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Immunology for University Students
Resources and Material for Lecturers and Students - Immunology (University level)
Curated by Alfredo Corell
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Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness

Influence of the microbiota on vaccine effectiveness | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof
Alfredo Corell's insight:


Highlights


  • Gut microbial composition affects immune system function.
  • The immune system influences host microbial populations.
  • Microbiota diversity and composition may impact upon vaccine efficacy.
  • A mechanistic understanding should inform future vaccination strategies.



Studies of the relationship between the microbiome and the development and function of the immune system are demonstrating novel concepts that could significantly alter the way we treat disease and promote wellness. Several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy/asthma, and diabetes, are associated with changes in composition of the microbiome. Recent findings suggest novel complex mechanisms by which the microbiome impacts immune cell development and differentiation. A major implication of these findings is that the composition of microbiome may ultimately affect vaccine efficacy. We explore here the potential role of the microbiome in vaccine responses in the context of our growing understanding of the relationship between the gastrointestinal microbiota, resident immune cell populations, and systemic immunity.

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Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells

Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells http://t.co/ZTBwPJrLpH
Alfredo Corell's insight:

A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota.
Read more at http://ivancevichmd.blogspot.com/2014/07/immunomodulation-by-gut-microbiota-role.html#uJoxPLxwCzjbUuEo.99

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Can antibiotics cause autoimmunity?

Can antibiotics cause autoimmunity? | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
A certain class of antibiotics prompts cells to produce low levels of novel self proteins that could trigger an autoimmune disease, research suggests.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Link to the PNAS journal: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/03/26/1402670111 


Significance

Many genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis, are caused by a defective protein resulting from a premature termination codon (PTC) in the mutant gene. Aminoglycosides have been proposed as therapies for these disorders because they increase the frequency of translational read-through of PTCs, permitting expression of full-length protein. We consider the possibility that this approach may prompt an autoimmune response to HLA-presented epitopes encoded downstream of the PTC or other stop codons. We demonstrate that gentamicin induces immunologically relevant levels of an epitope derived from PTC read-through. Furthermore, we identify multiple HLA class I-binding peptides derived from read-through of conventional stop codons in gentamicin-treated cells. These results substantiate the possibility of immune autoreactivity from read-through therapies.

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Intestinal epithelial cells: regulators of barrier function and immune homeostasis

Intestinal epithelial cells: regulators of barrier function and immune homeostasis | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Nature Reviews Immunology 14, 141 (2014).
doi:10.1038/nri3608
Authors: Lance W.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

The abundance of innate and adaptive immune cells that reside together with trillions of beneficial commensal microorganisms in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract requires barrier and regulatory mechanisms that conserve host–microbial interactions and tissue homeostasis. This homeostasis depends on the diverse functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which include the physical segregation of commensal bacteria and the integration of microbial signals. Hence, IECs are crucial mediators of intestinal homeostasis that enable the establishment of an immunological environment permissive to colonization by commensal bacteria. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive overview of how IECs maintain host–commensal microbial relationships and immune cell homeostasis in the intestine.


Free download with registration: http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v14/n3/pdf/nri3608.pdf 

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Obtienen nanocápsulas con actividad antitumoral en líneas celulares de cáncer de mama

Obtienen nanocápsulas con actividad antitumoral en líneas celulares de cáncer de mama | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
SINC, Servicio de Información y Noticias Científicas, plataforma multimedia de comunicación científica (Obtienen nanocápsulas con actividad antitumoral en líneas celulares de cáncer de mama http://t.co/AZYAuzAGh4)...
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Enlace al artículo científico:

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bm401103t 

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Innate immunity: The inside story on complement activation

Innate immunity: The inside story on complement activation | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY | RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT

INNATE IMMUNITY

The inside story on complement activation

Nature Reviews Immunology 1461 (2014)
 
doi:10.1038/nri3603
Alfredo Corell's insight:

The evolutionarily ancient complement system might have started life as an intracellular activation pathway rather than as a liver-derived serum effector cascade. 

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Taking probiotics during pregnancy has no effect on asthma rate amoung infants - Meta-analysis

Taking probiotics during pregnancy has no effect on asthma rate amoung infants - Meta-analysis | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
AbstractObjective To evaluate the association of probiotic supplementation during pregnancy or infancy with childhood asthma and wheeze.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, and...
Alfredo Corell's insight:

BMJ. 2013 Dec 4;347:f6471. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f6471.Probiotic supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis.Azad MB, Coneys JG, Kozyrskyj AL, Field CJ, Ramsey CD, Becker AB, Friesen C, Abou-Setta AM, Zarychanski R.

