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From Contagion to Incoherence: Toward a model of the unfolding Eurozone Crisis

From Contagion to Incoherence: Toward a model of the unfolding Eurozone Crisis | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it

 

 

 

 

 

 

This post offers readers a fully-fledged analytical model of the unfolding Eurozone Crisis. It begins with a macro-economic analysis of the Crisis’ causes and then, importantly, models the feedback between Europe’s institutional and policy responses and the contagion process that began with Greece. For the fully-fledged (wonkish) version of the paper,

 

 

 

click here ( http://varoufakis.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/from-contagion-to-incoherence-a-simple-macroeconomic-model-of-the-eurozone-crisis1.pdf ). What follows below is a maths-free summary of each of the paper’s sections.

 

[...]

 

 


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Trends sur l'influence et la contagion dans la cyberculture
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Handbook of Network Analysis | #SNA #taxonomy

Handbook of Network Analysis | #SNA #taxonomy | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it

Taxonomy of Networks

luiy's insight:

This is the Handbook of Network Analysis, the companion article to the KONECT (Koblenz Network Collection) project. This project is intended to collect network datasets, analyse them systematically, and provide both datasets and the underlying network analysis code to researchers. This article outlines the project, gives all definitions used within the project, reviews all network statistics used, reviews all network plots used, and gives a brief overview of the API used by KONECT.

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Knowledge Sharing #Tools and #Methods Toolkit - #SNA

Knowledge Sharing #Tools and #Methods Toolkit - #SNA | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it

"Social network analysis is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organisations, computers or other information/knowledge processing entities." (Valdis Krebs, 2002). Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a method for visualizing our people and connection power, leading us to identify how we can best interact to share knowledge.


Via jean lievens, Nevermore Sithole, João Greno Brogueira
luiy's insight:

When to use:Visualize relationships within and outside of the organization.Facilitate identification of who knows who and who might know what - teams and individuals playing central roles - thought leaders, key knowledge brokers, experts, etc.Identify isolated teams or individuals and knowledge bottlenecks.Strategically work to improve knowledge flows.Accelerate the flow of knowledge and information across functional and organisational boundaries.Improve the effectiveness of formal and informal communication channels.Raise awareness of the importance of informal networks.

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Karen du Toit's curator insight, September 15, 3:27 AM

A great wiki to check out about social network analysis

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Truthy: Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks | #influence #virality #SNA

Truthy: Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks | #influence #virality #SNA | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

The focus of this research project is understanding how information propagates through complex socio-technical information networks. Leveraging large-scale public data from online social networking platforms, we are able to analyze and model the spread of information, from political discourse to market trends, from news to social movements, and from trending topics to scientific results, in unprecedented detail.

 

We study how popular sentiment, user influence, attention, social network structure, and other factors affect the manner in which information is disseminated. Additionally, an important goal of the Truthy project is to better understand how social media can be abused, for example by astroturfing.

 

Our work to date includes a number of core research themes:

 

1. We study how individuals’ limited attention span affects what information we propagate and what social connections we make, and how the structure of social networks can help predict which memes are likely to become viral.

 

2. We explore social science questions via social media data analytics. Examples of research to date include analyses of geographic and temporal patterns in movements like Occupy Wall Street, societal unrest in Turkey, polarization and cross-ideological communication in online political discourse, partisan asymmetries in online political engagement, the use of social media data to predict election outcomes and forecast key market indicators, and the geographic diffusion of trending topics.

 

3. Truthy is an ensemble of web services and tools to demonstrate applications of our data mining research, from visualizing meme diffusion patterns to detecting social bots on Twitter.

 

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BeerBergman's curator insight, September 3, 5:45 PM

"luiy's insight:

The focus of this research project is understanding how information propagates through complex socio-technical information networks. Leveraging large-scale public data from online social networking platforms, we are able to analyze and model the spread of information, from political discourse to market trends, from news to social movements, and from trending topics to scientific results, in unprecedented detail.

 

We study how popular sentiment, user influence, attention, social network structure, and other factors affect the manner in which information is disseminated. Additionally, an important goal of the Truthy project is to better understand how social media can be abused, for example by astroturfing."

