Immunology for University Students
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Immunology for University Students
Resources and Material for Lecturers and Students - Immunology (University level)
Curated by Alfredo Corell
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Can antibiotics cause autoimmunity?

Can antibiotics cause autoimmunity? | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
A certain class of antibiotics prompts cells to produce low levels of novel self proteins that could trigger an autoimmune disease, research suggests.
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Link to the PNAS journal: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/03/26/1402670111 


Significance

Many genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis, are caused by a defective protein resulting from a premature termination codon (PTC) in the mutant gene. Aminoglycosides have been proposed as therapies for these disorders because they increase the frequency of translational read-through of PTCs, permitting expression of full-length protein. We consider the possibility that this approach may prompt an autoimmune response to HLA-presented epitopes encoded downstream of the PTC or other stop codons. We demonstrate that gentamicin induces immunologically relevant levels of an epitope derived from PTC read-through. Furthermore, we identify multiple HLA class I-binding peptides derived from read-through of conventional stop codons in gentamicin-treated cells. These results substantiate the possibility of immune autoreactivity from read-through therapies.

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Natural killer cells help to tolerate fetus during pregnacy by regulating inflammatory TH17 cells at the maternal-fetal interface

Natural killer cells help to tolerate fetus during pregnacy by regulating inflammatory TH17 cells at the maternal-fetal interface | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
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Binqing Fua,Xianchang Lib,c,Rui Suna,Xianhong Tongd,Bin Lingd,Zhigang Tiana,1, andHaiming Weia,1

 

Natural killer (NK) cells accumulate at the maternal–fetal interface in large numbers, but their exact roles in successful pregnancy remain poorly defined. Here, we provide evidence that TH17 cells and local inflammation can occur at the maternal–fetal interface during natural allogenic pregnancies. We found that decidual NK cells promote immune tolerance and successful pregnancy by dampening inflammatory TH17 cells via IFN-γ secreted by the CD56brightCD27+ NK subset. This NK-cell–mediated regulatory response is lost in patients who experience recurrent spontaneous abortions, which results in a prominent TH17 response and extensive local inflammation. This local inflammatory response further affects the regulatory function of NK cells, leading to the eventual loss of maternal-fetal tolerance. Thus, our data identify NK cells as key regulatory cells at the maternal–fetal interface by suppressing TH17-mediated local inflammation.

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Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine

Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Medical researchers have discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease.
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A team of researchers from Université Laval, CHU de Québec, and pharmaceutical firm GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease. This major breakthrough, details of which are presented January 15 in an early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), opens the door to the development of a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and a vaccine to prevent the illness.

 

DIRECT LINK TO THE PNAS PAPER:

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/15/1215165110.abstract?sid=77e73b2c-8672-4359-897b-20c360c991b7

Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation with the detoxified ligand monophosphoryl lipid A improves Alzheimer’s disease-related pathologyJean-Philippe Michauda,Maxime Halléb,Antoine Lamprona,Peter Thériaulta,Paul Préfontainea,Mohammed Filalia,Pascale Tribout-Joverb,Anne-Marie Lanteigneb,Rachel Jodoinb,Christopher Cluffc,Vincent Brichardd,Rémi Palmantierd,Anthony Pilorgetb,Daniel Larocqueb,1, andSerge Rivesta,1
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