Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases
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Immunity for the Sims

When the Sims' place is invaded by Ellen, a gang member, Jane and Joe readily organize the defense. What is going to happen?
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Plotagon (https://plotagon.com/) offers everyone the possibility to create a movie from a script. Here is my first try, for educational purpose, in which the  Sims live a scenario showing the main stages of development of an immune response. This is a beta version of Plotagon and all is not yet optimal but I think it's great and it took me 2 hours to do it without habing ever designed anything similar before .... The potential looks huge!

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Denis Hudrisier's curator insight, November 26, 2013 4:52 PM

Sous-titres en français sur un simple clic!

Denis Hudrisier's curator insight, November 26, 2013 4:53 PM

Plotagon (https://plotagon.com/) offre la possibilité à chacun de créer un film à partir d'un script. Voici mon premier essai, à des fins éducatives, dans lequel les Sims, vivent un scenario reprenant les grandes étapes de la mise en place d'une réponse immunitaire. C'est une version beta de Plotagon et tout n'est pas encore optimal mais je trouve ça génial et ça m'a pris 2 heures pour faire ça sans jamais avoir conçu quoi que ce soit de similaire avant....Le potentiel me semble énorme!

Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases
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CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PD-1 disruption enhances anti-tumor efficacy of human chimeric antigen receptor T cells

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PD-1 disruption enhances anti-tumor efficacy of human chimeric antigen receptor T cells | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
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Immunology wars: A billion antibodies

Our bodies can create billions of antibodies to fight off billions of potential diseases. But how do our immune systems turn a limited number of genes int
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WHO warn of measles outbreak in Europe | British Society for Immunology

WHO warn of measles outbreak in Europe | British Society for Immunology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
The World Health Organization (WHO) have warned that a measles outbreak is spreading across Europe, wherever immunisation levels have dropped below the recommended 95%.
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Frontiers | The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource in Epitope Discovery and Synthetic Vaccine Design | Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics

Frontiers | The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource in Epitope Discovery and Synthetic Vaccine Design | Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
The task of epitope discovery and vaccine design is increasingly reliant on bioinformatics analytic tools and access to depositories of curated data relevant to immune reactions and specific pathogens. The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) was indeed created to assist biomedical researchers in the development of new vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics. The Analysis Resource is freely available to all researchers and provides access to a variety of epitope analysis and prediction tools. The tools include validated and benchmarked methods to predict MHC class I and class II binding. The predictions from these tools can be combined with tools predicting antigen processing, TCR recognition, and B cell epitope prediction. In addition the resource contains a variety of secondary analysis tools that allow the researcher to calculate epitope conservation, population coverage, and other relevant analytic variables. The researcher involved in vaccine design and epitope discovery will also be interested in accessing experimental published data, relevant to the specific indication of interest. The database component of the IEDB contains a vast amount of experimentally derived epitope data that can be queried through a flexible user interface. The IEDB is linked to other pathogen-specific and immunological database resources.
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An RNA nanoparticle vaccine against Zika virus elicits antibody and CD8+ T cell responses in a mouse model

An RNA nanoparticle vaccine against Zika virus elicits antibody and CD8+ T cell responses in a mouse model | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
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Activation status of mucosal-associated invariant T cells reflects disease activity and pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus. - PubMed - NCBI

Activation status of mucosal-associated invariant T cells reflects disease activity and pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus. - PubMed - NCBI | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Arthritis Res Ther. 2017 Mar 14;19(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s13075-017-1257-5.
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Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases. - PubMed - NCBI

