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Old World globalization and the Columbian exchange: comparison and contrast

Old World globalization and the Columbian exchange: comparison and contrast | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

A recent paper by Jones et al. (Food globalization in prehistory, World Archaeology, 2011, 43(4), 665–75) explores a prehistoric ‘Trans-Eurasian’ episode of food globalization characterized by the long-distance exchange of starch crops. Drawing upon a comparison to the Columbian Exchange, they emphasize the role of fast-growing crops in optimizing productivity, giving minimal consideration to other drivers. Here we re-evaluate the sequence and timing of the Trans-Eurasian exchange and give greater consideration to the social dimensions of plant translocation. We outline a model for thinking about plant translocations that highlights the way the conceptualization and use of introduced plants changes through time, with social factors frequently dominating in the early stages.

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, December 15, 2012 12:20 PM

updated data, and debates, relating to when Chinese millets left China, wheat and barley arrived in China, and the spread of buckwheat. Plus some ideas for conceptualizing the social conext of food crop translocations.

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Indian Ocean Archaeology
Linking continents, cultures and biota through archaeology
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PLOS ONE: Population Genetic Structure and Isolation by Distance of Helicobacter pylori in Senegal and Madagascar

PLOS ONE: Population Genetic Structure and Isolation by Distance of Helicobacter pylori in Senegal and Madagascar | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Helicobacter pylori has probably infected the human stomach since our origins and subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. The genetic population history of H. pylori can therefore be used as a marker for human migration. We analysed seven housekeeping gene sequences of H. pylori strains isolated from 78 Senegalese and 24 Malagasy patients and compared them with the sequences of strains from other geographical locations. H. pylori from Senegal and Madagascar can be placed in the previously described HpAfrica1 genetic population, subpopulations hspWAfrica and hspSAfrica, respectively. These 2 subpopulations correspond to the distribution of Niger-Congo speakers in West and most of subequatorial Africa (due to Bantu migrations), respectively. H. pylori appears as a single population in Senegal, indicating a long common history between ethnicities as well as frequent local admixtures. The lack of differentiation between these isolates and an increasing genetic differentiation with geographical distance between sampling locations in Africa was evidence for genetic isolation by distance. The Austronesian expansion that started from Taiwan 5000 years ago dispersed one of the 10 subgroups of the Austronesian language family via insular Southeast Asia into the Pacific and Madagascar, and hspMaori is a marker for the entire Austronesian expansion. Strain competition and replacement of hspMaori by hpAfrica1 strains from Bantu migrants are the probable reasons for the presence of hspSAfrica strains in Malagasy of Southeast Asian descent. hpAfrica1 strains appear to be generalist strains that have the necessary genetic diversity to efficiently colonise a wide host spectrum.

 

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The early Swahili trade village of Tumbe, Pemba Island, Tanzania, AD 600-950

The early Swahili trade village of Tumbe, Pemba Island, Tanzania, AD 600-950 | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Antiquity Vol 87:338, 2013 pp 1151-1168 - Jeffrey Fleisher and Adria LaViolette - Indian Ocean maritime networks have become a special focus of research in recent years, with emphasis not only on the economics of trade but also the movement of domesticated plants and animals (see Fuller et al. in Antiquity 2011: 544–58). But did such contacts inevitably lead to radical social change? Excavations at Tumbe reveal a settlement of the late first millennium AD that was heavily engaged in the traffic in exotic materials and may have been producing shell beads for export. This activity seems to have flourished within a domestic context in a village setting, however, and does not seem to have stimulated pronounced social stratification nor to have led inexorably towards urbanisation. These results demonstrate that some communities were able to establish a stable balance between the demands of the domestic economy and long-distance trade that could persist for several centuries. Activities at Tumbe should hence be viewed in their own right, not as precursors to the formation of the Swahili trading towns of the later medieval period.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

An exellent example of craft production for long-distance Indian ocean trade (especially shell beads) within a large agricultural town that also had important evience for a local agricultural economy, focused on a native staple, pearl millet, but with some evidence of adopted Asian crops, notably mungbean.