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A taxonomy of #clustering procedures | #datascience

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A Look Inside Those 1.1 Million Open-Internet Comments | #datascience #complexity #SNA

A Look Inside Those 1.1 Million Open-Internet Comments | #datascience #complexity #SNA | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
These cluster maps give us a two-dimensional look at the complex arguments Americans posted on the topic of net neutrality. One theme in the comments had to do with the American dream.
luiy's insight:

How To Read This Cluster Map

 

- Similar nodes typically cluster together and clusters are grouped by color

- Each node represents a news story; a node sized by degree represents number of connections (i.e., similarity) to other nodes

- Connections represent similar language used across nodes

- A node bridging two clusters can indicate a story that synthesizes multiple topics

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US #military studied how to #influence Twitter users in #Darpa-funded research

US #military studied how to #influence Twitter users in #Darpa-funded research | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
Defense Department spent millions researching users, including studies on Occupy and Middle East residents, and how to better spread propaganda

Via Pierre Levy
luiy's insight:

The activities of users of Twitter and other social media services were recorded and analysed as part of a major project funded by the US military, in a program that covers ground similar to Facebook’s controversial experiment into how to control emotions by manipulating news feeds.

 

Research funded directly or indirectly by the US Department of Defense’s military research department, known as Darpa, has involved users of some of the internet’s largest destinations, including Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Kickstarter, for studies of social connections and how messages spread.

 
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Mapping the Information #Economy: A Tale of Five Industries | #patterns #SNA

Mapping the Information #Economy: A Tale of Five Industries | #patterns #SNA | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it

At Box, we constantly measure customers’ engagement with our product to understand how to enhance user experience and help businesses be more productive and collaborative. With 25 million users at 225,000 businesses interacting with content 2.5 billion times quarterly, we have a unique vantage point on how enterprises in nearly every sector leverage the cloud.

luiy's insight:

But what, if anything, can the patterns in how businesses share information tell us about how they operate more generally? Zooming out, what might these patterns signal about entire industries and their relative preparedness for adapting to an increasingly information-driven economy? We’re entering an era where a company’s competitiveness is determined by its return on information – how democratized its access is, how fast it moves, and how quickly it can be updated and leveraged to generate value.

 

For our first Information Economy Report, we started by visually mapping the flow of information within customer organizations. Every red node represents an employee, every blue node an external collaborator, and every line a transfer of content, with thicker lines indicating more frequent sharing. The results were beautiful, and also telling.

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#Influence Explorer : explore how foreign entities influence #policy and public #opinion in the U.S. | #ddj

#Influence Explorer : explore how foreign entities influence #policy and public #opinion in the U.S. | #ddj | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
Influence Explorer connects the dots of political contributions on the federal and state level allowing you to track influence by lawmaker, company or prominent individual.
luiy's insight:

Foreign Influence Explorer

 

After months of research, technical development and manual data entry, we are proud to unveil Foreign Influence Explorer—a new database housed within Influence Explorer that lets users explore how foreign entities influence policy and public opinion in the U.S.

The data comes from the Department of Justice and is collected according to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, which places stringent reporting requirements on foreign governments, political parties, businesses and other organizations that aim to influence policy here in the States.

 

The new database also includes a feed of proposed arms sales documents from the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. This data is included because so much foreign lobbying revolves around arms sales, which creates a nexus of influence between countries that want to buy U.S. arms and U.S. manufacturers that want to sell them.

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Research: The #Emotions that Make Marketing Campaigns Go #Viral | by @kristintynski | #contagion

Research: The #Emotions that Make Marketing Campaigns Go #Viral | by @kristintynski | #contagion | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
Heat maps of viral content show what compels us to share.
luiy's insight:

Create content the strikes the correct emotional chords

 

While there is a good deal of evidence to suggest that strong emotions are key to viral sharing, there are a scarce few that indicate which emotions work best.

 

To this end, one of the best ways we’ve found to understand the emotional drivers of viral content is to map the emotions activated by some of the Internet’s most viral content.

 

In order to understand the best emotional drivers to use in the content we create, we looked at 30 of the top 100 images of the year from imgur.com as voted on Reddit.com (one of the top sharing sites in the world). We then surveyed 60 viewers to find out which emotions each image activated for them. We used Robert Plutchik’s comprehensive Wheel of Emotion as our categorization.

