one session of moderate exercise can also act as an anti-inflammatory. The findings have encouraging implications for chronic diseases like arthritis, fibromyalgia and for more pervasive conditions, such as obesity.
Denis Hudrisier's insight:
A nice alternative to using anti-inflammatory drugs!
Plasma cells (PCs) produce antibodies that mediate immunity after infection or vaccination. In contrast to PCs in the bone marrow, PCs in the gut have been considered short lived. In this study, we studied PC dynamics in the human small intestine by cell-turnover analysis in organ transplants and by retrospective cell birth dating measuring carbon-14 in genomic DNA. We identified three distinct PC subsets: a CD19+ PC subset was dynamically exchanged, whereas of two CD19− PC subsets, CD45+ PCs exhibited little and CD45− PCs no replacement and had a median age of 11 and 22 yr, respectively. Accumulation of CD45− PCs during ageing and the presence of rotavirus-specific clones entirely within the CD19− PC subsets support selection and maintenance of protective PCs for life in human intestine.
Denis Hudrisier's insight:
Lifelong persisting plasma (antibody-producing) cells: not solely in the bone marrow
Cancer immunotherapy involves targeting receptors and ligands of T-cells and tumor cells to amplify an immune response. By targeting these receptors and ligands, T-cell anti-cancer activity can be regulated. This blog the contribution of the receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 as well as their ligands CD80 and CD86 and their involvement in T-cell co-stimulation and activation or inhibition. Learn more with ProSci!
Lymphocyte trafficking through lymph nodes and lymph is an important immune surveillance mechanism of the body. Druzd et al. (2017) demonstrate that this trafficking occurs in a circadian manner and that adaptive immune responses are also time-of-day dependent and are ablated when circadian clock function is lost in T cells.
Denis Hudrisier's insight:
Very interesting observation, well documented in terms of mechanisms!
Using whole-genome data for single-nucleotide polymorphism and results from genome-wide association studies, the authors show that people’s preference for pairing with those with similar phenotypic traits has genetic causes and consequences.
This “Research Topic” is a call for papers to provide an up-to-date overview of current efforts to understand the immunological mechanisms of neoantigen directed T-cell immunity and the attempts to harvest this source of antigens for cancer immunotherapy. Recently, the work of different groups revealed that neoepitope-specific T cells are crucial for clinical responses mediated by adoptive transfer of autologous TILs or by immune checkpoint inhibitors. Moreover, ongoing clinical trials demonstrated clear evidence for the feasibility of individualized vaccination or adoptive cell therapy of cancer patients utilizing unique mutations as targets. Neoantigens may therefore constitute the Achilles´ heel of tumor cells.Translating neoantigen directed immunotherapy into clinical translation inspired important advancements in other fields but also generated new challenges. For instance, numerous groups work on improving NGS methods, generate innovative bioinformatic solutions for mutation identification and prioritization, or study the hierarchy of immunogenic mutations for cancer immunotherapy.We solicit high quality, original research and review articles centered on research and development in the field of cancer neoantigen research.• Mechanistic studies on immunogenicity of neoantigens in humans or preclinical animal models• Studies on mechanisms and efficacy of immunotherapeutic concepts targeting neoantigens via vaccination or adoptive cell therapy• Mode of action an
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play a key role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite the large number of immunological studies of these molecules, the relative contributions of the numerous IFNs to human survival remain largely unknown
Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self HLA class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during a developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation) or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation). NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR binding self HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR-HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants.
Erythroid function and development is intimately linked to macrophages. The primary function of erythrocytes is oxygen delivery, which is mediated by iron-containing hemoglobin. The major source of this iron is a recycling pathway where macrophages scavenge old and damaged erythrocytes to release iron contained within the heme moiety. Macrophages also promote erythropoiesis by providing a supportive niche in the bone-marrow as an integral component of ‘erythorblastic islands’. Importantly, inflammation leads to alterations in iron-handling by macrophages with significant impact on iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis. The importance of macrophages in erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis is well established and has been extensively reviewed. However, this developmental relationship is not one-way and erythrocytes can also regulate macrophage development and function. Erythrocyte-derived heme can induce the development of iron-recycling macrophages from monocytes, engage pattern recognition receptors to activate macrophages, and act as ligand for specific nuclear receptors to modulate macrophage function. Here we discuss the role of heme as a signaling molecule impacting macrophage homeostasis. We will review these actions of heme within the framework of our current understanding on the role of micro-environmental factors in macrophage development and function.
Researchers say fasting "flips a regenerative switch" which prompts stem cells to create brand new white blood cells Fasting for as little as three days can regenerate the entire immune system, even in the elderly, scientists have found in a breakthrough described as "remarkable". Although fasting diets have been criticised by nutritionists for being unhealthy,…
Generating protective immunity against the early liver stage of malaria infection is feasible but has been difficult to achieve in regions with high rates of malaria infection. Researchers at the Univ..
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