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East Africa and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean world - Online First - Springer

East Africa and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean world - Online First - Springer | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

The Indian Ocean has long been a forum for contact, trade and the transfer of goods, technologies and ideas between geographically distant groups of people. Another, less studied, outcome of expanding maritime connectivity in the region is the translocation of a range of species of plants and animals, both domestic and wild. A significant number of these translocations can now be seen to involve Africa, either providing or receiving species, suggesting that Africa’s role in the emergence of an increasingly connected Indian Ocean world deserves more systematic consideration. While the earliest international contacts with the East African coast remain poorly understood, in part due to a paucity of archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological studies, some evidence for early African coastal activity is provided by the discovery of early hunter-gatherer sites on offshore islands, and, possibly, by the translocation of wild animals among these islands, and between them and the mainland. From the seventh century, however, clear evidence for participation in the Indian Ocean world emerges, in the form of a range of introduced species, including commensal and domestic animals, and agricultural crops. New genetic studies demonstrate that the flow of species to the coast is complex, with more than one source frequently indicated. The East African coast and Madagascar appear to have been significant centres of genetic admixture, drawing upon Southeast Asian, South Asian and Middle Eastern genetic varieties, and sometimes yielding unique hybrid species. The biological patterns reflect a deeply networked trade and contact situation, and support East Africa’s key role in the events and transformations of the early Indian Ocean world.


Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

The latest output of the SEALINKs project, a regional review of the SE East African coast and Madgascar, with an emphasis on the archaeobotanical and archaeozoological evidence, and reviews of key crops, livestock (like chickens) and commensals (from rates to geckos).

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, November 29, 2013 5:50 AM

Includes an updated review of the evidence for the arrival of Asian rice in Africa

Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, November 29, 2013 5:51 AM

This article includes a section reviewing the evidence for the arrival of farming in coastal East Africa and its offshore islands, all quite recents <2000 years, based on current archaeobotanical data.

Eve Emshwiller's curator insight, December 14, 2013 8:32 PM

Looks good to use for the topic on "Global Movement of People and Plants."

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AARD Session: East Africa’s engagement with the Indian Ocean world

AARD Session: East Africa’s engagement with the Indian Ocean world | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
Members of the Sealinks Project are organising a session at the African Archaeology Research Day Conference, which will take place at the Sainsbury Institute for Art at the University of East Angli...
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a successful session.

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Indian ocean crossroads: Human genetic origin and population structure in the maldives - Pijpe et al.

Indian ocean crossroads: Human genetic origin and population structure in the maldives - Pijpe et al. | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

The Maldives are an 850 km-long string of atolls located centrally in the northern Indian Ocean basin. Because of this geographic situation, the present-day Maldivian population has potential for uncovering genetic signatures of historic migration events in the region. We therefore studied autosomal DNA-, mitochondrial DNA-, and Y-chromosomal DNA markers in a representative sample of 141 unrelated Maldivians, with 119 from six major settlements. We found a total of 63 different mtDNA haplotypes that could be allocated to 29 mtDNA haplogroups, mostly within the M, R, and U clades. We found 66 different Y-STR haplotypes in 10 Y-chromosome haplogroups, predominantly H1, J2, L, R1a1a, and R2. Parental admixture analysis for mtDNA- and Y-haplogroup data indicates a strong genetic link between the Maldive Islands and mainland South Asia, and excludes significant gene flow from Southeast Asia. Paternal admixture from West Asia is detected, but cannot be distinguished from admixture from South Asia. Maternal admixture from West Asia is excluded. Within the Maldives, we find a subtle genetic substructure in all marker systems that is not directly related to geographic distance or linguistic dialect. We found reduced Y-STR diversity and reduced male-mediated gene flow between atolls, suggesting independent male founder effects for each atoll. Detected reduced female-mediated gene flow between atolls confirms a Maldives-specific history of matrilocality. In conclusion, our new genetic data agree with the commonly reported Maldivian ancestry in South Asia, but furthermore suggest multiple, independent immigration events and asymmetrical migration of females and males across the archipelago. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:58–67, 2013

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

The populations of the Maldives look very India in both the Y and mitochondrial. Would be interesting to have some further regional break down to look at flow from the West coast vs. Bay of Bengal side, and north and south Sri Lanka. 

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nativemedia's comment, September 25, 2013 12:14 AM
awesome
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The dynamics of mangrove ecosystems, changes in sea level and the strategies of Neolithic settlements along the coast of Oman (6000–3000 cal....

The dynamics of mangrove ecosystems, changes in sea level and the strategies of Neolithic settlements along the coast of Oman (6000–3000 cal.... | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

This paper focus on the Holocene palaeogeography of the Ja'alan coast from the 6th to the 4th millennium cal. BC, integrating the dynamics of mangroves, lagoons, khors-estuaries and deltas, with sea-level change and the evidence from Neolithic shell middens. The distribution and maturation of mangrove ecosystems along the Arabian coasts has varied considerably, affected by physical forces such as sea-level changes, climate, tidal amplitude and duration as well as the quantity of fresh water inflow associated with the monsoon systems along the Arabian coast. Palaeo-mangroves and lagoons, today replaced by large sabkhas, appear to be correlated to mid-Holocene fossil deltas and estuaries that currently function episodically, depending on the rhythm of winter rains. All these parameters have determined and impacted the location of settlement networks and the economic strategies of the first Arabian farmers along the eastern Arabian coast. The mid-Holocene sea-level highstand stability (5th millennium BC) can be considered to be an optimum period for mangrove development and can be correlated with Neolithic sites around the mangroves. The decline of mangroves since 3000/2500 cal. BC and further degradation is mainly attributed to the prevailing arid climate that reduced summer monsoon effects in the tropical area by favouring the extension of sabkhas. We discuss these aspects based on new archaeological surveys, excavations and geoarchaeological studies.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

The mid Holocene condition promoted mangroves and coastal settlements. As the mangrove declined and the Bronze Age came in, groups had to specialize, in deep sea fishing, on participating in longer distance trade and in trading for agricultural products that came be grown in interior oases.

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ScienceDirect.com - Quaternary International - Zanzibar to the Yellow Sea: A transect of Quaternary studies from 6°S, 39°E to 35°N, 127°E

This volume of Quaternary International brings together a diverse collection of papers discussing aspects of Quaternary research, from Zanzibar through Sri Lanka, India, China, to the Yellow Sea. The topics covered include palynological processes and dynamics, changes in marine environments and sea level, tectonism and resulting geomorphic features, magnetic archaeointensity, meteorological and climatic trends and patterns, lacustrine sedimentology and evaporite mineralogy, speleothem analysis, influences on plant growth, influences on farming and animal husbandry, and mammalian taxonomy and palaeontology.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Looks like useful palaeoclimatic context will soon be published for Indian Ocean archaeologists.

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JudyHalle's comment, September 7, 2013 4:24 AM
really good
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Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka

Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

So Toba ash from a lake sequence in Africa can be tied into is regional envirionmental impact, and this undermines a driving-force role for Toba in human evolution (and presumably in dispersal out of Africa)! This should be seen alongside evidence for persistence of probably modern human behavioru through the Toba impact in South India (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5834/114), and the growing evidence that AMH left Africa earlier than 80,000 years, pre-toba, and with no relationship to Toba (e.g.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618213000244 ;)

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Wenner Gren award for Oxford conference bursaries

Wenner Gren award for Oxford conference bursaries | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
  Generous funding from the Wenner-Gren Foundation has been awarded to support the participation of scholars from the developing world in the Proto-Globalisation in the Indian Ocean World Conf...
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Genetic structure of house mouse populations in the Atlantic archipelago of the Azores: colonization and dispersal - Gabriel - 2013 -

Genetic structure of house mouse populations in the Atlantic archipelago of the Azores: colonization and dispersal - Gabriel - 2013 - | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

We analyzed the genetic structure and relationships of house mouse (Mus musculus) populations in the remote Atlantic archipelago of the Azores using nuclear sequences and microsatellites. We typed Btk and Zfy2 to confirm that the subspecies Mus musculus domesticuswas the predominant genome in the archipelago. Nineteen microsatellite loci (one per autosome) were typed in a total of 380 individuals from all nine Azorean islands, the neighbouring Madeiran archipelago (Madeira and Porto Santo islands), and mainland Portugal. Levels of heterozygosity were high on the islands, arguing against population bottlenecking. The Azorean house mouse populations were differentiated from the Portuguese and Madeiran populations and no evidence of recent migration between the three was obtained. Within the Azores, the Eastern, Western, and Central island groups tended to act as separate genetic units for house mice, with some exceptions. In particular, there was evidence of recent migration events among islands of the Central island group, whose populations were relatively undifferentiated. Santa Maria had genetically distinctive mice, which may relate to its colonization history. 

