Immunology and Biotherapies
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The Candidate TB Vaccine, MVA85A, Induces Highly Durable Th1 Responses

The Candidate TB Vaccine, MVA85A, Induces Highly Durable Th1 Responses | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
by Michele Tameris, Hennie Geldenhuys, Angelique KanyKany Luabeya, Erica Smit, Jane E. Hughes, Samantha Vermaak, Willem A. Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Hassan Mahomed, Helen McShane, Thomas J.
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Immunology and Biotherapies
Page Ressources et Actualités du DIU immunologie et biothérapies
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Resources for DIU Immunologie et Biothérapies

DIU Immunologie et Biotherapies is a french diploma associating many french universities and immunology laboratories. It is dedicated to the involvement of immunology in new biotherapies, either molecular or cellular

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We choose Scoop.it as preferred curation tool to collect, select, comment informations flowing on the web in this rapidly evolving theme to keep teachers abreast of scientific knowledge and help students surf the wave...

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If you are interested

in Immunology also use http://www.scoop.it/t/immunology

in Mucosal Immunity http://www.scoop.it/t/mucosal-immunity

in Flow Cytometry and Cytomics http://www.scoop.it/t/from-flow-cytometry-to-cytomics

in Allergy an Clinical Immunology http://www.scoop.it/t/allergy-and-clinical-immunology

in Autoimmunity http://www.scoop.it/t/autoimmunity

 

For further informantions on Immune monitoring of Immune therapies, go to

http://www.scoop.it/t/immune-monitoring-1

by MdC

 

Looking for cancer applications inside this topic, use

http://www.scoop.it/t/immunology-and-biotherapies?q=cancer

 

Looking for cytokines and chemokines, use

http://www.scoop.it/t/cytokines-et-chimiokines

 

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Lawyer who represented participants in the TGN1412 drug trial to appear in BBC documentary

Lawyer who represented participants in the TGN1412 drug trial to appear in BBC documentary | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
London, Manchester & Liverpool injury & rights lawyers, phone 020 7650 1200 or 0161 393 3530
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10 years later.... clinical trial becomes BBC documentary, while medical and immunology students do not master concepts!
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How Herd Immunity Works [OC]

Album from /r/dataisbeautiful/comments/5v72fw/how_herd_immunity_works_oc/. How Herd Immunity Works [OC]
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All Antigens Are Not Created Equal | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN

All Antigens Are Not Created Equal | GEN Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotech from Bench to Business | GEN | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Unique tumor mutations called neoantigens could hold the key to personalized cancer therapies.

Via Krishan Maggon
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Plant-Made Vaccines in the Fight Against Cancer

Trends Immunotherapy is becoming a prominent approach to fight against cancer using treatments of higher efficacy and safety. Plant-based vaccines targeting several types of cancer have been developed over the past two decades. Plant-based vaccines are highly advantageous in terms of costs and safety. Preclinical evaluations have demonstrated potential prophylactic and therapeutic effects using plant-based vaccines. So far, the most prominent development of plant-based vaccines targeting cancer has been personalized vaccines for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which are in clinical trials.
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SpaceX Mission Poised for Notable Achievements – Parabolic Arc

SpaceX Mission Poised for Notable Achievements – Parabolic Arc | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
By Steven Siceloff, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, Florida NASA’s first cargo resupply mission of 2017 is poised to lift off from Kennedy Space Center
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The Dragon also carries an experiment coordinated by CASIS that will crystalize a human monoclonal antibody that has been developed by Merck Research Labs to treat immunological diseases. Crystalizing experiments on Earth have not produced high quality samples for study. It is hoped that larger crystals formed in the microgravity of space – where they won’t collapse under their own weight as they grow – will show how to make the medicines usable in injected form instead of intravenously.
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JCI Insight - Transient antibody targeting of CD45RC induces transplant tolerance and potent antigen-specific regulatory T cells

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The immuno-oncology race: myths and emerging realities : Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Nature Research

The immuno-oncology race: myths and emerging realities : Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Nature Research | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
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The Activating Human NK Cell Receptor KIR2DS2 Recognizes a β2-Microglobulin–Independent Ligand on Cancer Cells