Interferon Lambda: Modulating Immunity in Infectious Diseases. - PubMed - NCBI | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Front Immunol. 2017 Feb 28;8:119. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00119. eCollection 2017. Review
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Frontiers | PPE38 Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibits Macrophage MHC Class I Expression and Dampens CD8+ T Cell Responses | Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Frontiers | PPE38 Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibits Macrophage MHC Class I Expression and Dampens CD8+ T Cell Responses | Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Suppression of CD8+ T cell activation is a critical mechanism used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to escape protective host immune responses. PPE38 belongs to the unique PPE family of MTB and in our previous study, PPE38 protein was speculated to participate in manipulating macrophage MHC class I pathway. To test this hypothesis, the function of mycobacterial PPE38 protein was assessed here using macrophage and mouse infection models. Decreased amount of MHC class I was observed on the surface of macrophages infected with PPE38-expressing mycobacteria. The transcript of genes encoding MHC class I was also inhibited by PPE38. After infection of C57BL/6 mice with Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing PPE38 (Msmeg-PPE38), decreased number of CD8+ T cells was found in spleen, liver, and lungs through immunohistochemical analysis, comparing to the control strain harboring empty vector (Msmeg-V). Consistently, flow cytometry assay showed that fewer effector/memory CD8+ T cells (CD44highCD62Llow) were activated in spleen from Msmeg-PPE38 infected mice. Moreover, Msmeg-PPE38 confers a growth advantage over Msmeg-V in C57BL/6 mice, indicating an effect of PPE38 to favor mycobacterial persistence in vivo. Overall, this study shows a unique biological function of PPE38 protein to facilitate mycobacteria to escape host immunity, and provides hints for TB vaccine development.
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Yet another example of a microbial mechanism to avoid the immune response?
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Enhanced control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis extrapulmonary dissemination in mice by an arabinomannan-protein conjugate vaccine

Enhanced control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis extrapulmonary dissemination in mice by an arabinomannan-protein conjugate vaccine | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Author summary Vaccine design in the TB field has been driven by the imperative of attempting to elicit strong cell-mediated responses. However, in recent decades evidence has accumulated that humoral immunity can protect against many intracellular pathogens through numerous mechanisms. In this work, we demonstrate that immunization with mycobacterial capsular arabinomannan (AM) conjugates elicited responses that contributed to protection against Mtb infection. We developed two different conjugates including capsular AM linked to the Mtb related protein Ag85b or the Mtb unrelated PA from B. anthracis and found that immunization with AM conjugates elicited antibody populations with different specificities. These surface-specific antibodies could directly modify the transcriptional profile and metabolism of mycobacteria. In addition, we observed a prolonged survival and a reduction in bacterial numbers in lungs and spleen in mice immunized with Ag85b-AM conjugates after infection with Mtb and that the presence of AM-binding antibodies was associated with modest prolongation in survival and a marked reduction in mycobacterial dissemination. Finally, we show that AM is antigenically variable and could potentially form the basis for a serological characterization of mycobacteria based on serotypes.
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Antibodies elicited by vaccine do exert protection against tuberculosis
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Cancer immunotherapy: Revived T cells still need fuel

Cancer immunotherapy: Revived T cells still need fuel | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Anti-cancer drugs blocking the PD-1 pathway - known as checkpoint inhibitors - are now FDA-approved for melanoma, lung cancer and several other types of cancer. These drugs are often described as "releasing the brakes" o
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Frontiers | Nutrient and Metabolic Sensing in T Cell Responses | Molecular Innate Immunity

Frontiers | Nutrient and Metabolic Sensing in T Cell Responses | Molecular Innate Immunity | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms.
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Novel vaccine potential of Rv3131, a DosR regulon-encoded putative nitroreductase, against hyper-virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K

Novel vaccine potential of Rv3131, a DosR regulon-encoded putative nitroreductase, against hyper-virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Accumulating evidence indicates that latency-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens from the dormancy survival regulator regulon (DosR) may be promising novel vaccine target antigens for the development of an improved tuberculosis vaccine.
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Frontiers | Editorial: Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases | Microbial Immunology

Frontiers | Editorial: Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases | Microbial Immunology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Editorial: Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases
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Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety

Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
WHO: Q&As on immunization and vaccine safety
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Share your insight
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Immunodeficiency | British Society for Immunology

This briefing is also available as a PDF
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Generation of Immature, Mature and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells with Differing Metabolic Phenotypes | Protocol

Generation of Immature, Mature and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells with Differing Metabolic Phenotypes | Protocol | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Immature dendritic cells can be selectively differentiated into tolerogenic or mature dendritic cells to regulate the balanc
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Frontiers | Immunoregulatory Role of NK Cells in Tissue Inflammation and Regeneration | NK and Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology

Frontiers | Immunoregulatory Role of NK Cells in Tissue Inflammation and Regeneration | NK and Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
NK cells represent an important first line of defense against viral infection and cancer and are also involved in tissue homeostasis. Studies of NK cell activation in the last decade have revealed that they are able to respond to the inflammatory stimuli evoked by tissue damage and contribute to both progression and resolution of diseases. Exacerbation of the inflammatory response through interactions between immune effector cells facilitates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. When hepatic damage is incurred, macrophage activation is crucial for initiating crosstalk with neighboring cells present in the liver, including hepatocytes and NK cells, and the importance of this interaction in shaping the immune response in liver disease is increasingly recognized. Inflicted structural damage can be in part regenerated via the process of self-limiting fibrosis, though persistent hepatic damage will lead to chronic fibrosis and loss of tissue organization and function. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells plays an important role in inducing hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and thus curtailing the progression of fibrosis. Alternatively, in some diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), NK cells may become dysregulated, promoting an immunosuppressive state where tumors are able to escape immune surveillance. This review describes the current understanding of the contributions of NK cells to tissue inflammation and metabolic liver diseases and the ongoing effort to develop therapeutics that target the immunoregulatory function of NK cells.
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Table of contents : Nature Immunology

Nature Immunology is a multidisciplinary journal that publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in all areas of immunology. Priority is given to work that provides fundamental insight into the workings of the immune system. Areas covered include, but are not limited to, innate immunity and inflammation; development; immune receptors, signaling and apoptosis; antigen presentation; gene regulation and recombination; cellular and systemic immunity; vaccines; immune tolerance; autoimmunity and tumor immunology, microbial immunopathology; and transplantation.
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An issue with a focus on Innate Lymphoid Cells for Nature Immunology
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Development of conventional dendritic cells: from common bone marrow progenitors to multiple subsets in peripheral tissues : Mucosal Immunology

Our review of DC ontogeny/subsets is now out in Mucosal Immunology. Hope you like it! #DCs #firstlastauthorpaper https://t.co/v244sUhrdR
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A review on dendritic cell differentiation
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The enemy within? New perspectives on autoimmune disease | British Society for Immunology

The enemy within? New perspectives on autoimmune disease | British Society for Immunology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
New knowledge generated by original basic science takes an average of 17 years to reach the clinic. That’s the conclusion reached by a number of authors who have sought to quantify what some have called the translational research time lag.
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How does the immune system know friend from foe in gut bacteria?

How does the immune system know friend from foe in gut bacteria? | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
New study shows how immune surveillance cells are trained to prevent attack on friendly gut bacteria even though they are clearly not part of host tissue.
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Oxygen can impair immune response in mice

Oxygen can impair immune response in mice | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Researchers have identified a mechanism in mice by which anticancer immune responses are inhibited within the lungs, a common site of metastasis for many cancers.
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Immunology: Live and let live - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

Immunology: Live and let live - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
In order to maintain the microflora in the gut, the immune system must be taught to tolerate foreign bacteria. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researches have now shown how immune surv..
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Frontiers | NK Cells: Uncertain Allies against Malaria | NK and Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology

Frontiers | NK Cells: Uncertain Allies against Malaria | NK and Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Until recently, studies of natural killer (NK) cells in infection have focused almost entirely on their role in viral infections. However, there is an increasing awareness of the potential for NK cells to contribute to the control of a wider range of pathogens, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium spp. Given the high prevalence of parasitic diseases in the developing world and the devastating effects these pathogens have on large numbers of vulnerable people, investigating interactions between NK cells and parasitized host cells presents the opportunity to reveal novel immunological mechanisms with the potential to aid efforts to eradicate these diseases. The capacity of NK cells to produce inflammatory cytokines early after malaria infection, as well as a possible role in direct cytotoxic killing of malaria-infected cells, suggest a beneficial impact of NK cells in this disease. However, NK cells may also contribute to overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the consequent immunopathology. As comparatively little is known about the role of NK cells later in the course of infection, and growing evidence suggests that heterogeneity in NK cell responses to malaria may be influenced by KIR/HLA interactions, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which NK cells might directly interact with parasitized cells may reveal a new role for these cells in the course of malaria infection.
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Frontiers | Microbe-Induced Inflammatory Signals Triggering Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes | Microbial Immunology

Frontiers | Microbe-Induced Inflammatory Signals Triggering Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes | Microbial Immunology | Immunology, vaccine & infectious diseases | Scoop.it
Acquired bone marrow failure syndromes encompass a unique set of disorders characterized by a reduction in the effective production of mature cells by the bone marrow. In the majority of cases, these syndromes are the result of the immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells or their progenitors at various stages of differentiation. Microbial infection has also been associated with hematopoietic stem cell injury and may lead to associated transient or persistent bone marrow failure, and recent evidence has highlighted the potential impact of commensal microbes and their metabolites on hematopoiesis. We summarize the interactions between microorganisms and the host immune system and emphasize how they may impact the development of acquired bone marrow failure.
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