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Mice with up to 200 tumors completely cured of lung cancer using a gene therapy inhibiting c-myc

Mice with up to 200 tumors completely cured of lung cancer using a gene therapy inhibiting c-myc | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it

Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO) scientists eradicate lung tumours in a pre-clinical mouse model. Previous studies had already shown that Myc was a key protein in tumour development and had established how to inhibit Myc through gene therapy. The protein Myc is involved in the development of diverse tumours and so Myc-targeted therapy could make a positive contribution to the therapeutic options for different types of cancer.

 

The study has managed to eliminate mouse lung tumours by inhibiting Myc, a protein that plays a key role in the development of many different tumours. The results, published in the journal Genes & Development, confirm that repeated, long-term treatment does not cause side effects. Even more importantly, no resistance to treatment has been encountered, which is one of the biggest concerns with anticancer therapies. These results show that anticancer therapies based on Myc inhibition are a safe, effective therapeutic option in new drug development.

 

Myc is a protein that plays a big role in regulating gene transcription and it is involved in cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death - an essential part of regenerating tissues and eliminating damaged cells). It acts as a regulator gene that controls the expression of some 15% of human genes. However, imbalances in this protein bring about uncontrolled cell growth which in turn can lead to the onset of cancer in different tissues. In fact, deregulated Myc is found in most tumours, including cervical, breast, colon, lung and stomach cancer.

 

The work conducted by the Mouse Models of Cancer Therapy group at the VHIO, led by Dr Laura Soucek, shows that Myc can be controlled and inhibited through a mutant called Omomyc that hijacks Myc and prevents it from acting. “Even if we clearly identify a mechanism behind tumour development, it is still extremely complex to pinpoint how to intervene in cells' internal machinery or modify genetic processes,” explained Dr Soucek. “We have found a way to inhibit Myc through Omomyc,” she continued. “We induced Omomyc expression in mice through gene therapy and managed to activate and deactivate it by administering an antibiotic to the mice in their drinking water.”

 

In the study, multiple lung tumours were induced in the mouse (up to 200 tumours in each individual) and Myc inhibition episodes were achieved by activating Omomyc expression for 4-weeks, followed by 4-week rest periods. This therapy - known as metronomic therapy - was maintained for more than a year, regularly checking tumour progress in each mouse. All mice became tumour free after the first inhibition period, but 63% of cases then relapsed. After the second Myc inhibition period, only 11% of the initial tumours reappeared. According to Dr Soucek, “the most important finding was that there were no signs of resistance to treatment. This is one of the biggest disadvantages of many anticancer therapies: the disease develops resistance and can return even more aggressively.”

 

Finally, only two remaining tumours were found after more than one year of treatment among the mice that received eight inhibition and rest cycles. Dr Soucek found that Omomyc expression had been suppressed in these tumours, and this was the only adaptive mechanism that mice developed to treatment. “These results are hugely positive for us, because one year of life in a mouse is equivalent to almost 40 human years. The fact that the results are maintained over time, that there is no tumour relapse and no resistance, suggests that Myc-targeted therapy may offer an unprecedented way forward."

 

These encouraging results provide sufficient scientific evidence to consider taking the next step: inhibiting Myc in patients. “Now our challenge for the future is to make Myc inhibition feasible from a pharmacological point of view, so that it can be administered, and done so safely. This will be the last step before designing clinical trials with Myc inhibitors,” explained Dr Soucek. “We're so excited about reaching this turning point and I am quite certain that it will change the course of cancer therapy, despite there being a long road ahead.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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for students looking for PRO articles on animal based research.

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Infotext sources for middle school
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Examples of Static VS Dynamic Characters

Examples of Static VS Dynamic Characters | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Understand flat vs round characters. A long list of famous fictional flat and round characters, for students and comic book and fiction writers.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Take a look at this great list of characters put together by Tim Van De Vall.

OK, on the blog he calls them "flat/round" characters, but in English-Teacher-Speak he's describing static/dynamic characters. (Flat/round in ETS refers to the characters being developed or not by the author -- FLAT: those who exisit in the story to do one thing: push the main characters forward, vs. ROUND: those main characters who move, change, and "have a life" in the story.)

  

He's describing those main characters who are always who they were at the start vs. those main characters who grow or become better or worse throughout the story.

