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Immunology for University Students
Resources and Material for Lecturers and Students - Immunology (University level)
Curated by Alfredo Corell
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Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages: a unified nomenclature based on ontogeny.

Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages: a unified nomenclature based on ontogeny. | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Nature Reviews Immunology 14571–578 (2014)
 
doi:10.1038/nri3712 - Published online 18 July 2014
Alfredo Corell's insight:

ABSTRACT: The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) has historically been categorized into monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages on the basis of functional and phenotypical characteristics. However, considering that these characteristics are often overlapping, the distinction between and classification of these cell types has been challenging. In this Opinion article, we propose a unified nomenclature for the MPS. We suggest that these cells can be classified primarily by their ontogeny and secondarily by their location, function and phenotype. We believe that this system permits a more robust classification during both steady-state and inflammatory conditions, with the benefit of spanning different tissues and across species.

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The Macrophage Community Website | macrophages.com

The Macrophage Community Website | macrophages.com | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
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Everything you need to know about macrophages: images, pathways, proteins, protocols,

a must visit

 

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Bodyguard macrophages protect stem cells from over-differentiation

Bodyguard macrophages protect stem cells from over-differentiation | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow

Aya Ludin,Tomer Itkin,Shiri Gur-Cohen,Alexander Mildner,Elias Shezen,Karin Golan,Orit Kollet,Alexander Kalinkovich,Ziv Porat,Gabriele D'Uva,Amir Schajnovitz,Elena Voronov,David A Brenner,Ron N Apte,Steffen Jung& Tsvee Lapidot

 

Nature Immunology13,1072–1082(2012)doi:10.1038/ni.2408

 

 

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are regulated by various bone marrow stromal cell types. Here we identified rare activated bone marrow monocytes and macrophages with high expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the cyclooxygenase COX-2 that were adjacent to primitive HSPCs. These myeloid cells resisted radiation-induced cell death and further upregulated COX-2 expression under stress conditions. COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) prevented HSPC exhaustion by limiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via inhibition of the kinase Akt and higher stromal-cell expression of the chemokine CXCL12, which is essential for stem-cell quiescence. Our study identifies a previously unknown subset of α-SMA+ activated monocytes and macrophages that maintain HSPCs and protect them from exhaustion during alarm situations.

 

Original article in Nature Immunology:

http://www.nature.com/ni/journal/v13/n11/full/ni.2408.html

 

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Macrophages: The shape of things to come : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Publishing Group

Macrophages: The shape of things to come : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Publishing Group | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Differences in the cell morphology of macrophages in either pro-inflammatory (M1)-polarizing or pro-healing (M2)-polarizing conditions have been previously observed. As described in this study, M1-polarizing stimuli (LPS plus IFNγ) cause cells to flatten into a round, pancake-like shape, whereas M2-polarizing stimuli (IL-4 and IL-13) induce an elongated cell shape.

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Fat's Immune Sentinels | The Scientist Magazine®

Fat's Immune Sentinels | The Scientist Magazine® | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Fat's Immune Sentinels

Certain immune cells keep adipose tissue in check by helping to define normal and abnormal physiological states.

By Justin Odegaard and Ajay Chawla | December 1, 2012

 

Obesity and associated health consequences are the greatest public-health challenges of our time. Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 billion people tip the scales as overweight—300–500 million of whom are obese—placing nearly a quarter of humanity at dramatically increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and many types of cancer. While considerable scientific investments have barely begun to slow the expansion of our waistlines, they have yielded unexpected physiologic insights, perhaps the greatest of which is the discovery that proper metabolic function requires a previously unsuspected level of cooperation between the cells that make up each internal organ and that organ’s resident leukocytes.

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Sky Sirewest's curator insight, November 15, 2013 2:38 AM

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