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Demonstrates the utility of genetics on island populations of mice. Something we are hoping they will soon have results on from Indian Ocean islands

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Sealinks Project new website up and running

Sealinks Project new website up and running | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

This new website should be easier to keep updated. It has facilities for addiing comments. Go here for information on the upcoming Oct. 2012 "Proto-globalisation" conference

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Holocene mangrove dynamics from Unguja Ukuu, Zanzibar

Holocene mangrove dynamics from Unguja Ukuu, Zanzibar | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Sediment, pollen and charcoal data, set within a radiocarbon chronological framework, from Unguja Ukuu, Zanzibar are used to reconstruct mangrove ecosystem dynamics during the Holocene. Changes in mangrove ecosystem composition were driven by a combination of sea level and environmental changes, anthropogenic interaction and geomorphological activity. The high occurrence of Rhizophora mucronata, accompanied by other mangrove species, suggests that the headland of Unguja Ukuu supported a mangrove community from about 7000 cal BP. During the mid-Holocene, mangroves migrated landward, probably in response to a sea level highstand. After the mid-Holocene a short term decrease in Sonneratia alba, with an increase in more terrestrial mangrove species, the appearance of Poaceae and increase in the quantity of charcoal all indicate a lower sea level and relatively dry environmental conditions. This is likely to be coincident with the appearance of the earliest habitation of Zanzibar. The increase in S. alba pollen until prior to 530cal BP is likely to reflect a sea level rise. The increase in charcoal after about 1400 cal BP is likely to relate to drier conditions and may reflect early human settlement at Unguja Ukuu. A recent decrease in R. mucronata, combined with an increase in S. alba, is likely to result from sea level rise and decreased moisture availability. Recent human-ecosystem interactions are characterized by a reduction in mangrove extent, possibly associated with the mangrove pole trade and rising fuel wood consumption in Zanzibar, particularly from around 530 cal BP.

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Les mondes de l’océan Indien

Les mondes de l’océan Indien | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Philippe Beaujard, directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS (CEMAf), ethnologue et historien spécialiste de Madagascar et participant au programme MEDIAN, vient de publier une importante somme sur l’histoire des “mondes de l’océan Indien” aux éditions Armand Colin.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Two volumes of history on the Indian Ocean world by Philippe Beuajard, a distinguised researcher on this topic, with interests in world systems history.

Volume 1. De la formation de l’Etat au premier système-monde afro-eurasien

Volume 2. L’océan Indien, au cœur des globalisations de l’Ancien Monde (7e-15e siècles)

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From wild grass to golden grain

From wild grass to golden grain | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Believe it or not, rice, our staple crop, was not introduced to our island by Aryan migrants from Eastern India around the 5th century BC as had been previously supposed. Rather its cultivation seems to go back to pre-historic times, in all probability to Sri Lanka’s Stone Age

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

Some journalist hyperbole that masks what could be an important dataset.

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, January 10, 7:46 AM

So the claim is made that there was a period of indigenous rice cultivation in the early Holocene of Sri Lanka, that was in the middle Holocene. Not implausible, perhaps, but certainly not proven. (1) Sri Lanka has a rich range of wild rices, both progenitor and non-progenitor species; (2) the evidence of phytoliths cannot easily or relaibly differentiate morphologixall wild versus domesticated rices, although phytoliths assemablges can be useful for determining ecology and this inferred cultivated versus wild ecologies (as we are finding in early China), but such evidence has (not yet) be made available in this case. As happens all too often journalistic headlines trump real science, which is a pity, but core sequences of pollen and phytoliths from Sri Lanka will indeed prove to be important for reconsturcting the prehistory of the island. So too will be rejecting predjudices, expressed by this journalist, that hunter-gatherers (like Veddahs) should be assumed to be "stupid" (and by implication only farmers are "intelligent"). All humans are intelligent have expressed this in many different ways-- adapting to the tropical rainforests through microlithihc tools and hunting of arboreal game some 40,000 years ago-- which is evidence in Sri Lanka-- is one means by which they have done so.(see, e.g. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248411000881 ;)

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Farmers, smelters and caravans: Two thousand years of land use and soil erosion in North Pare, NE Tanzania

Farmers, smelters and caravans: Two thousand years of land use and soil erosion in North Pare, NE Tanzania | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Slope deposits in North Pare provide evidence of two millennia of anthropogenically driven land clearance, soil erosion and land degradation. Drawing on deposit stratigraphy, soil magnetic parameters, stable carbon isotope composition and radiocarbon dating, three phases of soil erosion are distinguished characterized by distinct surface processes and increasing levels of agricultural land use.