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How to Find the Best Connected Individual in Your Social Network | #SNA #influence

How to Find the Best Connected Individual in Your Social Network | #SNA #influence | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
Field experiments in rural India have revealed a cheap and simple way to find the best connected individuals in any social network–just ask the people.
luiy's insight:

Banerjee and co made their discovery by studying the network of links between individuals in 75 rural villages in southwest India. They measured these networks by asking people who they visited, who visited them, who they were related to, who they borrowed money from, who they lent money to, and so on.

 

They then asked people in 35 villages the following question: “If we want to spread information about a new loan product to everyone in your village, to whom do you suggest we speak?”

 

The results provide a fascinating insight into the knowledge humans build up about their social networks. When people answered this question (and substantial numbers didn’t), they unerringly identified central individuals within their village.

 

 

 

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#Stigmergic dimensions of Online Creative Interaction | #algorithms #memes

#Stigmergic dimensions of Online Creative Interaction | #algorithms #memes | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
This paper examines the stigmergic dimensions of online interactive creativity through the lens of Picbreeder. Picbreeder is a web-based system for collaborative interactive evolution of images. Th...
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luiy's curator insight, May 2, 2:56 PM

Creativity as stigmergy

 

If stigmergy happens when an agent’s effect on the environment “stimulates and guides” the work of others, then certainly creative communities must be subject to some kind of stigmergy. No creative endeavor exists in a vac- uum, and being inspired and stimulated by the work of another is so fundamental to creative communities of artists, academics, engineers, etc., that it is difficult to imagine these communities functioning any other way.

 

Closely related to the concept of stigmergy is the concept of self-organization. The reason that it is remarkable that one user’s work stimulates another’s is the emergence of patterns that appear as if that they could be centrally controlled. Often, a mix of direct communication and con- trol as well as emergent properties of the social structure give rise to collaborative creative activities. Fig. 4 suggests an informal ordering of the amount direct communication and coordination involved in several different types of creative processes, with emergent creative processes on the left end, and highly coordinated processes on the right

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Network #Research Centers - Social Network Analysis ( #SNA )

Network #Research Centers - Social Network Analysis ( #SNA ) | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it

Via ukituki
luiy's insight:

An open wiki of Network Research Centers, originally curated by John Maloney and Raffaele Vacca. It includes a list and a map of centers. Please use the NRC Submit Form to add or adjust entries in the list.

 

The map can be edited by anyone in Google Maps.  Note: In most cases, the "Year Created" variable (year in which the center was created) is an estimate based on the publication date of the oldest center publication listed in the center website. Please correct it if you have more accurate information on a specific center.


To be added to the site/wiki access lists contact Colabria. This open Website and curated lists are supported by your donations. 

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How Advanced #Socialbots Have Infiltrated Twitter | #influence #diffusion

How Advanced #Socialbots Have Infiltrated Twitter | #influence #diffusion | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
Automated bots can not only evade detection but gather followers and become influential among various social groups, say computer scientists who have let their bots loose on Twitter.

 

If you have a Twitter account, the chances are that you have fewer than 50 followers and that you follow fewer than 50 people yourself. You probably know many of these people well but there may also be a few on your list who you’ve never met.

 

So here’s an interesting question: how do you know these Twitter users are real people and not automated accounts, known as bots, that are feeding you links and messages designed to sway your opinions?

 

You might say that bots are not very sophisticated and so easy to spot. And that Twitter monitors the Twittersphere looking for, and removing, any automated accounts that it finds. Consequently, it is unlikely that you are unknowingly following any automated accounts, malicious or not.

 

If you hold that opinion, it’s one that you might want to revise following the work of Carlos Freitas at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil and a few pals, who have studied how easy it is for socialbots to infiltrate Twitter.

 

Their findings will surprise. They say that a significant proportion of the socialbots they have created not only infiltrated social groups on Twitter but became influential among them as well. What’s more, Freitas and co have identified the characteristics that make socialbots most likely to succeed.


Via Ashish Umre
luiy's insight:

The worry is that automated bots could be designed to significantly influence opinion in one or more of these areas. For example, it would be relatively straightforward to create a bot that spreads false rumors about a political candidate in a way that could influence an election.