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The 8 Habits of Highly Successful Young-Adult Fiction Authors

The 8 Habits of Highly Successful Young-Adult Fiction Authors | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Best-selling writers including John Green and Veronica Roth share their strategies for crafting authentic, relatable teen characters—even in fantasy worlds.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Judge your book against this list of criteria from the Atlantic (or better yet, come up with your own list of criteria as a class, first!).

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Three Skeleton Key | Free Horror Story | Scary Website

Three Skeleton Key | Free Horror Story | Scary Website | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Three Skeleton Key by George G. Toudouze is a classic story of terror about three men who are in a lighthouse when it is attacked by a horde of ravenous
Chanelle Savich's insight:

OK, it's not info text. But it's nice and spooky for later in the year and I didn't want to lose the link.

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6 talks to watch for Book Lovers Day | TED Blog

6 talks to watch for Book Lovers Day | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
The Book. Few things are as universal, as ubiquitous and as transformative. On this Book Lovers Day, we’ve compiled talks...
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How to Make Your Classroom a Thinking Space

How to Make Your Classroom a Thinking Space | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Editor's note: The following is an excerpt from Thinking Through Project-Based Learning: Guiding Deeper Inquiry by Jane Krauss and Suzie Boss. It was published this month by Corwin.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

How can our learning environment be improved in order to improve our ability to learn and to address our learning styles?

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Looking into the future: A stem cell development to cure blindness | TED Blog

Looking into the future: A stem cell development to cure blindness | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Scientistshave achieved a breakthrough on the road to curing blindness this week. Here, a look at it, plus some TED Talks on sight.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Pair this (and suggested TED talks, below) with the book Crashing Through: The Extraordinary True Story of the Man Who Dared to See by Robert Kurson. Because of some sex, this is recommended only for 8th grade and up, but it's a fantastic story, plus they're married and love each other very much, and the scene is beautifully written.

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What Does Your Handwriting Say About You? | Visual.ly

What Does Your Handwriting Say About You? | Visual.ly | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it

Did you know that how you write can indicate more than 5,000 personality traits? The size of your letters, spacing between words, shapes of letters . . .

Chanelle Savich's insight:

Add to a unit on Perception. How do other people develop an opinion about me? Do I have to buy into other people's opinions of me?

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The Illustrious Omnibus of Super Powers 2 | Visual.ly

The Illustrious Omnibus of Super Powers 2 | Visual.ly | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Issue #2 of the universe's most extensive charting of superpowers. This deluxe Silver Age edition now features over 300 heroes, anti-heros, villains,
Chanelle Savich's insight:

To add interest to an inquiry unit on "What is a hero?" (Second chart)

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8 illuminating facts about clouds | TED Blog

8 illuminating facts about clouds | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
The Cloud Appreciation Society may be the first official organization to celebrate clouds, but they have been a source of fascination since 3,000 B.C.
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What if superpowers were real? A series of TED-Ed lessons explores the science of flight, super speed, invisibility and more | TED Blog

What if superpowers were real? A series of TED-Ed lessons explores the science of flight, super speed, invisibility and more | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Everyone fantasizes about what it would be like to have superpowers. However, not everyone considers the scientific ramifications.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

For a science inquiry unit, especially one culminating a year-long study of the different branches of science, one might show the first of these "what if superpowers were real?" videos, and then have the students take on another superpower and research it in a similar way, considering all of the ramifications of friction, atmosphere, body chemistry, and anything else which might be a "downside" to having the superpower or would make implementation of the superpower very difficult.

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Jok Church: A circle of caring | Video on TED.com

In this 3-minute talk, cartoonist and educator Jok Church tells a moving story of the teacher who cared for him when no one else did -- and how he returned the favor.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Inquiry unit on leadership, teachers, compassion, relationships

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Shane Koyczan: "To This Day" ... for the bullied and beautiful | Video on TED.com

By turn hilarious and haunting, poet Shane Koyczan puts his finger on the pulse of what it's like to be young and … different.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Inquiry unit on uniqueness, relationships, bullying

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Movie Themes - Star Wars, Science Fiction, Weddings, Prom, Beach & More

Movie themes by clip. Find clips by theme from themes like science fiction, weddings, prom, beach and more. Videos by theme from classic movies like Star Wars, Superman, Alien on MOVIECLIPS.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Video sources for inquiry units; watch out--inappropriate clips mixed in with appropriate ones!

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How to Create Characters - Character Motivation Examples

How to Create Characters - Character Motivation Examples | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Character motivation drives a character’s action, which in turn, drives the plot and the entire story. This post follows 2 examples of character motivation.
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Academy of Achievement Main Menu

Academy of Achievement Main Menu | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Acadamy of Achievement: Achiever Gallery
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How to Write the Shit Out of Something

How to Write the Shit Out of Something | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it

I’m not a writer, but I write a lot. I probably mangle the English language more often than I realize, but I’m not sure these mistakes really matter.

Chanelle Savich's insight:

OK, so you'll have to change the title on this one, at least a little, for middle school readers. But the content is great. Have them compare this professed non-professional-writer's POV with the writing instruction they're receiving. Have them react to the differences. 

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Click Your Fortune: TED-Ed’s choose-your-own-adventure look at career options | TED Blog

Click Your Fortune: TED-Ed’s choose-your-own-adventure look at career options | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it

Many of today’s top jobs didn’t exist 10 years ago. How can teachers and guidance counselors help prepare students for what's next?

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Eight Tips and Tricks to Redesign Your Classroom

Eight Tips and Tricks to Redesign Your Classroom | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
David Bill, who's spent the past three years helping teachers redesign classroom spaces, offers eight tips and tricks to remake your room.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

For an argument unit, why not explore remaking your classroom and have students write clear arguments why their design would be the best? They can think about how they like to learn, what equipment facilitates their learning the best, organization and use of space, etc. The three classes can write arguments, create a video presentation using the best essay from each class, the classes can analyze each other's ideas, vote for the best, and submit the winning proposal to the principal and PTO for funding.

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The upside of losing an argument and/or being wrong | TED Blog

The upside of losing an argument and/or being wrong | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Why do we need to be right, and get in the last word no matter what? Two fascinating TED Talks give permission to be wrong.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

What you learn from being on the losing end of an argument. Good to read prior to a debate or when writing argument essays.

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TED | Ads Worth Spreading | Meet the Super Humans

TED | Ads Worth Spreading | Meet the Super Humans | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it

In life, we all have obstacles to overcome. But, the champions of the Paralympics didn't let anything get in their way. This powerful ad shines a light on the incredible strength of human determination.

Chanelle Savich's insight:

For an inquiry unit on the topic of "What is a hero?" Here's another source for students to analyze as they build their list of criteria.

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The Illustrious Omnibus of Super Powers 1 | Visual.ly

The Illustrious Omnibus of Super Powers 1 | Visual.ly | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it

A taxonomic tree of over 100 wondrous powers and abilities, with over 200 superheroes and supervillains as examples thereof.

Chanelle Savich's insight:

To add interest to an inquiry unit on "What is a hero?" 

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Understanding George Zimmerman’s acquittal: Further reading | TED Blog

Understanding George Zimmerman’s acquittal: Further reading | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
George Zimmerman has been acquitted in the shooting of Trayvon Martin. Here, further reading for untangling this case.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Articles from many reputable sources covering the story of Trayvon Martin, race, gun ownership, fear and so many other aspects of the story.

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TED Radio Hour looks at the anatomy of a turning point | TED Blog

TED Radio Hour looks at the anatomy of a turning point | TED Blog | Infotext sources for middle school | Scoop.it
Your life’s turning point -- whether it happens in an instant or is the culmination of gradual change -- could occur tomorrow.
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Epiphanies, turning points -- how many times are these the bases for excellent novels? Here are real-life stories of unexpected turning points of four individuals and their responses in the aftermath, in audio format. Excellent for compare/contrast, extended definition, or for exploration of epiphanies in preparation for narrative writing. 

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Derek Sivers: How to start a movement | Video on TED.com

With help from some surprising footage, Derek Sivers explains how movements really get started. (Hint: it takes two.)
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Inquiry unit on leadership, group dynamics

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Karen Armstrong: Let's revive the Golden Rule | Video on TED.com

Weeks from the Charter for Compassion launch, Karen Armstrong looks at religion's role in the 21st century: Will its dogmas divide us? Or will it unite us for common good?
Chanelle Savich's insight:

Inquiry units on Equality, friendship, tolerance, compassion

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