 

 

 

Conclusions We found no evidence to support a protective association between perinatal use of probiotics and doctor diagnosed asthma or childhood wheeze. Randomised controlled trials to date have not yielded sufficient evidence to recommend probiotics for the primary prevention of these disorders. Extended follow-up of existing trials, along with further clinical and basic research, are needed to accurately define the role of probiotics in the prevention of childhood asthma.

 

Press news:http://www.news-medical.net/news/20131209/Taking-probiotics-during-pregnancy-has-no-effect-on-asthma-rate-amoung-infants.aspx ;

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Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease

Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
This month's featured article is on the intestinal microbiota: http://t.co/giUTDnF2sU
Alfredo Corell's insight:
Review

Nature Reviews Immunology 13, 321-335 (May 2013) | doi:10.1038/nri3430

Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease

Nobuhiko Kamada1, Sang-Uk Seo1, Grace Y. Chen2 & Gabriel Núñez

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Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli

Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Peter van Baarlen, Jerry M. Wells, Michiel Kleerebezem. The gut microbiota provide important stimuli to the human innate and adaptive immune system and co-mediate metabolic and immune homeostasis.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

The gut microbiota provide important stimuli to the human innate and adaptive immune system and co-mediate metabolic and immune homeostasis. Probiotic bacteria can be regarded as part of the natural human microbiota, and have been associated with improving homeostasis, albeit with different levels of success. Composition of microbiota, probiotic strain identity, and host genetic differences may account for differential modulation of immune responses by probiotics. Here, we review the mechanisms of immunomodulating capacities of specific probiotic strains, the responses they can induce in the host, and how microbiota and genetic differences between individuals may co-influence host responses and immune homeostasis.

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Autophagy in Immunity and Cell-Autonomous Defense Against Intracellular Microbes

Autophagy in Immunity and Cell-Autonomous Defense Against Intracellular Microbes | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Excellent Review about Autophagy suggested by one of my Immunology Students (Jorge Gonzalez Zamora) at the University of Valladolid

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Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine

Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Medical researchers have discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

A team of researchers from Université Laval, CHU de Québec, and pharmaceutical firm GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease. This major breakthrough, details of which are presented January 15 in an early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), opens the door to the development of a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and a vaccine to prevent the illness.

 

DIRECT LINK TO THE PNAS PAPER:

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/15/1215165110.abstract?sid=77e73b2c-8672-4359-897b-20c360c991b7

Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation with the detoxified ligand monophosphoryl lipid A improves Alzheimer’s disease-related pathologyJean-Philippe Michauda,Maxime Halléb,Antoine Lamprona,Peter Thériaulta,Paul Préfontainea,Mohammed Filalia,Pascale Tribout-Joverb,Anne-Marie Lanteigneb,Rachel Jodoinb,Christopher Cluffc,Vincent Brichardd,Rémi Palmantierd,Anthony Pilorgetb,Daniel Larocqueb,1, andSerge Rivesta,1
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Natural killer cells help to tolerate fetus during pregnacy by regulating inflammatory TH17 cells at the maternal-fetal interface

Natural killer cells help to tolerate fetus during pregnacy by regulating inflammatory TH17 cells at the maternal-fetal interface | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Alfredo Corell's insight:
Binqing Fua,Xianchang Lib,c,Rui Suna,Xianhong Tongd,Bin Lingd,Zhigang Tiana,1, andHaiming Weia,1

 

Natural killer (NK) cells accumulate at the maternal–fetal interface in large numbers, but their exact roles in successful pregnancy remain poorly defined. Here, we provide evidence that TH17 cells and local inflammation can occur at the maternal–fetal interface during natural allogenic pregnancies. We found that decidual NK cells promote immune tolerance and successful pregnancy by dampening inflammatory TH17 cells via IFN-γ secreted by the CD56brightCD27+ NK subset. This NK-cell–mediated regulatory response is lost in patients who experience recurrent spontaneous abortions, which results in a prominent TH17 response and extensive local inflammation. This local inflammatory response further affects the regulatory function of NK cells, leading to the eventual loss of maternal-fetal tolerance. Thus, our data identify NK cells as key regulatory cells at the maternal–fetal interface by suppressing TH17-mediated local inflammation.

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Mechanisms of peripheral tolerance to allergens

Mechanisms of peripheral tolerance to allergens | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Mechanisms of peripheral tolerance to allergensO. U. Soyer1,2,3,M. Akdis2,3,J. Ring3,4,H. Behrendt3,5,R. Crameri2,R. Lauener3,6,C. A. Akdis2,3,*

Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1111/all.12085

Alfredo Corell's insight:

The immune system is regulated to protect the host from exaggerated stimulatory signals establishing a state of tolerance in healthy individuals. The disequilibrium in immune regulatory vs effector mechanisms results in allergic or autoimmune disorders in genetically predisposed subjects under certain environmental conditions. As demonstrated in allergen-specific immunotherapy and in the healthy immune response to high-dose allergen exposure models in humans, T regulatory cells are essential in the suppression of Th2-mediated inflammation, maintenance of immune tolerance, induction of the two suppressive cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β, inhibition of allergen-specific IgE, and enhancement of IgG4 and IgA. Also, suppression of dendritic cells, mast cells, and eosinophils contributes to the construction of peripheral tolerance to allergens. This review focuses on mechanisms of peripheral tolerance to allergens with special emphasis on recent developments in the area of immune regulation.

