Information, Complexity, Computation
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Information, Complexity, Computation
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Wanted: Broad, creative thinkers for resident faculty positions | Santa Fe Institute

Wanted: Broad, creative thinkers for resident faculty positions | Santa Fe Institute | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

The Santa Fe Institute is seeking nominations and applications for resident faculty positions. Full-time appointments are of highest priority. We are also seeking sabbatical visitors. ...

 

Apply by March 15, 2013

 

http://www.santafe.edu/news/item/resident-faculty-search-2013/


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ComplexInsight's curator insight, February 12, 2013 12:35 PM

Interested in working at the Santa Fe Institute - there is an open call for resident faculty. Click on the image or the title to learn more.

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Global Multi-Level Analysis of the ‘Scientific Food Web'

Global Multi-Level Analysis of the ‘Scientific Food Web' | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it
We introduce a network-based index analyzing excess scientific production and consumption to perform a comprehensive global analysis of scholarly knowledge production and diffusion on the level of continents, countries, and cities.

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Synthetic Population Dynamics

Synthetic Population Dynamics | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

Computer-simulated synthetic populations are used by researchers and policy makers to help understand and predict the aggregate behaviour of large numbers of individuals. Research aims include explaining the structural and dynamic characteristics of populations, and the implications of these characteristics for dynamic processes such as the spread of disease, opinions and social norms. Policy makers planning for the future economic, healthcare or infrastructure needs of a population want to be able to evaluate the possible effects of their policies. In both cases, it is desirable that the structure and dynamic behaviour of synthetic populations be statistically congruent to that of real populations. Here, we present a parsimonious individual-based model for generating synthetic population dynamics that focuses on the effects that demographic change have on the structure and composition of households.

 

Synthetic Population Dynamics: A Model of Household Demography
by Nicholas Geard, James M. McCaw, Alan Dorin, Kevin B. Korb and Jodie McVernon
http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/16/1/8.html


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Second-order metropolitan urban phase transitions

Second-order metropolitan urban phase transitions | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

The morphology evolution of Metropolitan Urban Areas constituted by different Central Business Districts is studied in this paper. For this matter, we propose a stochastic model which combines an initial percolation setting followed by a diffusion-limited aggregation mechanism. Our model mimics better than either case (percolation or diffusion-limited aggregation) the Metropolitan Urban Areas formation progress. We argue that the Metropolitan Urban Areas case introduced in this paper, grows in such a way that undergoes a non-equilibrium second-order phase transition during this process. This conclusion is supported by a fractal dimension and configurational entropy analysis, as well as by studying an empirical case.

 

Second-order metropolitan urban phase transitions
Roberto Murcio, , Antonio Sosa-Herrera, Suemi Rodriguez-Romo

Chaos, Solitons & Fractals
Volume 48, March 2013, Pages 22–31

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2013.01.001


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Emergent Sensing of Complex Environments by Mobile Animal Groups

Science 1 February 2013: 
Vol. 339 no. 6119 pp. 574-576 
DOI: 10.1126/science.1225883

 

ABSTRACT

The capacity for groups to exhibit collective intelligence is an often-cited advantage of group living. Previous studies have shown that social organisms frequently benefit from pooling imperfect individual estimates. However, in principle, collective intelligence may also emerge from interactions between individuals, rather than from the enhancement of personal estimates. Here, we reveal that this emergent problem solving is the predominant mechanism by which a mobile animal group responds to complex environmental gradients. Robust collective sensing arises at the group level from individuals modulating their speed in response to local, scalar, measurements of light and through social interaction with others. This distributed sensing requires only rudimentary cognition and thus could be widespread across biological taxa, in addition to being appropriate and cost-effective for robotic agents.

 


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Shady El Damaty's curator insight, February 4, 2013 6:22 AM

Fascinating paper published in February's edition of Science. We often consider intelligence as an emergent phenomena at the scale of individual organisms.  Yet, complex social systems and structures may also exhibit behavior reflecting the predispositions of its members as a whole.  Perhaps we can view the dynamics of societies from this scaled perspective to better understand the issues facing our modern society.

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BIOCOMPUTATION: some history and prospects

At first glance, Biology and Computer Science are diametrically opposed sciences. Biology deals with carbon based life forms shaped by evolution and natural selection. Computer Science deals with electronic machines designed by engineers and guided by mathematical algorithms. In this brief paper, we review biologically inspired computing.