The Activating Human NK Cell Receptor KIR2DS2 Recognizes a β2-Microglobulin–Independent Ligand on Cancer Cells | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
The functions of activating members of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family are not fully understood, as the ligands for these receptors are largely unidentified. In this study, we report that KIR2DS2 reporter cells recognize a ligand expressed by cancer cell lines. All cancer targets recognized by KIR2DS2 were also recognized by KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 reporters. Trogocytosis of membrane proteins from the cancer targets was observed with responding reporter cells, indicating the formation of KIR2DS2 ligand–specific immunological synapses. HLA-C typing of target cells showed that KIR2DS2 recognition was independent of the HLA C1 or C2 group, whereas targets cells that were only recognized by KIR2DL3 expressed C1 group alleles. Anti–HLA class I Abs blocked KIR2DL3 responses toward C1-expressing targets, but they did not block KIR2DS2 recognition of cancer cells. Small interfering RNA knockdown of β2-microglobulin reduced the expression of class I H chain on the cancer targets by >97%, but it did not reduce the KIR2DS2 reporter responses, indicating a β2-microglobulin–independent ligand for KIR2DS2. Importantly, KIR2DL3 responses toward some KIR2DS2 ligand–expressing cells were also undiminished after β2-microglobulin knockdown, and they were not blocked by anti–HLA class I Abs, suggesting that KIR2DL3, in addition to the traditional HLA-C ligands, can bind to the same β2-microglobulin–independent ligand as KIR2DS2. These observations indicate the existence of a novel, presently uncharacterized ligand for the activating NK cell receptor KIR2DS2. Molecular identification of this ligand may lead to improved KIR-HLA mismatching in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy for leukemia and new, more specific NK cell–based cancer therapies.

Via Krishan Maggon
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interesting new feature of KIR receptor
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Using EBV T Cells to Study the Immune System | Astarte Biologics

Using EBV T Cells to Study the Immune System | Astarte Biologics | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Use an EBV specific T cell line to study chronic infections in the immune system, understand tumor immunology, and search for cures to EBV-associated diseases.
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Primary, Adaptive, and Acquired Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy

Primary, Adaptive, and Acquired Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Cancer immunotherapy can induce long lasting responses in patients with metastatic
cancers of a wide range of histologies. Broadening the clinical applicability of these
treatments requires an improved understanding of the mechanisms limiting cancer immunotherapy.
The interactions between the immune system and cancer cells are continuous, dynamic,
and evolving from the initial establishment of a cancer cell to the development of
metastatic disease, which is dependent on immune evasion. As the molecular mechanisms
of resistance to immunotherapy are elucidated, actionable strategies to prevent or
treat them may be derived to improve clinical outcomes for patients.
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NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY | REVIEW Immune regulation by glucocorticoids

Derek W. Cain & John A. Cidlowski AffiliationsCorresponding author Nature Reviews Immunology (2017) doi:10.1038/nri.2017.1 Published online 13 February 2017
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at last, a recent review of a topic of general clinical interest

Endogenous glucocorticoids are crucial to various physiological processes, including metabolism, development and inflammation. Since 1948, synthetic glucocorticoids have been used to treat various immune-related disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the immunosuppressive properties of these hormones have been intensely scrutinized, and it is widely appreciated that glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects on the immune system. However, a clear picture of the cellular and molecular basis of glucocorticoid action has remained elusive. In this Review, we distil several decades of intense (and often conflicting) research that defines the interface between the endocrine stress response and the immune system.
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Fc Engineering for Developing Therapeutic Bispecific Antibodies and Novel Scaffolds. - PubMed - NCBI

Fc Engineering for Developing Therapeutic Bispecific Antibodies and Novel Scaffolds. - PubMed - NCBI | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Front Immunol. 2017 Jan 26;8:38. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00038. eCollection 2017. Review
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Efforts Continue to Refine Use of Checkpoint Inhibitors in NSCLC

Efforts Continue to Refine Use of Checkpoint Inhibitors in NSCLC | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Hossein Borghaei, DO, provides additional insight on checkpoint inhibitors, determining patient selection, and how these therapies will continue to significantly impact the treatment landscape in non–small cell lung cancer for years to come.
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Overview of T-cell Therapies

Overview of T-cell Therapies | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
The European Medicines Agency gave an update on the various T-cell therapies progressing through clinical trials across Europe. The video below is very imp

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Frontiers | TNF Blockade Maintains an IL-10+ Phenotype in Human Effector CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells | Immunological Tolerance and Regulation