 

Link to the pdf file:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.12085/pdf

 

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Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages: a unified nomenclature based on ontogeny.

Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages: a unified nomenclature based on ontogeny. | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Nature Reviews Immunology 14571–578 (2014)
 
doi:10.1038/nri3712 - Published online 18 July 2014
Alfredo Corell's insight:

ABSTRACT: The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) has historically been categorized into monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages on the basis of functional and phenotypical characteristics. However, considering that these characteristics are often overlapping, the distinction between and classification of these cell types has been challenging. In this Opinion article, we propose a unified nomenclature for the MPS. We suggest that these cells can be classified primarily by their ontogeny and secondarily by their location, function and phenotype. We believe that this system permits a more robust classification during both steady-state and inflammatory conditions, with the benefit of spanning different tissues and across species.

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The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions | Vaccinews Blog

The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions | Vaccinews Blog | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
A belief in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories may have significant and detrimental consequences for children's health, new research from the University has shown.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Daniel Jolley said: ‘This research is timely in the face of declining vaccination rates and recent outbreaks of vaccinated-against diseases in the UK, such as measles. Our studies demonstrate that anti-vaccine conspiracy theories may present a barrier to vaccine uptake, which may potentially have significant and detrimental consequences for children’s health.’


Go to PLOS one publication: http://www.vaccinews.net/downloads/blog/March_3.pdf 

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Immune System Strongly Tied to Children's Brain Development

Immune System Strongly Tied to Children's Brain Development | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

A young child’s immune system appears to have a significant effect on his or her brain development, according to a new study from the University of Virginia School of Medicine (UVA).

Alfredo Corell's insight:

“What is of the most interest and of a great novelty is the fact that [inflammation-fighting cytokines] have positive correlation with cognitive function. My lab published results showing that these IL-4 cytokines are required for proper brain function in mice, and this work from Dr. Petri’s lab completely independently shows similar correlation in humans.”


Link to the BMC publication http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/14/50/abstract 

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Identificado un nuevo mecanismo inmunológico clave para el desarrollo de vacunas

Identificado un nuevo mecanismo inmunológico clave para el desarrollo de vacunas | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Científicos del Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas han descrito un nuevo subtipo de células linfoides innatas esenciales para la producción de anticuerpos, un hallazgo que puede desembocar en el desarrollo de vacunas más eficaces contra las bacterias encapsuladas.

Alfredo Corell's insight:

Estas células linfoides innatas son la primera línea de defensa inmunológica de las superficies del cuerpo más expuestas a bacterias, como el intestino o la piel


Referencia bibliográfica:

Giuliana Magri, Michio Miyajima, Sabrina Bascones, Arthur Mortha, Irene Puga, Linda Cassis, Carolina M. Barra, Laura Comerma, Aleksey Chudnovskiy, Maurizio Gentile, David Llige, Montserrat Cols, Sergi Serrano, Juan Ignacio Aróstegui, Manel Juan, Jordi Yagüe, Miriam Merad, Sidonia Fagarasan & Andrea Cerutti. "Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells". Nature Immunology. DOI: 10.1038/ni.2830.


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Meta-analysisProbiotic supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis

Meta-analysisProbiotic supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Probiotic supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of asthma and wheeze: system... http://t.co/gP1CfCGOp0
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Conclusions We found no evidence to support a protective association between perinatal use of probiotics and doctor diagnosed asthma or childhood wheeze. Randomised controlled trials to date have not yielded sufficient evidence to recommend probiotics for the primary prevention of these disorders. Extended follow-up of existing trials, along with further clinical and basic research, are needed to accurately define the role of probiotics in the prevention of childhood asthma.
Read more at http://ivancevichmd.blogspot.com/2014/02/probiotic-supplementation-during.html#vCTo9712tLuWOjig.99

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Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy at home - Nursing Times

Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy at home - Nursing Times | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy at home
Nursing Times
... home, rather than with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy in hospital.