...but with an estimated 20 million fake Twitter accounts already set up, Twitter’s researchers have plenty of data to work with.

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Investors Europe Stock Brokers's curator insight, September 1, 1:31 AM

Welcome to Investors Europe Mauritius Stock Brokers

@investorseurope Online Trading Paradigm

@offshorebroker Nominee Trading Accounts
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Strongly Connected Component | #SNA #datascience

Strongly Connected Component | #SNA #datascience | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

Graph connectivity is of special interest in networking, search, shortest path and many other applications.

 

Strongly connected directed graph has a path from all vertices to all vertices.

 

Strongly connected components (SCC) are the strongly connected subgraphs.

 

 - abe, fg, cd and h are the strongly connected subgraphs of G.

 

 

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graph-tool: Efficent network analysis with #python | #SNA #tools

graph-tool: Efficent network analysis with #python | #SNA #tools | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
graph-tool: Efficent network analysis with python
luiy's insight:

An extensive array of features is included, such as support for arbitrary vertex, edge or graph properties, efficient "on the fly" filtering of vertices and edges, powerful graph I/O using the GraphML, GML and dot file formats, graph pickling, graph statistics (degree/property histogram, vertex correlations, average shortest distance, etc.), centrality measures, standard topological algorithms (isomorphism, minimum spanning tree, connected components, dominator tree, maximum flow, etc.), generation of random graphs with arbitrary degrees and correlations, detection of modules and communities via statistical inference ,,,,,, 

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#Google matrix analysis of directed networks | #datascience #algorithms

#Google matrix analysis of directed networks | #datascience #algorithms | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

This review describes matrix tools and algorithms which facilitate classification and information retrieval from large networks recently created by human activity. The Google matrix formed by links of the network has typically a huge size. Thus, the analysis of its spectral properties including complex eigenvalues and eigenvec- tors represents a challenge for analytical and numerical methods. It is rather surprising, but the class of such matrices, belonging to the class of Markov chains and Perron-Frobenius operators, was practically not inves- tigated in physics. Indeed, usually the physical prob- lems belong to the class of Hermitian or unitary ma- trices. Their properties had been actively studied in the frame of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) (Akemann et al., 2011; Guhr et al., 1998; Mehta, 2004) and quantum chaos (Haake, 2010). The analytical and numerical tools developed in these research fields allowed to understand many universal and peculiar features of such matrices in the limit of large matrix size corresponding to many-body quantum systems (Guhr et al., 1998), quantum comput- ers (Shepelyansky , 2001) and a semiclassical limit of large quantum numbers in the regime of quantum chaos (Haake, 2010). In contrast to the Hermitian problem, the Google matrices of directed networks have complex eigenvalues. 

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Top 10 #algorithms in data mining | #datascience

luiy's insight:

This paper presents the top 10 data mining algorithms identified by the IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) in December 2006: C4.5, k-Means, SVM, Apriori, EM, PageRank, AdaBoost, kNN, Naive Bayes, and CART. These top 10 algorithms are among the most influential data mining algorithms in the research community. With each algorithm, we provide a description of the algorithm, discuss the impact of the algorithm, and review current and further research on the algorithm. These 10 algorithms cover classification clustering, statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, which are all among the most important topics in data mining research and development.

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#freeBook: Social Media Mining | #datascience #SNA #influence

#freeBook: Social Media Mining | #datascience #SNA #influence | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

The Social Media Mining book is published by Cambridge University Press in 2014. Please see Cambridge’s page for the book for more information or if you are interested in obtaining an examination copy.

 

Download a complete pre-publicaiton draft of the Social Media Mining book in PDF format. The reader is allowed to take one copy for personal use but not for further distribution (either print or electronically). The book is available for purchase from Cambridge University Press and other distribution channels.

