trisha spilled her coffee.” When followed by the sentence “Dan jumped up to get a rag,” the brain instantly highlights one aspect of the meaning of “spill” — spills make a mess. Had the second sentence been “Dan jumped up to get her more,” you would have thought instead of the fact that “spill” means Trisha had less of something. Still another aspect of meaning would come to mind had you read, “Dan jumped up, howling in pain.” The meaning of “spill” depends on context, but dictionaries, including internet dictionaries, necessarily offer context-free meanings. That’s why kids fall off cliffs meticulously. Perhaps internet searches will become more sensitive to context, but until our brains communicate directly with silicon chips, there’s another problem — speed.

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Could your next peer review be done by ... a robot?

Could your next peer review be done by ...  a robot? | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Peer review is an integral part of scientific publishing.

It is a process whereby experts from a particular field evaluate the work done by a researcher in the same discipline.

Peer review was established to ensure scientific accuracy, credibility of the claims and research methods, to maintain standards, and enhance the quality of manuscripts.

Another important role of peer review is to ensure the manuscript is suitable for the intended journal and identify new pathways for future research.

In its early days, it took the form of a friendly scientific face-to-face or mail exchange. In time, it evolved into an official and rigorous process that evaluates scientific knowledge.
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What an academic hoax can teach us about journalism in the age of Trump

What an academic hoax can teach us about journalism in the age of Trump | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

From the “hermeneutics of quantum gravity” to the “conceptual penis,” attempted hoaxes tell us that our contemporary problems around truth are both cultural and structural.

Call it, if you like, a replication experiment. Twenty-one years ago, the New York University physicist Alan Sokal attempted to prove that the influence of postmodern ways of thinking in the humanities had reached the point where academic nonsense was indistinguishable from academic sense. As a physicist, Sokal found writing about science to be particularly offensive, and he submitted a “hoax” paper to the important academic journal Social Text titled “Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity.” Sokal was conducting an experiment to see if “a leading North American journal of cultural studies — whose editorial collective includes such luminaries as Fredric Jameson and Andrew Ross — [would] publish an article liberally salted with nonsense if (a) it sounded good and (b) it flattered the editors’ ideological preconceptions.” They did.

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Session with Jimmy Wales - Quora

Session with Jimmy Wales - Quora | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
How is WikiTribune different from other news platforms?
 
Jimmy Wales, worked at Wikimedia Foundation
Answered Thu
I would say that there are two essential differences that WikiTribune has to distinguish it from most other platforms.First, we will have paid professional journalists working side-by-side with community members as equals. This means that staff journalists may be doing interviews, research, fact-checking, editing, planning alongside community members at every step of the way. I don’t think anyone has really attempted this exact thing before, and I hope that my long experience with wikis gives me some good ideas about how to make this work.Second, we are launching without advertising, and ye... (more)
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Next List 2017: Put humans first, code second Parisa Tabriz and 19 other tech visionaries

Next List 2017: Put humans first, code second Parisa Tabriz and 19 other tech visionaries | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Put Humans First, Code Second
Parisa Tabriz
Browser Boss | Google Chrome
As head of security for Google Chrome, Parisa Tabriz has spent four years focusing on a vulnerability so widespread, most engineers act as if it doesn’t exist: humanity. She has pushed her 52-person team to grapple with problems once written off as “user errors.” They’ve made key changes in how the browser communicates with people, rewriting Chrome’s warnings about insecure network connections at a sixth-grade reading level. Rather than depending on users to spot phishing schemes, the team is exploring machine-­learning tools to automatically detect them. And they’re starting to mark sites as “not secure” if they don’t use HTTPS encryption, pressuring the web to secure itself. “We’ve been accused of being paternalistic, but we’re in a position to protect people,” she says. “The goal isn’t to solve math problems. It’s to keep humans safe.”
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This algorithm lets robots ask you a question if you've confused them

This algorithm lets robots ask you a question if you've confused them | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
A new algorithm lets robots ask for clarification when they’re not sure what a person wants.

“Fetching objects is an important task that we want collaborative robots to be able to do,” says Stefanie Tellex, professor of computer science at Brown University. “But it’s easy for the robot to make errors, either by misunderstanding what we want, or by being in situations where commands are ambiguous. So what we wanted to do here was come up with a way for the robot to ask a question when it’s not sure.”
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London joins 500 cities and hosts a March for Science to celebrate knowledge

London joins 500 cities and hosts a March for Science to celebrate knowledge | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Protesters fear election of Trump and 'post-truth era' are undermining scientific advances.
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These 6 Trends Are Retooling Manufacturing as We Know It

These 6 Trends Are Retooling Manufacturing as We Know It | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

Let’s be honest — sometimes manufacturing gets a bad rap. The industry can be seen as a behemoth — stuck in the past and slow to innovate, the victim of outsourcing and the purveyor of consumerism. Thankfully, in 2017 these stereotypes couldn’t be further from the truth.

Global organizations like GE and Caterpillar are investing in new technologies and innovation methods. Startups like Local Motors and Carbon are creating their own breakthroughs from the ground up. And organizations like the US Council on Competitiveness are working to keep these innovators moving forward. The future of manufacturing is bright.

That’s why we’ve put together this list of trends to watch in 2017. If you want to learn more about the technologies fueling these trends, meet the people leading the charge, and connect with fellow leaders, join us at Exponential Manufacturing May 17–19 in Boston.

1. Innovation Is Outpacing Policy

2. The Cutting Edge Won’t Be Cutting Edge for Long

3. Data-Driven Decision-Making Gets More Intelligent

4. Accelerated Design and Real-World Market Testing

5. The Automation and Democratization of Production

6. Reimagining the Global Supply Chain
.

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Mathieu Weggeman over het belang van vakmanschap - Koneksa Mondo

Mathieu Weggeman over het belang van vakmanschap - Koneksa Mondo | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Vanmorgen gevraagd voor een inspiratiesessie over leiderschap in een snel veranderende samenleving. We kwamen in het gesprek al snel op het werk van Mathieu Weggeman, hoogleraar organisatiekunde aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. Volgens Weggeman hebben planning & control hun beste … Lees verder →
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Is the data revolution a game changer in the fight against corruption?

Is the data revolution a game changer in the fight against corruption? | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Data is changing the fight against corruption. Stories from Panama and Brazil illustrate how.

In April 2016, the Panama Papers revealed the opaque dealings of offshore companies, trusts and foundations in tax havens used to hide the wealth of the global elite. Data analytics start-ups helped investigative journalists sift through more than 11.5 million documents to connect the dots.

The fallout was severe: within days of the release, dozens of high-ranking officials worldwide were in hot water. The source of the data was a leak from within the Panama-based law firm Mossack Fonseca.

Just months later, in August 2016, President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil was impeached. Though the country was embroiled in a corruption scandal linked to a state-owned oil company, the legal reason for her impeachment was a narrow technical matter. In essence, she was found guilty of using accounting tricks to cover up the true state of public finances.
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How to NOT Get Duped By Fake News

How to NOT Get Duped By Fake News | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
A high school history teacher provides the rundown on how to spot fake news and bogus headlines.
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Information is garbage

Information is garbage | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
’ve been reading a lot of Neil Postman lately. It’s been one of those years and I’m writing a book about fake news. Postman, the nicest guy in cultural criticism, was a folksy, friendly thinker who imagined the future in which we now live. One of his most important points, made in 1992 before the true data deluge that now befuddles us, is that information has become garbage.

He wrote:

In the United States, we have 260,000 billboards; 11,250 newspapers; 11,556 periodicals; 27,000 video outlets for renting video tapes; more than 500 million radios; and more than 100 million computers. Ninety-eight percent of American homes have a television set; more than half our homes have more than one. There are 40,000 new book titles published every year (300,000 worldwide), and every day in America 41 million photographs are taken. And if this is not enough, more than 60 billion pieces of junk mail (thanks to computer technology) find their way into our mail-boxes every year.

From millions of sources all over the globe, through every possible channel and medium — light waves, airwaves, ticker tapes, computer banks, telephone wires, television cables, satellites, printing presses — information pours in. Behind it, in every imaginable form of storage — on paper, on video and audio tape, on discs, film, and silicon chips — is an ever greater volume of information waiting to be retrieved. Like the Sorcerer’s Apprentice, we are awash in information. And all the sorcerer has left us is a broom.

Information has become a form of garbage, not only incapable of answering the most fundamental human questions but barely useful in providing coherent direction to the solution of even mundane problems. To say it still another way: The milieu in which Technopoly flourishes is one in which the tie between information and human purpose has been severed, i.e., information appears indiscriminately, directed at no one in particular, in enormous volume and at high speeds, and disconnected from theory, meaning, or purpose.
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Wikipedia’s founder wants to fix fake news

Wikipedia’s founder wants to fix fake news | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Can a cadre of professional journalists, edited by volunteers and paid via crowdfunding, crack a problem that’s plaguing the Internet?
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A First Look at the Essential Phone, Andy Rubin’s Anti-iPhone

A First Look at the Essential Phone, Andy Rubin’s Anti-iPhone | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
ANDY RUBIN WASN’T ready to retire when he left Google in 2014. He certainly could have: After an illustrious career developing some of the most innovative products in tech, he had all the wealth and accolades anyone could want. As an engineer at the Apple spinoff General Magic, he built some of the world’s first internet-connected portable devices. As CEO at Danger, he created the Sidekick, a smartphone that defined the category before anyone had invented the term. And then, of course, Rubin created Android, the operating system found in more than two billion phones, televisions, cars, and watches.

But Rubin wasn’t done. More to the point, he couldn’t be done.
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Daryl Bem Proved ESP Is Real. Which Means Science Is Broken.

Daryl Bem Proved ESP Is Real. Which Means Science Is Broken. | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

it seemed obvious, at first, that Jade Wu was getting punked. In the fall of 2009, the Cornell University undergraduate had come across a posting for a job in the lab of one of the world’s best-known social psychologists. A short while later, she found herself in a conference room, seated alongside several other undergraduate women. “Have you guys heard of extrasensory perception?” Daryl Bem asked the students. They shook their heads.

While most labs in the psych department were harshly lit with fluorescent ceiling bulbs, Bem’s was set up for tranquility. A large tasseled tapestry stretched across one wall, and a cubicle partition was draped with soft, black fabric. It felt like the kind of place where one might stage a séance.

“Well, extrasensory perception, also called ESP, is when you can perceive things that are not immediately available in space or time,” Bem said. “So, for example, when you can perceive something on the other side of the world, or in a different room, or something that hasn’t happened yet.”

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John Oliver pleads with viewers to revive net neutrality fight

John Oliver pleads with viewers to revive net neutrality fight | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
The net neutrality fight is unfortunately back, and just as he did three years ago, comedian John Oliver has devoted a segment of his show Last Week Tonight to call out the importance of th
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A threat to innovation and knowledge society
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How Leaders Can Make Innovation Everyone's Day Job

How Leaders Can Make Innovation Everyone's Day Job | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
This article is part of a new series exploring the skills leaders must learn to make the most of rapid change in an increasingly disruptive world. The first article in the series, “How the Most Successful Leaders Will Thrive in an Exponential World,” broadly outlines four critical leadership skills—futurist, technologist, innovator, and humanitarian—and how they work together.

Today's post, part four in the series, takes a more detailed look at leaders as innovators. Be sure to check out part two of the series, "How Leaders Dream Boldly to Bring New Futures to Life," part three of the series, “How All Leaders Can Make the World a Better Place,”  and stay tuned for an upcoming article exploring leaders as technologists.

Jeff Bezos is arguably one of today’s most innovative leaders. He is a great example of a leader who imagines possible new futures and has created an organization that puts as much discipline into innovating as it does into bringing those new ideas to life.

In the 20-plus years Amazon has been in business, Bezos has entered and disrupted multiple industries — retail and technology infrastructure, for example — pioneering new business models that make competition irrelevant.

How does Amazon do it?

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The Challenge of Our Disruptive Era

The Challenge of Our Disruptive Era | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
It is arguably the largest economic transformation in recorded history. Can our politics adapt?
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Google Books is not Alexandria redux

Google Books is not Alexandria redux | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

It was just a few days ago that I last wrote about the way people tend to willfully misunderstand Google Books these days, and I had thought I was done with it, but I came across another article so wrong-headed that I just had to speak again. In this case, it’s a piece by James Somers in The Atlantic entitled “Torching the Modern-Day Library of Alexandria.”

The article would be a good summary of the process Google used to scan the books, the contentious issues surrounding the lawsuit and the settlement, and why the Department of Justice and many putative members of the class action objected to it—if it weren’t that it gets so many other things wrong.

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Updated Figures on the Scale and Nature of Researchers’ Use of Scholarly Collaboration Networks - The Scholarly Kitchen

Updated Figures on the Scale and Nature of Researchers’ Use of Scholarly Collaboration Networks - The Scholarly Kitchen | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
My last post was about institutional conservatism in relation to research evaluation and reward. I illustrated it with a brick wall bearing the words “insert head here” because so many wicked problems in scholarly communications today can be traced back to this underlying cause, and its immutability is therefore so frustrating to those trying to tackle its symptoms.

One of the many symptoms is that publishers and researchers are inextricably linked, mutually dependent, and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Evaluation processes — even those that are evolving away from simplistic publication counts or Impact Factor-based points systems — still mean that publication in an established journal is important for researchers, much as quality submissions are important for publishers. It is into this stasis that “scholarly collaboration networks” (SCNs) have emerged, originally as places for researchers to form connections (à la LinkedIn) but increasingly used for “content swapping” and / or “quasi-legal downloading of research papers”.
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From World of Warcraft to Saving the World: Educational Game Teaches Ecology, Problem Solving on Alien Planet

From World of Warcraft to Saving the World: Educational Game Teaches Ecology, Problem Solving on Alien Planet | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

Avid gamer Lindsey Tropf was studying to get her Ph.D. in school psychology at the University of Florida when she realized something major — that World of Warcraft and Star Wars Galaxies could actually be used as ideal learning models for educational video games.

Since then, Lindsey founded the edtech startup Immersed Games in an effort to take full advantage of the medium that is online games. Immersed Games created Tyto Online, a World of Warcraft-style educational game about ecology, set in a futuristic universe where the Earth is no longer inhabitable. It is up to the players to learn how to improve ecosystems so that they can someday return to Earth and restore their planet.

In Tyto Online, users create a character and complete quests and activities. Tropf cites an example of one of these tasks: “If I go accept a quest from a scientist, they might be worried that this weird plant might be an invasive species. And so I start collecting evidence to convince them if I think it is, and go into a detective quest like that.

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Boston Dynamics’ New Rolling, Leaping Robot Is an Evolutionary Marvel

Boston Dynamics’ New Rolling, Leaping Robot Is an Evolutionary Marvel | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
Handle is a biped with wheels instead of feet, essentially one-upping evolution.
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Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds

Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it
In 1975, researchers at Stanford invited a group of undergraduates to take part in a study about suicide. They were presented with pairs of suicide notes. In each pair, one note had been composed by a random individual, the other by a person who had subsequently taken his own life. The students were then asked to distinguish between the genuine notes and the fake ones. Some students discovered that they had a genius for the task. Out of twenty-five pairs of notes, they correctly identified the real one twenty-four times. Others discovered that they were hopeless. They identified the real note in only ten instances. As is often the case with psychological studies, the whole setup was a put-on. Though half the notes were indeed genuine—they’d been obtained from the Los Angeles County coroner’s office—the scores were fictitious. The students who’d been told they were almost always right were, on average, no more discerning than those who had been told they were mostly wrong.
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We all think its a great capacity- the human capacity for reason. But it may have more to do with winning arguments than with thinking straight. Providing people with accurate information doesn't seem to help; they simply discount it.
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AI learns new tricks - JWT Intelligence

AI learns new tricks - JWT Intelligence | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

A bot has beaten the world’s top poker players, a milestone showing that AI can work with incomplete information.


Libratus, a program created by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, has demonstrated new capabilities for artificial intelligence after beating four poker champions in a 20-day tournament for the first time. For marketers, whose work involves situations that are much more similar to poker than to board games like chess and Go, the milestone could signal new possibilities for the use of AI.

Developed by Tuomas Sandholm, professor of computer science, and his PhD student Noam Brown, Libratus took on poker professionals Dong Kim, Jason Les, Jimmy Chou and Daniel McAulay and ended up winning more than $1.7 million in chips at Rivers Casino in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

AI bots have beaten human experts at many tasks, from IBM Watson’s Jeopardy triumph in 2011 to DeepMind’s AlphaGo win in 2016. What makes this victory different is that the AI was able to use imperfect information to win. Poker is a complex game that requires intuition, reasoning and an ability to bluff. It’s different from other recreational games that AI has won in the past because an opponent’s hand is hidden and it is impossible to know with certainty what a player has.

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The Post-Information Age Is Here & It Is Drowning Us In Straight Garbage

The Post-Information Age Is Here & It Is Drowning Us In Straight Garbage | Innovation and the knowledge economy | Scoop.it

For every moment we live in the Information Age, we live two in the Misinformation Age. The Internet has both democratized and degraded information, providing us with all we could ever want to know about the world, and a lot of stuff that is untrue, misleading, offensive; in a word, information is garbage. In sheer volume alone, information (or “data”) on the web is astounding; 6,000 tweets are sent out every second, as are two-million emails. More than one-billion websites populate the Internet, a statistic that doesn’t take into account the “Deep Web,” comprised of untold amounts of information that isn’t accessible to the average web user. Our online lives are becoming bigger, deeper, and busier than ever and with each passing moment, so is the Internet itself, but at what cost? In an era of fake news and alternative facts, is access to endless amounts of information actually harming us more than it’s helping?

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