Alfredo Corell's insight:
5 KEY POINTSImmuno-globulins are antibodies prepared from plasma that help keep the body free from infectionBefore the introduction of antibiotics, patients diagnosed with antibody deficiency died prematurely from acute respiratory infectionsSubcutaneous immuno-globulin (SCIg) therapy reduces patients’ susceptibility to recurrent acute and chronic respiratory infectionsManaging their own treatment gives patients greater control over their condition and promotes concordanceDelivering SCIg therapy at home saves the NHS money and is popular with patients
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Regulation of Adaptive Immunity; The Role of Interleukin-10 | Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance

Regulation of Adaptive Immunity; The Role of Interleukin-10 | Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Frontiers | Regulation of Adaptive Immunity; The Role of Interleukin-10 | Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance publishes articles on the most outstanding discoveries across the research spectrum of Frontiers | Regulation of Adaptive Immunity; The...
Alfredo Corell's insight:
Front. Immunol., 31 May 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00129 

Regulation of adaptive immunity; the role of interleukin-10T. H. Sky Ng, Graham J. Britton, Elaine V. Hill, Johan Verhagen, Bronwen R. Burton and David C. Wraith*
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Todo sobre Superantigenos - Dermatología Peruana

Todo sobre Superantigenos - Dermatología Peruana | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

Los superantígenos son proteínas bacterianas y virales con capacidad de estimular gran número de células T; se conjugan con MHC-II de la célula presentadora de antígeno de manera diferente a los antígenos comunes, uniéndose a la subfamilia del V beta del TCR del linfocito T, siendo importante en el desencadenamiento de enfermedades sistémicas leves, intoxicación alimentaria o enfermedades severas como el síndrome del shock tóxico y síndrome de Kawasaki; algunas enfermedades cutáneas como la psoriasis y la dermatitis atópica; enfermedades autoinmunes como la artritis reumatoidea y la encefalomielitis alérgica experimental; deleción y apoptosis por superantígenos como el del Mitógeno de Mycoplasma artritidis (MAM), superantígenos virales como el del HIV-1; por ello la utilización de inmunoglobulinas endovenosas para controlar dichos cuadros, o la modificación de toxinas (superantígenos) constituyen avances importantes en el manejo de estas enfermedades autoinmunes.

Alfredo Corell's insight:

Muy buena revisión sobre superantígenos.

Algo antigua (1997)

DERMATOLOGÍA PERUANA - VOL. 7, Nº 1, ENERO  -  JUNIO  1997

 

SUPERANTIGENOS

Cortez F., Florencio*

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Current Opinion in Immunology - Innate and adaptive effects of inflammasomes on T cell responses

Current Opinion in Immunology - Innate and adaptive effects of inflammasomes on T cell responses | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Innate and adaptive effects of inflammasomes on T cell responses [Current Opinion in Immunology] http://t.co/ShoTXVIxDN
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Inflammasomes are protein complexes that form in response to pathogen-derived or host-derived stress signals. Their activation leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines and promotes a pyrogenic cell death process.

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gut CD4 T cells can switch to CD8 cytotoxic. Nat Immunol 20 january 2013

gut CD4 T cells can switch to CD8 cytotoxic. Nat Immunol 20 january 2013 | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it

CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are considered distinct functional lymphocyte subsets. Cheroutre and Mucida and their colleagues show that mature gut-associated CD4+ T cells lose ThPOK expression and reactivate CD8 cytolytic effector programs.

Alfredo Corell's insight:

Nature Immunology 20 january 2013

 

Article by Mucida et al: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ni.2523

 

Article by Reis et al:http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ni.2518

 

A summary of the findings at:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130120145844.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fhealth_medicine%2Fimmune_system+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Health+%26+Medicine+News+--+Immune+System%29&goback=.gde_2370476_member_206469340

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Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of human gamma-delta T cells

Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of human gamma-delta T cells | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
Cellular and Molecular Immunology aims to report the dynamic progress being made in China and abroad in immunological research, and welcomes high-quality Research Articles, Reviews and Brief Reports across a broad range of topics including, but not...
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2013) 10, 30–34; doi:10.1038/cmi.2012.42; published online 22 October 2012

Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of human γδ T cells

Nadia Caccamo1, Matilde Todaro2, Guido Sireci1, Serena Meraviglia1, Giorgio Stassi2 and Francesco Dieli1

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Cholesterol boosts the memory of the immune system

Cholesterol boosts the memory of the immune system | Immunology for University Students | Scoop.it
The memory of the human immune system is critical for the development of vaccines.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

The memory of the human immune system is critical for the development of vaccines. Only if the body recognizes a pathogen with which it has already come into contact in the case of a second infection, the immune system can combat it more effectively than it did the first time. The Freiburg immunobiologist Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schamel from the Institute of Biology III of the University of Freiburg and his colleagues have succeeded in demonstrating how the memory of the immune system functions. Their findings have now been published in the journals Immunity and Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC).


Direct Link to the JBC paper:

http://www.jbc.org/search?author1=Molnar+E&fulltext=&pubdate_year=&volume=&firstpage=&submit=yes


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