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The evolutionary origins of modularity

A central biological question is how natural organisms are so evolvable (capable of quickly adapting to new environments). A key driver of evolvability is the widespread modularity of biological networks—their organization as functional, sparsely connected subunits—but there is no consensus regarding why modularity itself evolved. Although most hypotheses assume indirect selection for evolvability, here we demonstrate that the ubiquitous, direct selection pressure to reduce the cost of connections between network nodes causes the emergence of modular networks. Computational evolution experiments with selection pressures to maximize network performance and minimize connection costs yield networks that are significantly more modular and more evolvable than control experiments that only select for performance. These results will catalyse research in numerous disciplines, such as neuroscience and genetics, and enhance our ability to harness evolution for engineering purposes.


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Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals

Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

The green and red lights of a traffic signal can be viewed as the up and down states of an Ising spin. Moreover, traffic signals in a city interact with each other, if they are controlled in a decentralised way. In this paper, a simple model of such interacting signals on a finite-size two-dimensional lattice is shown to have Ising-like dynamics that undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition. Probabilistic behaviour of the model is realised by chaotic billiard dynamics that arises from coupled non-chaotic elements. This purely deterministic model is expected to serve as a starting point for considering statistical mechanics of traffic signals.

 

Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals

Hideyuki Suzuki, Jun-ichi Imura & Kazuyuki Aihara

Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1127 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep01127


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Self-organization and entropy reduction in a living cell

In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state.


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Perspectives on a Hyperconnected World: Insights from the Science of Complexity

by the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Complex Systems

 

Every day our world becomes more complex and dynamic. The global population continues to rise with urbanization occurring at an exponential rate. Economic growth brings people from diverse cultures and regions into contact with one another through increased trade and travel. The Internet and social media now seem to connect each person to everyone else, and to make information available to all.


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Ellie Kesselman Wells's comment, January 27, 2013 1:43 PM
They were quite wise not to explicitly mention Davos. This is what should be discussed at Davos, not celebrity photos! Thank you for sharing with us, Dr. Nooo!
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Antibiotic 'apocalypse' warning

Antibiotic 'apocalypse' warning | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it
The rise in drug resistant infections is comparable to the threat of global warming, according to the chief medical officer for England.

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ComplexInsight's curator insight, January 24, 2013 11:00 AM

Perhaps appropriate that Prof Sally Davies used the comparison to global warming in that at least popular press coverage of antibiotic resitatnce tends to either saw from the dismissive to the apocalyptic. Good interview by the BBC - worth reading.

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Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trail

The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

 


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4th Workshop on Cellular Automata Algorithms & Architectures (CAAA 2013) 

4th Workshop on Cellular Automata Algorithms & Architectures (CAAA 2013)  | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it
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Dataset of 13 billion clicks available | Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research

Dataset of 13 billion clicks available | Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

To foster the study of the structure and dynamics of Web traffic networks, we are making available to the research community a large Click Dataset of about 13 billion HTTP requests collected at Indiana University. During about seven months of collection in 2006-2007, our system generated data at a rate of about 60 million requests per day, or about 30 GB/day of raw data. We hope that this data will help develop a better understanding of user behavior online and create more realistic models of Web traffic. The potential applications of this data include improved designs for networks, sites, and server software; more accurate forecasting of traffic trends; classification of sites based on the patterns of activity they inspire; and improved ranking algorithms for search results.


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Fil Menczer's comment, January 31, 2013 9:24 AM
Actually it turns out the dataset has 53+ billion records and it spans until 2010.
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The Positive Role of Parasites in the Origins of Life

One problem in the origins of life is how parasitic side-reactions can be mitigated. It is known that spatial self-organisation can help with this, making autocatalytic chemical systems more robust to invasion by parasitic species. In previous work we have shown that in such scenarios parasitic reactions can actually be beneficial. Here we demonstrate for the first time a system in which the presence of a parasitic autocatalytic cycle is not only beneficial but actually necessary for the persistence of its host. This occurs due to the effect the parasite has on the spatial organisation of the system; the host-parasite system is more stable than the host alone, despite the fact that the parasite’s direct effect on its host is purely negative. We briefly discuss the implications for the origins of life.


