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Immunopathology & Immunotherapy
Latest advances in immunopathology diagnosis and treatment
Curated by Alfredo Corell
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KEY ADVANCES IN MEDICINE by Nature Reviews journals

KEY ADVANCES IN MEDICINE by Nature Reviews journals | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
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Including Immunology (pathology and therapies) topics:


  • 29 TYpE 2 DiAbETES MElliTUS | A central role of the gut in glucose homeostasis; Geltrude Mingrone and Lidia Castagneto-Gissey
  • 30 METAbOliSM | The gut microbiota manages host metabolism; Patrice D. Cani
  • 35 hEpATiTiS C | HCV causes systemic disorders that can be cured; Francesco Negro
  • 37 fAECAl MiCRObiOTA TRANSplANTATiON | Developing human gut microbiota as a class of therapeutics; Alexander Khoruts
  • 38 COEliAC DiSEASE | New insights in dietary-gluten-induced autoimmunity; Katri Kaukinen and Markku Mäki
  • 42 ibD | Enriching the therapeutic armamentarium for IBD;  Silvio Danese and Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
  • 51 TRANSplANTATiON iMMUNOlOgY | New approaches to diagnosis of rejection; Nicholas A. Zwang and Laurence A. Turka
  • 65 MUlTiplE SClEROSiS | Novel triggers, treatment targets and brain atrophy measures; Xavier Montalban and Mar Tintoré
  • 71 SYSTEMiC lUpUS ERYThEMATOSUS | Taking a closer look at biologic therapy for SLE; David A. Isenberg and Anisur Rahman
  • 72 EpigENETiCS | DNA methylation and miRNA—key roles in systemic autoimmunity; Bruce C. Richardson and Dipak R. Patel
  • 74 RhEUMATOiD ARThRiTiS | Translational medicine in RA—time for change; Pierre Miossec


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Descubiertas unas ‘células escudo’ que protegen los tumores

Descubiertas unas ‘células escudo’ que protegen los tumores | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Su desactivación facilita los tratamientos inmunológicos contra el cáncer
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La inmunoterapia contra el cáncer —enseñar al sistema de defensa del organismo a atacar a las células tumorales— se presenta como la nueva revolución en oncología. Pero no es fácil. La revista Nature Medicine ha publicado un artículo en el que el proceso no se centra directamente en combatir las células tumorales, sino en otras que pululan a su alrededor y que, de alguna manera, hacen de escudo.


artículo en Nature Medicine: http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.3560.html

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Diagnostic criteria in Autoimmune diseases - Autoimmunity Reviews

Diagnostic criteria in Autoimmune diseases - Autoimmunity Reviews | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Special Issues in Autoimmunity Reviews and Journal of Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity Reviews and the Journal of Autoimmunity both feature a special...
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Special Issues in Autoimmunity Reviews and Journal of Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity Reviews and the Journal of Autoimmunity both feature a special issue on diagnostic criteria in autoimmune diseases, to coincide with the 9th International Congress on Autoimmunity in Nice, France, in March 2014.

Here you can read both issues – free access until June 2014.

Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 13, Issues 4–5, Pages 331-594 (April–May 2014)
Edited by Yehuda Shoenfeld and M. Eric Gershwin

Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Diseases
Journal of Autoimmunity, Volumes 48–49, Pages 1-152 (February–March 2014)
Edited by M. Eric Gershwin and Yehuda Shoenfeld

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A major effort to understand a not so rare immunodeficiency

A major effort to understand a not so rare immunodeficiency | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
A major effort to understand a not so rare immunodeficiency
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent of the large group of primary (inborn) immunodeficiencies. As the name indicates, the disease is highly variable. While the underlying defect is a lack of antibodies in the blood, patients develop a wide range of symptoms, from respiratory infections to autoimmune disorders and neoplasms, and treating such patients poses many challenges. Notably, the replacement of antibodies (known as immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement) alone does not seem to solve all symptoms; studies in the past have tried to group patients into different phenotypes, also to help identify suitable treatment, but our understanding of the disease remains limited.