Frontiers | TNF Blockade Maintains an IL-10+ Phenotype in Human Effector CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells | Immunological Tolerance and Regulation | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cell subpopulations can display regulatory potential characterized by expression of the prototypically anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms that regulate expression of IL-10 in different T cell subpopulations are not yet fully elucidated. We recently showed that TNF inhibitors (TNFi) promote IL-10 expression in human CD4+ T cells, including IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. Here we further characterized the regulation of IL-10 expression via blockade of TNF signaling, or other cytokine/co-stimulatory pathways, in human T cell subpopulations. Addition of the TNFi drug adalimumab to anti-CD3-stimulated human CD4+ T cell/monocyte co-cultures led to increased percentages of IL-10+ cells in pro-inflammatory IL-17+, IFNγ+, TNFα+, GM-CSF+ and IL-4+ CD4+ T cell subpopulations. Conversely, exogenous TNFα strongly decreased IL-10+ cell frequencies. TNF blockade also regulated IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells upon antigenic stimulation. Using time-course experiments in whole PBMC cultures, we show that TNF blockade maintained, rather than increased, IL-10+ cell frequencies in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro stimulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Blockade of IL-17, IFNγ, IL-6R or CD80/CD86-mediated co-stimulation did not significantly regulate IL-10 expression within CD4+ or CD8+ T cell subpopulations. We show that TNF blockade acts directly on effector CD4+ T cells, in the absence of monocytes or CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory T cells and independently of IL-27, resulting in higher IL-10+ frequencies after 3 days in culture. IL-10/IL-10R blockade reduced the frequency of IL-10-expressing cells both in the presence and absence of TNF blockade. Addition of recombinant IL-10 alone was insufficient to drive an increase in IL-10+ CD4+ T cell frequencies in 3 day CD4+ T cell/monocyte co-cultures, but resulted in increased IL-10 expression at later time points in whole PBMC cultures. Together these data provide additional insights into the regulation of IL-10 expression in human T cells by TNF blockade. The maintenance of an IL-10+ phenotype across a broad range of effector T cell subsets may represent an underappreciated mechanism of action underlying this widely used therapeutic strategy.
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'Final common pathway' of human cancer immunotherapy: targeting random somatic mutations : Nature Immunology : Nature Research

Rosenberg and colleagues review evidence suggesting that T cells that target tumor neoantigens arising from cancer mutations are the main mediators of many effective cancer immunotherapies in humans.
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PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies reverse the pro-inflammatory profile of monocytes in familial hypercholesterolaemia | European Heart Journal | Oxford Academic

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Aims</div>Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall contributes to arterial inflammation and atherosclerosis progression. Since elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been associated with activation of plasma monocytes, intensive LDL-C lowering may reverse these pro-inflammatory changes. Using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which selectively reduce LDL-C, we studied the impact of LDL-C lowering on monocyte phenotype and function in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) not using statins due to statin-associated muscle symptoms.<div class="boxTitle">Methods and results</div>We assessed monocyte phenotype and function using flow cytometry and a trans-endothelial migration assay in FH patients (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 22: LDL 6.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L) and healthy controls (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 18, LDL 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L). Monocyte chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 expression was approximaterly three-fold higher in FH patients compared with controls. C–C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) expression correlated significantly with plasma LDL-C levels (<span style="font-style:italic;">r</span> = 0.709) and was positively associated with intracellular lipid accumulation. Monocytes from FH patients also displayed enhanced migratory capacity <span style="font-style:italic;">ex vivo.</span> After 24 weeks of PCSK9 mAb treatment (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 17), plasma LDL-C was reduced by 49%, which coincided with reduced intracellular lipid accumulation and reduced CCR2 expression. Functional relevance was substantiated by the reversal of enhanced migratory capacity of monocytes following PCSK9 mAb therapy.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>Monocytes of FH patients have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is dampened by LDL-C lowering by PCSK9 mAb therapy. LDL-C lowering was paralleled by reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, suggesting that LDL-C lowering itself is associated with anti-inflammatory effects on circulating monocytes.</span>
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From basic apoptosis discoveries to advanced selective BCL-2 family inhibitors : Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Nature Research

From basic apoptosis discoveries to advanced selective BCL-2 family inhibitors : Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Nature Research | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
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Guidelines Planned on Management of Immunotherapy Side Effects: ASCO and NCCN to Collaborate on Development

Guidelines Planned on Management of Immunotherapy Side Effects: ASCO and NCCN to Collaborate on Development | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Given the pace of advances in immunotherapy in recent years and physicians’ need to keep up with these developments, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) announce a joint collaboration to publish practical clinical guidance on the management of side effects caused by immunotherapy.
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Kenneth Pettine, M.D. Releases an Easy to Understand History of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell

Kenneth Pettine, M.D. Releases an Easy to Understand History of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
In an effort to spread awareness and knowledge of the mesenchymal stem cell, Dr. Kenneth Pettine has released an easy to understand history.
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FDA approves new psoriasis drug  Siliq (brodalumab, Valeant)

FDA approves new psoriasis drug  Siliq (brodalumab, Valeant) | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Siliq (brodalumab) to treat adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Siliq is administered as an injection.