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You Can’t Put Old Wine in New Bottles: The Effect of Newcomers on Coordination in Groups

You Can’t Put Old Wine in New Bottles: The Effect of Newcomers on Coordination in Groups | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

A common finding in social sciences is that member change hinders group functioning and performance. However, questions remain as to why member change negatively affects group performance and what are some ways to alleviate the negative effects of member change on performance? To answer these questions we conduct an experiment in which we investigate the effect of newcomers on a group’s ability to coordinate efficiently. Participants play a coordination game in a four-person group for the first part of the experiment, and then two members of the group are replaced with new participants, and the newly formed group plays the game for the second part of the experiment. Our results show that the arrival of newcomers decreases trust among group members and this decrease in trust negatively affects group performance. Knowing the performance history of the arriving newcomers mitigates the negative effect of their arrival, but only when newcomers also know the oldtimers performance history. Surprisingly, in groups that performed poorly prior to the newcomers’ arrival, the distrust generated by newcomers is mainly between oldtimers about each other rather than about the newcomers.


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peoplemovin - A visualization of migration flows

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Immigration and Emmigration in countries, the figures could be alarming!

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Percolation Centrality: Quantifying Graph-Theoretic Impact of Nodes during Percolation in Networks

Percolation Centrality: Quantifying Graph-Theoretic Impact of Nodes during Percolation in Networks | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

A number of centrality measures are available to determine the relative importance of a node in a complex network, and betweenness is prominent among them. However, the existing centrality measures are not adequate in network percolation scenarios (such as during infection transmission in a social network of individuals, spreading of computer viruses on computer networks, or transmission of disease over a network of towns) because they do not account for the changing percolation states of individual nodes. We propose a new measure, percolation centrality, that quantifies relative impact of nodes based on their topological connectivity, as well as their percolation states. The measure can be extended to include random walk based definitions, and its computational complexity is shown to be of the same order as that of betweenness centrality. We demonstrate the usage of percolation centrality by applying it to a canonical network as well as simulated and real world scale-free and random networks.

 

Piraveenan M, Prokopenko M, Hossain L (2013) Percolation Centrality: Quantifying Graph-Theoretic Impact of Nodes during Percolation in Networks. PLoS ONE 8(1): e53095. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053095

 


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Episode 66- Kowloon Walled City

**Subscribe to the 99% Invisible podcast in iTunes or the podcatcher of your choice.**
Kowloon Walled City was the densest place in the world, ever.
(“Walled City Night Views (from SW Corner), 1987.”...
Eugene Ch'ng's insight:

I wondered if the city is self-sustaining and that there is an ecosystem economy in it. I also wonder how much information/signals flows out and into the boundary.

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Macro and Micro Environment for Diversity of Behaviour in Artificial Life Simulation : complexity.IO

Macro and Micro Environment for Diversity of Behaviour in Artificial Life Simulation : complexity.IO | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

The complexity of artificial life is produced not only via their genotype, but also by the environment that they thrive in. Past artificial life research focuses on the evolutionary behavior of artificial organisms from an intrinsic perspective of how concepts such as crossover and mutation increase the fitness of the organism, others focus on the emergent macrostate of a simulation that arises out of the local interaction of entities. This research aims to introduce an additional ‘affector’ into artificial life simulations, namely, an enhanced environment where an added dimension of complex behaviour can be produced through the use of environment emitters.

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John Scales's comment, February 1, 2013 8:30 PM
Very interesting stuff. This is not my field, but I've been interested since Tom Ray's Tierra work. May I ask a naive questions? Is there a definition of "life" that would non-trivially exclude computer simulations (anything from viruses, to Tierra-like systems)?
Eugene Ch'ng's comment, February 7, 2013 2:44 AM
Hey John, thanks for the post. There are three 'lifes' - 1) wet - biochemical, 2) soft - software-based (like this!), 3) hard - robotics. Depending on whether you are in the school of hard or soft artificial lifers, life can be defined beyond that of the bio-chemical agents.
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Video Article: Embracing Complexity

Video Article: Embracing Complexity | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it

Your grade ten math teacher probably wrote this several times on your tests: SIMPLIFY. And, for much of science, that’s part of the work: SIMPLIFY. The universe can be broken down into smaller and smaller chunks in an attempt to find its most basic level and functions. But what do you do when that doesn’t work? Complex systems that defy reduction are all around us, from the elaborate workings of an ant colony—which could never be predicted from the physiology of a single ant—to fluctuations in the financial system that can send ripples around the globe. When broken into their constituent pieces, examined and put back together, such systems do not behave as expected. The sum of the parts does not equal the whole

 

Interview to Raissa D’Souza by Graeme Stemp Morlock

http://www.fqxi.org/community/articles/display/174

 


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starwalker's curator insight, January 28, 2013 4:17 AM

"I firmly believe networks become more interdependent in time," says D’Souza. "We see the global economy becoming more interdependent. We see Facebook making everyone more interconnected. We’re relying increasingly on technologies like the Internet and communications networks, for instance, the smart-grid, a cyber-physical system. All these networks that used to operate more independently are now becoming more interconnected, and to me that is really a signature of time."