Onset of slope deposit formation in Pare since about 300 BC documents soil erosion as an immediate consequence of new land use practices associated with the spread of agriculture and iron working across northern Tanzania. By AD 500, slope deposits extended into valley bottoms and to middle slopes suggesting catchment-wide land clearance and soil erosion. In the 15th century AD, progressive anthropogenic soil erosion had exhausted the topsoil resource and material changes of the slope deposits reflect widespread subsoil erosion. The exposure of subsoils represents an ecological tipping point and triggered the transition to a new morphodynamic framework dominated by runoff-based erosion processes that are recorded as sand lenses and sand layers. The most recent deposits show ongoing accelerated erosion and severe land degradation whilst cessation of sand lens preservation indicates pre-colonial intensification of agricultural land use. Land use changes and socioeconomic transitions associated with the establishment of the Ugweno chiefdom and the 19th-century caravan trade are discussed as possible responses to imperceptible long-term land degradation in Pare.

The study demonstrates that anthropogenic soil erosion and not external climatic drivers shaped landscape development in Pare and shows that the identification of environmental thresholds is essential for the assessment of resilience in human-dominated ecosystems.

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, December 6, 2013 12:49 PM

Geoarchaeological evidence suggests agricultural landuse from the later First Millennium BC. This is only slightly older than current archaeobotanical evidence from the region; so is this poijting to a quite late introduction of cultivation in the hills region of east Africa? If so, it casts further questions on the reported early banana from Cameroun.

diana buja's curator insight, December 13, 2013 7:55 AM

Another great links and thoughts from Dorian Fuller.  Thanks, Dorian!

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Evolution of crop species: genetics of domestication and diversification : Nature Reviews Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

Evolution of crop species: genetics of domestication and diversification : Nature Reviews Genetics : Nature Publishing Group | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Domestication is a good model for the study of evolutionary processes because of the recent evolution of crop species (<12,000 years ago), the key role of selection in their origins, and good archaeological and historical data on their spread and diversification. Recent studies, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies and whole-genome resequencing studies, have identified genes that are associated with the initial domestication and subsequent diversification of crops. Together, these studies reveal the functions of genes that are involved in the evolution of crops that are under domestication, the types of mutations that occur during this process and the parallelism of mutations that occur in the same pathways and proteins, as well as the selective forces that are acting on these mutations and that are associated with geographical adaptation of crop species.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

A nice review on the current genetics of parallel and convergent evolution of domestication traits.

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The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology: Hardback: Peter Mitchel - Oxford University Press

The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology: Hardback: Peter Mitchel - Oxford University Press | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
This Handbook provides a comprehensive synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism.
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cutesqualid's comment, August 12, 2013 4:46 AM
good
hedgeshandy's comment, October 17, 2013 6:32 AM
Its interesting
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Donkey Domestication

Donkey Domestication | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Donkeys are one of the least studied large domestic animals, even though they are economically important in many regions of the world. They are predominantly used as transport animals. Consequently, they are not kept in large numbers and this limits the number of archaeological specimens available for study. The donkey’s closest relative is the African wild ass, and genetic studies and zooarchaeological analyses of early donkeys indicate domestication of two genetically separate groups of wild asses in Africa. Maternal relationships revealed by mitochondrial DNA show that one group of donkeys was derived from the Nubian wild ass and that one was derived from an unknown ancestor distinct from the Somali wild ass.

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, May 26, 2013 6:11 AM

Donkey's are undoubtedly one of the most important domesticates from Africa, but less well-documented then cattle or many crops, as they have rarely been food sources. This article provides updated review of the archaeology and genetics of donkey, including some ancient DNA evidence such as Uan Muhhgiag donkeys from prehistoric Libya. Of interest is the argument that reports of "wild" donkeys in the Levant or Arabia, such as the quantities from Ash-Shumah in Yemen, are early domesticates and not endemic wild populations. If this is the case then it would put donkey herding back to the early Holocene before 6000 BC, putting them in competition of Bos africanus for the earliest African domesticates [excluding Pleistocene bottlegourds]. Alternatively, as mapped in Boivin & Fuller (2009 in J. of World Prehistory) we extend the map of wild donkeys through the Sinia and down the west coast of Arabia to make the Ash-Shumah remains those of hunted wild animals. The latter would open the possibility of southern Levant donkey domestication. The current review by Kimura, Marshall and colleagues makes an interesting but inconclusive case against this. (Historical linguistic evidence does tend to point to African domestication among Afroasiatic/Cushitic sub-groups). As this paper concludes there is a need for more targetted research on donkeys!

cutesqualid's curator insight, August 12, 2013 4:46 AM

good

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Trends in Genetics - Genetic tracking of mice and other bioproxies to infer human history

Trends in Genetics - Genetic tracking of mice and other bioproxies to infer human history | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

The long-distance movements made by humans through history are quickly erased by time but can be reconstructed by studying the genetic make-up of organisms that travelled with them. The phylogeography of the western house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus), whose current widespread distribution around the world has been caused directly by the movements of (primarily) European people, has proved particularly informative in a series of recent studies. The geographic distributions of genetic lineages in this commensal have been linked to the Iron Age movements within the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, the extensive maritime activities of the Vikings in the 9th to 11th centuries, and the colonisation of distant landmasses and islands by the Western European nations starting in the 15th century. We review here recent insights into human history based on phylogeographic studies of mice and other species that have travelled with humans, and discuss how emerging genomic methodologies will increase the precision of these inferences.