 

You can also download each chapter below:

 

• Chapter 1. Introduction to social media mining

 

Part I: Essentials
• Chapter 2. Graph essentials
• Chapter 3. Network measures
• Chapter 4. Network models
• Chapter 5. Data mining essentials

 

Part II: Communities and Interactions
• Chapter 6. Community analysis
• Chapter 7. Information diffusion in Social Media

 

Part III: Applications
• Chapter 8. Influence and homophily
• Chapter 9. Recommendation in social media
• Chapter 10. Behavior analytics

 

Download the Bibliography

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Evolution of Online User Behavior During a Social Upheaval | #datascience #diregeziparki

Evolution of Online User Behavior During a Social Upheaval | #datascience #diregeziparki | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

Social media represent powerful tools of mass communication and information diffusion. They played a pivotal role during recent social uprisings and political mobilizations across the world. Here we present a study of the Gezi Park movement in Turkey through the lens of Twitter. We analyze over 2.3 million tweets produced during the 25 days of protest occurred between May and June 2013. We first characterize the spatio-temporal nature of the conversation about the Gezi Park demonstrations, showing that similarity in trends of discussion mirrors geographic cues. We then describe the characteristics of the users involved in this conversation and what roles they played. We study how roles and individual influence evolved during the period of the upheaval. This analysis reveals that the conversation becomes more democratic as events unfold, with a redistribution of influence over time in the user population. We conclude by observing how the online and offline worlds are tightly intertwined, showing that exogenous events, such as political speeches or police actions, affect social media conversations and trigger changes in individual behavior.

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Detecting #Emotional #Contagion in Massive Social #Networks

Detecting #Emotional #Contagion in Massive Social #Networks | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
luiy's insight:

Happiness and other emotions have recently been an important focus of attention in a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, economics, and neuroscience [1], [2], [3], [4]. Some of this work suggests that emotional states can be transferred directly from one individual to another via mimicry and the copying of emotionally-relevant bodily actions like facial expressions [5]. Experiments have demonstrated that people can “catch” emotional states they observe in others over time frames ranging from seconds to months [6], [7], and the possibility of emotional contagion between strangers, even those in ephemeral contact, has been documented by the effects of “service with a smile” on customer satisfaction and tipping [8].

 

Longitudinal data from face-to-face social networks has established that emotions as diverse as happiness [9], loneliness [10], and depression [11] are correlated between socially-connected individuals, and related work suggests that these correlations also exist online [4], [12], [13], [14], [15]. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether correlations in observational studies result from influencing the emotions of social contacts (contagion) or from choosing social contacts with similar emotions (homophily) [16].

 

Here, we propose an alternative method for detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks that is based on instrumental variables regression, a technique pioneered in economics [23]. In an experiment we would directly control each user's emotional expression to see what impact it has on their friends' emotional expression. However, since this is infeasible in our massive-scale setting, we identify a source of variation that directly affects the users' emotional expression (this variable is called an “instrument”). For this instrument, we use rainfall. Importantly, rainfall is unlikely to be causally affected by human emotional states, so if we find a relationship it suggests that rainfall influences emotional expression and not vice versa. We then measure whether or not the changes induced by the instrument predict changes in the friends' emotional expression. Instead of changing the user's emotion directly with an experimental treatment, we let rainfall do the work for us by measuring how much the rain-induced change in a user's expression predicts changes in the user's friends' expression.

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Experimental evidence of massive-scale #emotional #contagion through social networks | #datascience

Experimental evidence of massive-scale #emotional #contagion through social networks | #datascience | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others’ positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.

 

---------------------------------------

 

People who were exposed to fewer emotional posts (of either valence) in their News Feed were less expressive overall on the following days, addressing the question about how emotional expression affects social engagement online. This observation, and the fact that people were more emotionally positive in response to positive emotion updates from their friends, stands in contrast to theories that suggest viewing positive posts by friends on Facebook may somehow affect us negatively, for example, via social comparison (6, 13). In fact, this is the result when people are exposed to less positive content, rather than more.

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The evolution of #memes on Facebook | #SNA #contagion

The evolution of #memes on Facebook | #SNA #contagion | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

A meme is an idea that is readily transmitted from person to person. But we humans are not perfect transmitters. While sometimes we repeat the idea exactly, often we change the meme, either unintentionally, or to embellish or improve it. 

 

Take for example, the meme: 

“No one should die because they cannot afford health care, and no one should go broke because they get sick. If you agree, post this as your status for the rest of the day”. 