Simon Gifford's curator insight, January 31, 2013 3:37 AM

Lengthy but interesting

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Ecosystems perspective on financial networks: diagnostic tools

The economical world consists of a highly interconnected and interdependent network of firms. Here we develop temporal and structural network tools to analyze the state of the economy. Our analysis indicates that a strong clustering can be a warning sign. Reduction in diversity, which was an essential aspect of the dynamics surrounding the crash in 2008, is seen as a key emergent feature arising naturally from the evolutionary and adaptive dynamics inherent to the financial markets. Similarly, collusion amongst construction firms in a number of regions in Japan in the 2000s can be identified with the formation of clusters of anomalous highly connected companies.

 

Ecosystems perspective on financial networks: diagnostic tools

Eduardo Viegas, Misako Takayasu, Wataru Miura, Koutarou Tamura, Takaaki Ohnishi, Hideki Takayasu, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.5821


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Complexity, the science of cities and long-range futures

The emergence of a ‘science of cities’ provides the foundations for long-range futures research that may be applied to models of climate change, with a time horizon in excess of 150 years. The features of a complexity theory of cities have been developed at multiple levels with scientific analogies such as ecology, biology and physics. The following principles apply: 1. Complexity science unifies a wide variety of urban phenomena including emergence, technological evolution, civil phase transitions, macrolaws, and resilience to system failures and extreme events. 2. World urbanisation raises the number of levels in the urban hierarchy, with an increasing number of megacities with over 10 m inhabitants. 3. Urban development involves the institutional coordination of technological development with engineered transformations. 4. Civil and societal transitions arise with increasing per capita investment, such that some social norms and planning standards have consistent scaling factors across a range of city sizes for countries at similar stages of development. 5. The trajectory of the urban system depends upon the allometric pattern of growth for cities, and human settlements in 2150 will occupy less than 10% of the world's land area.

 

Complexity, the science of cities and long-range futures
Robert Hugh Samet

Futures

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2013.01.006


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ComplexInsight's curator insight, January 22, 2013 6:29 PM

Not sure I agree with the suggestions made but an interesting read to ponder on.

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Dung beetles guided by Milky Way

Dung beetles guided by Milky Way | Information, Complexity, Computation | Scoop.it
Scientists show how the lowly dung beetle will use the Milky Way's band of light in the night sky as a compass.

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ComplexInsight's curator insight, January 24, 2013 1:14 PM

Possibly my favourite science article of 2013 so far. It makes sense in terms of evolutionary adaption since astral light sources would be an evolutionary environmental constant so adapting to utilize them makes a lot of sense. Proving that dung beetles do this - is just a wow. cool artile worth reading. 

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Synergy between social and private information increases foraging efficiency in ants

Insect societies integrate many information sources to organize collective activities such as foraging. Many ants use trail pheromones to guide foragers to food sources, but foragers can also use memories to find familiar locations of stable food sources. Route memories are often more accurate than trail pheromones in guiding ants, and are often followed in preference to trail pheromones when the two conflict. Why then does the system expend effort in producing and acquiring seemingly redundant and low-quality information, such as trail pheromones, when route memory is available? Here we show that, in the ant Lasius niger, trail pheromones and route memory act synergistically during foraging; increasing walking speed and straightness by 25 and 30 per cent, respectively, and maintaining trail pheromone deposition, but only when used together. Our results demonstrate a previously undescribed major role of trail pheromones: to complement memory by allowing higher confidence in route memory. This highlights the importance of multiple interacting information sources in the efficient running of complex adaptive systems.

 


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John Herndon's curator insight, February 15, 2013 2:26 PM

Management lesson from nature: Encourage your employees to take your guidance to heart, but give them automony and safety to find their own path to get the job done. The individual's own approach may be more efficient and productive for their personality style. Promote sharing of lessons learned. This will form a self supporting guidance system which will become the foundation for the future individuals that need to complete a similar task.