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

A nice review on the house mouse, with mention of other small commensals. While the case study focus is on European spreads, it also discusses the Indian Ocean and Madagascar.

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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, May 7, 2013 9:34 AM

So here is a conundrum. The house mouse is an indicator of early sedentism, or at least permanent grain stores associated with early cultivation of the PPNA and PPNB. It goes with early Neolithic settlers to Cyprus. It does not, however, appear to spread to Europe in the Neolithic, and indeed European lineages are thought to track Iron Age trade expansion in the Mediterranena. . .

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Scientists map ship-borne invaders

Scientists map ship-borne invaders | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
Researchers have developed the first global model that analyses the routes taken by marine invasive species.
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Conference: Proto-globalisation in the Indian Ocean world

Conference: Proto-globalisation in the Indian Ocean world | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
November 7th to 10th, 2013, hosted by the University of Oxford and the Sealinks Project.  One hundred scholars and students from around the world will gather for 3 days of presentations and discuss...
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Hafsaas-Tsakos - Edges of bronze and expressions of masculinity: the emergence of a warrior class at Kerma in Sudan

Hafsaas-Tsakos - Edges of bronze and expressions of masculinity: the emergence of a warrior class at Kerma in Sudan | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Antiquity Vol 87:335, 2013 pp 79-91 - The author revisits the celebrated cemetery of the Bronze Age Kerma culture by the third cataract of the Nile and re-examines its monumental tumuli. The presence of daggers and drinking vessels in secondary burials are associated with skeletal remains that can be attributed to fighting men, encouraging their interpretation as members of a warrior elite. Here, on the southern periphery of the Bronze Age world, is an echo of the aggressive aristocracy of Bronze Age Europe.

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The Archaeobotanist: Earlier sorghum in Sudan

The Archaeobotanist: Earlier sorghum in Sudan | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

I have recently been made aware of a small report in Nyame Akuma on Kasala (northeast Sudan), where Italian researchers have restarted research which can be regarded as following on from the 1980s survey headed by R. Fattovich. The new work has included the study of some plant impressions in ceramics published as "Sorghum exploitation at Kasala and its environs, North Eastern Sudan in the Second and First Millennium BC" by Alemseged Beldados and Lorenzo Constantini

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Sorghum antiquity in Africa may finally be closing the gap with India!

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Disclosing the origin and diversity of Omani cattle - Mahgoub - 2012 - Animal Genetics - Wiley Online Library

Disclosing the origin and diversity of Omani cattle - Mahgoub - 2012 - Animal Genetics - Wiley Online Library | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it

Among all livestock species, cattle have a prominent status as they have contributed greatly to the economy, nutrition and culture from the beginning of farming societies until the present time. The origins and diversity of local cattle breeds have been widely assessed. However, there are still some regions for which very little of their local genetic resources is known. The present work aimed to estimate the genetic diversity and the origins of Omani cattle. Located in the south-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, close to the Near East, East Africa and the Indian subcontinent, the Sultanate of Oman occupies a key position, which may enable understanding cattle dispersal around the Indian Ocean. To disclose the origin of this cattle population, we used a set of 11 polymorphic microsatellites and 113 samples representing the European, African and Indian ancestry to compare with cattle from Oman. This study found a very heterogenic population with a markedly Bos indicus ancestry and with some degree of admixture...

Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

This recent genetic study of Omani cattle indicates that they are hybridized from the three major cattle domestication lineages, Near Eastern taurines, African taurines, and Indian zebu, but with a majority of genetic diversity appearing to be of Indian zebu origin

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Luigi Guarino's curator insight, January 5, 2:17 PM

Was the small, distinctive breed from Dhofar included?

Scooped by Dorian Q Fuller
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New theory on African exit

New theory on African exit | Indian Ocean Archaeology | Scoop.it
Modern humans left Africa twice as early as previously thought, spreading in a number of climate-driven waves, new research suggests.
Dorian Q Fuller's insight:

paper online here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618213000244

 

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