 

In September of 2009, over 470,000 Facebook users posted this exact statement as their status update. At some point someone created a variant by prepending "thinks that'' (which would follow the individual's name, e.g., “Sam thinks that no one…”), which was copied 60,000 times. The third most popular variant inserted "We are only as strong as the weakest among us'' in the middle. “The rest of the day” at one point (probably in the late evening hours) became “the next 24 hours”. Others abbreviated it to “24 hrs”, or extended it to “the rest of the week”.

 

 

Modeling memes as genes

 

So can memes really be modeled as genes? After all, Richard Dawkins originally coined the word "meme” to draw the analogy to genes when describing how ideas or messages replicate and evolve[1]. How would one test the hypothesis that memes undergo a process akin to biological evolution? First, tracing biological evolution is notoriously difficult because one must discern the lineage of specific genetic sequences through generations, without having the genetic sequence of many intermediate instances. But when studying Facebook memes, we have a very unique opportunity* to actually trace when copies and mutations occurred, and these are the two basic ingredients in the evolutionary process.

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Detecting Automation of Twitter Accounts Are You a Human, #Bot, or #Cyborg? | #contagion

luiy's insight:

We first conduct a set of large-scale measurements with a collection of over 500,000 accounts. We observe the difference

among human, bot, and cyborg in terms of tweeting behavior, tweet content, and account properties. Based on the measurement

results, we propose a classification system that includes the following four parts: 1) an entropy-based component, 2) a spam detection

 

component, 3) an account properties component, and 4) a decision maker. It uses the combination of features extracted from an

unknown user to determine the likelihood of being a human, bot, or cyborg. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates the efficacy of

the proposed classification system

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GLEAMviz.org – The GLEAM Simulator system | #dataviz #complexity #prediction

GLEAMviz.org – The GLEAM Simulator system  | #dataviz #complexity #prediction | Influence et contagion | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

The GLEAM Simulator system consists of the GLEAM Server and the GLEAMviz Client application.

 

The GLEAM Server uses GLEAM as the engine to perform the simulations. This server runs on high-performance computers managed by the GLEAM project.

 

The GLEAMviz Client is a desktop application through which users interact with the GLEAM Server. It provides a simple, intuitive and visual way to set up simulations, develop disease models, and evaluate simulation results using a variety of maps, charts and data analysis tools.

 

 

 Visualisation and analysis

 

GLEAMviz offers three types of visualization. The first shows the spread of the infection on a zoomable 2D map while charts show the number of new cases at various levels of detail.

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The selfish gene | #memes #book

luiy's insight:

 MEMES: THE NEW REPLICATORS 

 

"The new soup is the soup of human culture. We need a name for the new replicator, a noun that conveys the idea of a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation. 'Mimeme' comes from a suitable Greek root, but I want a monosyllable that sounds a bit like 'gene'. I hope my classicist friends will forgive me if I abbreviate mimeme to meme* If it is any consolation, it could alternatively be thought of as being related to 'memory', or to the French word meme. It should be pronounced to rhyme with 'cream'. 

 

Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making pots or of building arches. Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation. If a scientist hears, or reads about, a good idea, he passes it on to his colleagues and students. He mentions it in his articles and his lectures. If the idea catches on, it can be said to propagate itself, spreading from brain to brain. As my colleague N. K. Humphrey neatly summed up an earlier draft of this chapter:'... memes should be regarded as living structures, not just metaphorically but technically.* When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain, turning it into a vehicle for the meme's propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell. And this isn't just a way of talking—the meme for, say, "belief in life after death" is actually realized physically, millions of times over, as a structure in the nervous systems of individual men the world over.' "

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luiy's curator insight, May 31, 7:38 AM

 MEMES: THE NEW REPLICATORS 

 

"The new soup is the soup of human culture. We need a name for the new replicator, a noun that conveys the idea of a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation. 'Mimeme' comes from a suitable Greek root, but I want a monosyllable that sounds a bit like 'gene'. I hope my classicist friends will forgive me if I abbreviate mimeme to meme* If it is any consolation, it could alternatively be thought of as being related to 'memory', or to the French word meme. It should be pronounced to rhyme with 'cream'. 

 

Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making pots or of building arches. Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation.