Immunology for University Students
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Immunology for University Students
Resources and Material for Lecturers and Students - Immunology (University level)
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The Joint Vaccine Education Resource Center

The Joint Vaccine Education Resource Center | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it


Welcome to the Joint Vaccine Education Resource Center. Co-hosted by the American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Vaccine, this educational website has been designed to provide the latest information in the field of immunization. Here you will find an extensive selection of peer-reviewed articles selected from the literature, as well as links to valuable resources for scientists, clinicians, and their patients, all focused on the most commonly used vaccinations.

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You can find research papers, educational videos and much more. All about vaccines!!!

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Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness

Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof
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Highlights


  • Gut microbial composition affects immune system function.
  • The immune system influences host microbial populations.
  • Microbiota diversity and composition may impact upon vaccine efficacy.
  • A mechanistic understanding should inform future vaccination strategies.



Studies of the relationship between the microbiome and the development and function of the immune system are demonstrating novel concepts that could significantly alter the way we treat disease and promote wellness. Several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy/asthma, and diabetes, are associated with changes in composition of the microbiome. Recent findings suggest novel complex mechanisms by which the microbiome impacts immune cell development and differentiation. A major implication of these findings is that the composition of microbiome may ultimately affect vaccine efficacy. We explore here the potential role of the microbiome in vaccine responses in the context of our growing understanding of the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiota, resident immune cell populations, and systemic immunity.

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The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions | Vaccinews Blog

The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions | Vaccinews Blog | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
A belief in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories may have significant and detrimental consequences for children's health, new research from the University has shown.
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Daniel Jolley said: ‘This research is timely in the face of declining vaccination rates and recent outbreaks of vaccinated-against diseases in the UK, such as measles. Our studies demonstrate that anti-vaccine conspiracy theories may present a barrier to vaccine uptake, which may potentially have significant and detrimental consequences for children’s health.’


Go to PLOS one publication: http://www.vaccinews.net/downloads/blog/March_3.pdf 

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El movimiento antivacunas amenaza la salud mundial

El movimiento antivacunas amenaza la salud mundial | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Las vacunas son uno de los pilares básicos entre los que se asienta la medicina científica y la sanidad actuales.  Y aunque desde nuestra visión occidental marcada por el ideal de progreso y supera...
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Estamos llegando a límites insospechados. El movimiento anti-vacunas que últimamente está creciendo (por poner un ejemplo están llegando ya a Valencia las llamadas "small-pox parties") puede poner en jaque el sistema sanitario de muchos países.

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WHO | World Immunization Week 2013

WHO | World Immunization Week 2013 | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
World Immunization Week, April 2013: news, campaign materials, technical resources.
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Immunization averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year, providing protection from diphtheria, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), pneumonia, polio, rotavirus diarrhoea, rubella and tetanus. Yet, an estimated 22 million infants are not fully immunized with routine vaccines. There is an urgent need to better communicate the health benefits of vaccination and the dangers of not immunizing children.

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Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine

Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Medical researchers have discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease.
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A team of researchers from Université Laval, CHU de Québec, and pharmaceutical firm GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease. This major breakthrough, details of which are presented January 15 in an early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), opens the door to the development of a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and a vaccine to prevent the illness.

 

DIRECT LINK TO THE PNAS PAPER:

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/15/1215165110.abstract?sid=77e73b2c-8672-4359-897b-20c360c991b7

Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation with the detoxified ligand monophosphoryl lipid A improves Alzheimer’s disease-related pathologyJean-Philippe Michauda,Maxime Halléb,Antoine Lamprona,Peter Thériaulta,Paul Préfontainea,Mohammed Filalia,Pascale Tribout-Joverb,Anne-Marie Lanteigneb,Rachel Jodoinb,Christopher Cluffc,Vincent Brichardd,Rémi Palmantierd,Anthony Pilorgetb,Daniel Larocqueb,1, andSerge Rivesta,1
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The Science of Immunisation: questions and answers - AAS simple and informative brochure

The Science of Immunisation: questions and answers - AAS simple and informative brochure | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

The Science of Immunisation: questions and answers

 

This publication aims to address confusion created by contradictory information in the public domain. It sets out to explain the current situation in immunisation science, including where there is consensus in the scientific community and where uncertainties exist.

 

The document is structured around six questions:

1 What is immunisation?

2 What is in a vaccine?

3 Who benefits from vaccines?

4 Are vaccines safe?

5 How are vaccines shown to be safe?

6 What does the future hold for vaccination?

 

The Science of Immunisation: Questions and Answers was prepared by a Working Group of eight members, co-chaired by Professors Tony Basten AO FAA FTSE and Ian Frazer AC FAA FRS FTSE. The document was also reviewed by an Oversight Committee chaired by Sir Gus Nossal AO CBE FAA FRS FTSE.

 

Link to de low resolution booklet:

http://www.science.org.au/policy/documents/AAS_Immunisation_FINAL_LR_v3.pdf

 

Link to the high resolution booklet:

http://www.science.org.au/policy/documents/AAS_Immunisation_FINAL_HR_v3.pdf

 

 

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If helper T cells have nothing to help, they kill their host

If helper T cells have nothing to help, they kill their host | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
For vaccines, CD4+ T cells can spell trouble

The ideal vaccine elicits immune memory—either antibodies or memory T cells—to protect the host from subsequent infections. T cell–mediated immunity requires both helper CD4+ T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells. But what happens when a vaccine only elicits CD4+ memory T cells? Penaloza-MacMaster et al. probed this question by giving mice a vaccine that generated only memory CD4+ T cells against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Instead of protecting mice against chronic LCMV, vaccinated mice developed massive inflammation and died. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells or antibodies protected mice from the pathology. These results may have implications for vaccines against chronic viruses such as HIV.

Science 16 January 2015: 
Vol. 347 no. 6219 pp. 278-282 
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa2148

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CD4 T cells promote innate and adaptive immune responses, but how vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells contribute to immune protection remains unclear. We evaluated whether induction of virus-specific CD4 T cells by vaccination would protect mice against infection with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Immunization with vaccines that selectively induced CD4 T cell responses resulted in catastrophic inflammation and mortality after challenge with a persistent strain of LCMV. Immunopathology required antigen-specific CD4 T cells and was associated with a cytokine storm, generalized inflammation, and multi-organ system failure. Virus-specific CD8 T cells or antibodies abrogated the pathology. These data demonstrate that vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells in the absence of effective antiviral immune responses can trigger lethal immunopathology.

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First Tests of Ebola Vaccine Appear at Least a Month Away - Bloomberg

First Tests of Ebola Vaccine Appear at Least a Month Away - Bloomberg | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Bloomberg First Tests of Ebola Vaccine Appear at Least a Month Away Bloomberg It would be risky to perform initial safety trials of a Ebola vaccine in Africa where patients may be far from a good hospital that can provide modern medical care should...
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There is no cure for Ebola. The virus has killed 1,069 of 1,975 people afflicted in the four West African nations as of Aug. 11, the WHO said yesterday.

The disease is normally treated by keeping patients hydrated, replacing lost blood and using antibiotics to fight opportunistic infections. The hope is that a patient’s immune system will eventually fight off the virus’s aggressive attack.

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The weak link: adult immunisations

The weak link: adult immunisations | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Adults account for 95 percent of individuals who die from vaccine-preventable diseases (The weak link: adult immunisations. Adults account for 95% of individuals who die from vaccine-preventable diseases.
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Adults account for 95 percent of individuals who die from vaccine-preventable diseases. Yet vaccination rates among adults remain “very low”. The latest feature film from Chain of Protection discusses the importance and need for adult immunisation in the fight against preventable infectious diseases.

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The Quest for an HIV-1 Vaccine — Moving Forward — NEJM

The Quest for an HIV-1 Vaccine — Moving Forward — NEJM | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Perspective from The New England Journal of Medicine — The Quest for an HIV-1 Vaccine — Moving Forward 

Dan H. Barouch, M.D., Ph.D.

N Engl J Med 2013; 369:2073-2076

November 28, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1312711

Alfredo Corell's insight:

Testing only four HIV-1 vaccine concepts for clinical efficacy over the past three decades is insufficient given the scope of the global HIV-1 epidemic. We clearly need more “shots on goal.” We should therefore accelerate the advancement of a diverse series of novel and promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates into clinical efficacy trials over the next several years.

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.: VacciNews - Facts about vaccination and immunization :.

.: VacciNews - Facts about vaccination and immunization :. | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
VacciNews.net provides up-to-date information to the public, media, health professionals and policy makers to help them understand the facts about vaccines and immunization.
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Great web page with all necessary information for the public and for professionals.

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History of Medical Discoveries: a "must" visit for any Student in Medicine or Biology

History of Medical Discoveries: a "must" visit for any Student in Medicine or Biology | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Explore an interactive timeline of the history of medical discoveries and modern medicine.  Each medical image links to historical medical information and articles published in NEJM.
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Diphteria vaccine in 1913,

Spanish Influenza Pandemic 1918

.... and so on.... to our days

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