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Immunology for University Students
Resources and Material for Lecturers and Students - Immunology (University level)
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Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness

Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof
Alfredo Corell's insight:


Highlights


  • Gut microbial composition affects immune system function.
  • The immune system influences host microbial populations.
  • Microbiota diversity and composition may impact upon vaccine efficacy.
  • A mechanistic understanding should inform future vaccination strategies.



Studies of the relationship between the microbiome and the development and function of the immune system are demonstrating novel concepts that could significantly alter the way we treat disease and promote wellness. Several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy/asthma, and diabetes, are associated with changes in composition of the microbiome. Recent findings suggest novel complex mechanisms by which the microbiome impacts immune cell development and differentiation. A major implication of these findings is that the composition of microbiome may ultimately affect vaccine efficacy. We explore here the potential role of the microbiome in vaccine responses in the context of our growing understanding of the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiota, resident immune cell populations, and systemic immunity.

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Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease

Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
This month's featured article is on the intestinal microbiota: http://t.co/giUTDnF2sU
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Review

Nature Reviews Immunology 13, 321-335 (May 2013) | doi:10.1038/nri3430

Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease

Nobuhiko Kamada1, Sang-Uk Seo1, Grace Y. Chen2 & Gabriel Núñez

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ScienceDirect.com - Immunity - Innate Lymphoid Cell Interactions with Microbiota: Implications for Intestinal Health and Disease

ScienceDirect.com - Immunity - Innate Lymphoid Cell Interactions with Microbiota: Implications for Intestinal Health and Disease | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Innate Lymphoid Cell Interactions with Microbiota: Implications for Intestinal Health and Disease

Gregory F. Sonnenberg1, , ,David Artis1, 2, ,

1 Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA2 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2012.10.003

 

The mammalian intestine harbors trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are essential for the development of the immune system and for maintenance of physiologic processes in multiple organs. However, numerous chronic infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases in humans have been associated with alterations in the composition or localization of commensal bacteria that result in dysregulated host-commensal bacteria relationships. The mammalian immune system plays an essential role in regulating the acquisition, composition, and localization of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Emerging research has implicated innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as a critical immune cell population that orchestrates some of these host-commensal bacteria relationships that can impact immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis in the intestine. This review will discuss reciprocal interactions between intestinal commensal bacteria and ILCs in the context of health and disease.

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Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells http://t.co/ZTBwPJrLpH
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A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota.
Read more at http://ivancevichmd.blogspot.com/2014/07/immunomodulation-by-gut-microbiota-role.html#uJoxPLxwCzjbUuEo.99

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Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli

Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Peter van Baarlen, Jerry M. Wells, Michiel Kleerebezem. The gut microbiota provide important stimuli to the human innate and adaptive immune system and co-mediate metabolic and immune homeostasis.
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The gut microbiota provide important stimuli to the human innate and adaptive immune system and co-mediate metabolic and immune homeostasis. Probiotic bacteria can be regarded as part of the natural human microbiota, and have been associated with improving homeostasis, albeit with different levels of success. Composition of microbiota, probiotic strain identity, and host genetic differences may account for differential modulation of immune responses by probiotics. Here, we review the mechanisms of immunomodulating capacities of specific probiotic strains, the responses they can induce in the host, and how microbiota and genetic differences between individuals may co-influence host responses and immune homeostasis.

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