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Molecular Mimicry and Autoimmune Disease

Molecular Mimicry and Autoimmune Disease | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it

Those in self-nonself camp, the more dominant of the two camps, would see a threat in the molecular mimics and link those to autoimmunity. Whereas the danger or damage theory proponents would argue that the presence or absence of molecular mimicry by itself means nothing unless the mimicked code evokes damage. Data can be found supporting either argument. 

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Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) | atypically found in an adult

Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) | atypically found in an adult | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Find information on Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID), including definition, diagnosis, treatment, and expectations for patients.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

An atypically adult with CVID recently published on "The Lancet"


The Lancet, Volume 383, Issue 9920, Page 926, 8 March 2014
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60415-3Cite or Link Using DOI
Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome in an adult
Dr Laura S Lourdes MD a Karen C Daily DO b
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A Cure for Chlamydia Arthritis? - New insights

A Cure for Chlamydia Arthritis? - New insights | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
A Cure for Chlamydia Arthritis?
MedPage Today
The possibility of a cure for an arthritic condition with antimicrobial treatment has long been a dream in the rheumatology community.
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Abstract

Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae together comprise the most frequent causative pathogens that elicit reactive arthritis (ReA). Advances in our understanding of the molecular biology/molecular genetics of these organisms have improved significantly the ability to detect chlamydiae in the joint for diagnostic purposes, as well as extending our current understanding of the pathogenic processes they elicit in the joint and elsewhere. An important aspect of the latter is that synovial chlamydiae infect the joint in an unusual but metabolically active state. While some standard treatments can provide a palliative effect on the ReA disease phenotype, many reports have indicated that standard antibiotic treatment does not provide a cure. Of critical importance, however, two recent reports of controlled clinical trials demonstrated that Chlamydia-ReA can be treated successfully using combination antibiotic therapy. These observations offer the opportunity of a cure for this disease, thereby increasing the practical importance of awareness and diagnosis of the spondyloarthritis caused by Chlamydia. In this viewpoint, we provide an overview of recent key findings in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Our intention is for these insights to be translated rapidly into clinical practice to overcome misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of the disease, and for them to stimulate the continued development of a cure.

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Too small study to say definitively "Antibody May Be Detectable in Blood Years Before MS Symptoms Appear"

Too small study to say definitively "Antibody May Be Detectable in Blood Years Before MS Symptoms Appear" | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it

Press release about a research to be presented in the American Academy of Neurology 66th Annual Meeting.


Better be cautious and patient with this information: in the study only 16 patients vs 16 healthy controls have been studied. A too small cohort to make a strong conclusion.

Alfredo Corell's insight:

PHILADELPHIA – An antibody found in the blood of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be present long before the onset of the disease and its symptoms, according to a study released today that will be presented at theAmerican Academy of Neurology’s 66th Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, April 26 to May 3, 2014. 

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What Is Lyme Disease? New Findings Deepen the Mystery - National Geographic

What Is Lyme Disease? New Findings Deepen the Mystery - National Geographic | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
National Geographic
What Is Lyme Disease? New Findings Deepen the Mystery
National Geographic
As his mother began drawing attention to the strange epidemic, a doctor at Yale University named Allen Steere began sleuthing the problem.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Rampant disagreement over what constitutes Lyme disease—in particular, who may have contracted it and how, and how long it lasts—has spawned the larger question of how best to treat it. A new study pointing to the possibility of sexual transmission of the pathogen adds fuel to the fire.

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Study: Culprit leading to rheumatoid arthritis discovered

Study: Culprit leading to rheumatoid arthritis discovered | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Daily Mail Study: Culprit leading to rheumatoid arthritis discovered Asahi Shimbun “We can expect to develop a drug that is targeted at denatured proteins to dissolve them, or a method of examination that will allow doctors to make a diagnosis of...
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Significance

Cellular misfolded proteins are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules via association with the peptide-binding groove without processing to peptides. We found that IgG heavy chain is transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules. Furthermore, IgG heavy chain associated with MHC class II molecules is recognized by autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Autoantibody binding to IgG heavy chain complexed with different MHC class II alleles was strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility conferred by certain MHC class II alleles. These findings suggest that misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules could be targets for autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases, which might be involved in autoimmune disease susceptibility.


Link to PNAS publication: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/02/19/1401105111.short 

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A Perpiñán a por la vacuna de la varicela

A Perpiñán a por la vacuna de la varicela | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Las contradicciones entre las recomendaciones de los pediatras y Sanidad hacen que muchas familias no encuentren la vacuna en farmacias. Leer
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Los Expertos han alertado de los riesgos de l efecto frontera y han recordado que las vacunas requieren una cadena de frío que no se puede perder en caso de viajar varios cientos de kilómetros a por ella. También han alertado del riesgo de comprar el fármaco por internet.

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CDC Releases New Recommendations for Adult Immunizations: Recombinant Flu Vaccine Expands Options

CDC Releases New Recommendations for Adult Immunizations: Recombinant Flu Vaccine Expands Options | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
An updated guideline for recommended adult immunizations released this week by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) featu...
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Link to the proposed adult immunizations schedules by CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/adult.html 

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Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary fiber influences allergic airway disease and hematopoiesis.

Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary fiber influences allergic airway disease and hematopoiesis. | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Dietary fibers are metabolized by the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and have protective effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Here Benjamin J Marsland and colleagues report that mice fed a high-fiber diet have an altered microbiota and are protected from allergic airway inflammation. The SCFA propionate regulated allergic inflammation, bone marrow hematopoiesis and dendritic cell function. Taken together, these findings suggest that metabolites produced by the gut microbiota can influence hematopoiesis and immune responses in the lung.
Alfredo Corell's insight:


Nature Medicine 20, 159–166 (2014) doi:10.1038/nm.3444

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BrainImmune's comment, February 11, 3:20 PM
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Celiac Disease Autoimmunity - HLA susceptibility by haplotype and country - NEJM

Celiac Disease Autoimmunity - HLA susceptibility by haplotype and country - NEJM | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
I first came across the term “celiac disease autoimmunity” a few weeks ago as I read summaries of the article “Risk of Pediatric Celiac Disease According to HLA Haplotype and Country” that was published in the July 3, 2014 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).

Based on my re
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Liu E, Lee HS, Aronsson CA, et al. TEDDY Study Group. Risk of pediatric celiac disease according to HLA haplotype and country. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 3;371(1):42-9.

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Fibromyalgia: A New Paradigm?

Fibromyalgia: A New Paradigm? | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Small fiber neuropathy, rather than central sensitization, may be responsible for the pain associated with fibromyalgia, some researchers have hypothesized. (Autoimmunity anyone ? If if walks and talks and smells like it .....
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Primary source: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Source reference: Caro X, Winter E "Evidence of abnormal epidermal nerve fiber density in fibromyalgia: clinical and immunologic implications" Arthritis Rheum 2014; DOI: 10.1002/art.38662.

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Infection and autoimmunity in Sjogren's syndrome: A clinical study and comprehensive review

Infection and autoimmunity in Sjogren's syndrome: A clinical study and comprehensive review | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Highlights

The presence of antibodies against EBV-early-antigen, is associated with SS.

Anti-Ro/SSA and anti La/SSB correlate the presence of anti-EBVEA antibodies.

Specific cytokines and TAP alleles correlate with different clinical manifestations in SS.

Alfredo Corell's insight:
Abstract

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized primarily by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, and autoantibody production. Multiple environmental factors affecting an individual with a genetic susceptibility may trigger the development of SS. Herein, we aimed to evaluate links between the different pebbles in the mosaic of SS. Demographic, clinical data and blood samples were gathered from 82 consecutive patients with SS, and 139 healthy controls. Samples were analyzed for infectious serology and auto-antibodies as well as for relevant genetic mutations (TAP genes) and cytokines levels. An immune response (IgG) against Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) early antigen (EA) was positively associated with SS (OR 4; 95% CI: 1.82–8.83, p = 0.001) while a protective effect of IgG anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) was observed (OR 0.3; 95%CI: 0.16–0.74, p = 0.009). Anti-Ro/SSA, anti-LA/SSB, anti-nuclear, anti-gliadin, anti-TTG-IgG and anti-RNP antibodies were statistically more prevalent among SS patients than controls. Notably, the presence of anti-Ro/SSA and anti La/SSB correlated with anti-EBVEA IgG (OR 3.1; 95%CI: 1.08–8.74) and (OR 3.9; 95%CI: 1.37–10.96) respectively. Autoantibodies, cytokines and several genetic markers correlated with clinical manifestation of SS. Our data suggest that infectious agents may play both a causative and protective role in the pathogenesis of SS. Moreover certain autoantibodies, cytokines and specific TAP alleles correlate with clinical manifestations of SS, and may enable better prediction and/or directed therapy once confirmed in future studies.

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Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: Outcomes and Mortality-Related Risk Factors

Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: Outcomes and Mortality-Related Risk Factors | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
RT @Primary_Immune: Patients with Primary #Immunodeficiency in Pediatric ICUs: Risk, Outcomes & Mortality http://t.co/5M6TDf3cXt … #immun…
Alfredo Corell's insight:
Conclusions

This is the first study regarding the outcome and mortality-related risk factors for PID patients requiring PICU admission. We suggest that PICU management is as important as early diagnosis and treatment for these patients. Prediction of those at risk for poorer outcome might be beneficial for accurate intensive care management and survival.

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Review of Primary Immunodeficiencies - The Asthma Center

Review of Primary Immunodeficiencies - The Asthma Center | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it

A small review about Immunodeficiencies. A "must" visit por Immunology students.

Alfredo Corell's insight:

You can also download the printable pdf of the review:  http://www.asthmacenter.com/uploads/ID%20printable.pdf

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El hombre con lupus y VIH que dio la pista para una vacuna contra el sida

El hombre con lupus y VIH que dio la pista para una vacuna contra el sida | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
En la historia de la lucha contra el sida, tener una enfermedad adicional a la infección por el VIH a veces depara sorpresas. Lo hizo en el caso de Timothy Brown, el famoso pacient
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Videoentrevista al autor del articulo:

http://youtu.be/4SIo0Q8E1b4 


Artículo en el Journal of Clinical Investigation:

http://www.jci.org/articles/view/73441 

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The Treatment-Naive Microbiome in New-Onset Crohn’s Disease

The Treatment-Naive Microbiome in New-Onset Crohn’s Disease | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Largest Microbiome Study on Newly Diagnosed Patients Gives Insight Into Crohn's Disease and Shows Antibiotic Treatment May Worsen Disease
Alfredo Corell's insight:
Summary

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn’s disease (CD), are genetically linked to host pathways that implicate an underlying role for aberrant immune responses to intestinal microbiota. However, patterns of gut microbiome dysbiosis in IBD patients are inconsistent among published studies. Using samples from multiple gastrointestinal locations collected prior to treatment in new-onset cases, we studied the microbiome in the largest pediatric CD cohort to date. An axis defined by an increased abundance in bacteria which include Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellacaea, Veillonellaceae, and Fusobacteriaceae, and decreased abundance in Erysipelotrichales, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales, correlates strongly with disease status. Microbiome comparison between CD patients with and without antibiotic exposure indicates that antibiotic use amplifies the microbial dysbiosis associated with CD. Comparing the microbial signatures between the ileum, the rectum, and fecal samples indicates that at this early stage of disease, assessing the rectal mucosal-associated microbiome offers unique potential for convenient and early diagnosis of CD.


Divulgative news: http://www.sys-con.com/node/3009818

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New Approach to Cancer Vaccines

New Approach to Cancer Vaccines | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it

Fusion protein activates immune cells against tumors in less costly, more accessible way

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A novel approach to cancer immunotherapy—strategies designed to induce the immune system to attack cancer cells—may provide a new and cost-effective weapon against some of the most deadly tumors, including ovarian cancer and mesothelioma.

Investigators from Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center report in the Journal of Hematology & Oncology that a protein they engineered was able to prolong survival in animal models of both tumors.  Their success came from combining a molecule that targets a tumor-cell-surface antigen with another protein that stimulates several immune functions.

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Investigadores del CNIO proponen dos nuevas vías para tratar la psoriasis

Investigadores del CNIO proponen dos nuevas vías para tratar la psoriasis | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
Un equipo del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO) han descubierto dos posibles vías de tratamiento de la psoriasis basadas en compuestos farmacológicos que ya existen pero que no se habían contemplado hasta el momento, que en los...
Alfredo Corell's insight:

La noticia en ABC salud: http://www.abc.es/salud/noticias/20140227/abci-psoriasis-cnio-201402261329.html 


En uno de los trabajos, publicado en «Immunity», se demuestra que los síntomas de la enfermedad desaparecen cuando se bloquea una proteína llamada S100A9. En el otro artículo, que aparece en «Science Translational Medicine», se demuestra que esto también sucede si se actúa sobre un ARN no codificante, el micro ARN miR-21.

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XMEN disease: a new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus

XMEN disease: a new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
  1. Feng-Yen Li1
  2. Benjamin Chaigne-Delalande1
  3. Helen Su2
  4. Gulbu Uzel3,
  5. Helen Matthews1, and 
  6. Michael J. Lenardo1,*
Alfredo Corell's insight:

Blood 

  • Submitted November 19, 2013.
  • Accepted February 7, 2014.


Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that infects and persists in 95% of adults worldwide and has the potential to cause fatal disease, especially lymphoma, in immunocompromised hosts. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to EBV-associated malignancies have provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune defense against EBV. We have recently characterized a novel PID now named "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia" (XMEN) disease characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), chronic high level EBV with increased EBV-infected B cells, and heightened susceptibility to EBV-associated lymphomas. The genetic etiology of XMEN disease has revealed an unexpected quantitative role for intracellular free magnesium in immune functions and led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the clinical presentation, genetic mutation spectrum, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for this previously unrecognized disease.

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Targeting co-stimulatory pathways: transplantation and autoimmunity

Targeting co-stimulatory pathways: transplantation and autoimmunity | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
fascinating review of costimulatory pathway drugs in inflammation & autoimmunity... did bench work on many of these! http://t.co/sPaZK8nR9d
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Targeting co-stimulatory pathways: transplantation and autoimmunity
  • Mandy L. Ford,
  • Andrew B. Adams
  • Thomas C. Pearson

Nature Reviews Nephrology 10, 14-24 (2014)  doi:10.1038/nrneph.2013.183

Ultimately, understanding the interplay between individual co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways engaged during T-cell activation and
differentiation will lead to rational and targeted therapeutic interventions to manipulate T-cell responses and improve clinical outcomes.


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The PedPAD study: Boys predominate in the hypogammaglobulinemia registry of the ESID Online Database

The PedPAD study: Boys predominate in the hypogammaglobulinemia registry of the ESID Online Database | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
New Research Article Hints At Mysterious X-Linked Version of Common Variable #Immunodeficiency (#CVID) http://t.co/ksEBcYmorK #Immunology
Alfredo Corell's insight:

The most striking observation is the strong majority of male patients in the group of children with primary hypogammaglobulinemia (n=1292, 63%). This male predominance was observed in each of the 18 countries involved. The boys were younger at diagnosis (mean age males 5.3 years; mean age females 5.8 years). Moreover, one or more complications were more frequently reported in boys (12%) as compared to girls (5%). The male predominance suggests that patients with an undetected or unknown X-linked genetic cause are included in this group of children registered as primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

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Your Food Allergy Field Guide - FARE for food allergies patients

Your Food Allergy Field Guide - FARE for food allergies patients | Immunopathology & Immunotherapy | Scoop.it
FARE works on behalf of the 15 million Americans with food allergies, including all those at risk for life-threatening anaphylaxis.
Alfredo Corell's insight:

FARE’s Food Allergy Field Guide is a packet for individuals and families who have been newly diagnosed with food allergies.

Within this packet, you’ll find content from our “Managing Food Allergies: What You Need to Know” brochure, a checklist for getting started, a copy of FARE’s Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Emergency Care Plan, information on food labels, tips for avoiding allergens and cross-contact, advice about dining out with food allergies, frequently asked questions and much more.

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