Siliq’s safety and efficacy were established in three randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with a total of 4,373 adult participants with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. More patients treated with Siliq compared to placebo had skin that was clear or almost clear, as assessed by scoring of the extent, nature and severity of psoriatic changes of the skin. 


 Suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicides, have occurred in patients treated with Siliq during clinical trials. Siliq users with a history of suicidality or depression had an increased incidence of suicidal ideation and behavior compared to users without this history. A causal association between treatment with Siliq and increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior has not been established.


The most common adverse reactions reported with the use of Siliq include joint pain (arthralgia), headache, fatigue, diarrhea, throat pain (oropharyngeal pain), nausea, muscle pain (myalgia), injection site reactions, influenza, low white blood cell count (neutropenia) and fungal (tinea) infections.


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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, February 16, 3:09 AM
Siliq’s active ingredient (brodalumab) binds to a protein that causes inflammation, inhibiting the inflammatory response that plays a role in the development of plaque psoriasis.

Because of the observed risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, the labeling for Siliq includes a Boxed Warning and the drug is only available through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the Siliq REMS Program.

Siliq is also approved with a Medication Guide to inform patients of the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, and that because Siliq is a medication that affects the immune system, patients may have a greater risk of getting an infection, or an allergic or autoimmune condition.


Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, February 16, 3:10 AM
Siliq’s active ingredient (brodalumab) binds to a protein that causes inflammation, inhibiting the inflammatory response that plays a role in the development of plaque psoriasis. 

 Because of the observed risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, the labeling for Siliq includes a Boxed Warning and the drug is only available through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the Siliq REMS Program. 

 Siliq is also approved with a Medication Guide to inform patients of the risk of suicidal ideation and behavior, and that because Siliq is a medication that affects the immune system, patients may have a greater risk of getting an infection, or an allergic or autoimmune condition.
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'Final common pathway' of human cancer immunotherapy: targeting random somatic mutations

Effective clinical cancer immunotherapies, such as administration of the cytokine IL-2, adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and the recent success of blockade of the checkpoint modulators CTLA-4 and PD-1, have been developed without clear identification of the immunogenic targets expressed by human cancers in vivo. Immunotherapy of patients with cancer through the use of ACT with autologous lymphocytes has provided an opportunity to directly investigate the antigen recognition of lymphocytes that mediate cancer regression in humans. High-throughput immunological testing of such lymphocytes in combination with improvements in deep sequencing of the autologous cancer have provided new insight into the molecular characterization and incidence of anti-tumor lymphocytes present in patients with cancer. Here we highlight evidence suggesting that T cells that target tumor neoantigens arising from cancer mutations are the main mediators of many effective cancer immunotherapies in humans.
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Association of peripheral NK cell counts with Helios+IFNy‐ Tregs in patients with good long‐term renal allograft function

Association of peripheral NK cell counts with Helios+IFNy‐ Tregs in patients with good long‐term renal allograft function | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Background: Little is known about a possible interaction of NK cells with Tregs in long‐term stable kidney transplant recipients.Methods: Absolute counts of lymphocyte and Treg subsets were studie
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European Commission : CORDIS : News and Events : The EU-funded project CARAT offers fellowships for a training course on CAR T cell manufacturing

European Commission : CORDIS : News and Events : The EU-funded project CARAT offers fellowships for a training course on CAR T cell manufacturing | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
European Commission
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Frontiers | Fc Engineering for Developing Therapeutic Bispecific Antibodies and Novel Scaffolds | Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics

Frontiers | Fc Engineering for Developing Therapeutic Bispecific Antibodies and Novel Scaffolds | Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics | Immunology and Biotherapies | Scoop.it
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies [mAbs] have become molecules of choice to treat autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Moreover, bispecific/multispecific antibodies that target more than one antigen or epitope on a target cell or recruit effector cells [T cell, natural killer (NK) cell or Macrophage cell] towards target cells have shown great potential to maximize the benefits of antibody therapy. In the past decade, many novel concepts to generate bispecific and multispecific antibodies have evolved successfully into a range of formats from full bispecific immunoglobulin gammas [IgGs] to antibody fragments. Impressively, antibody fragments such as bispecific T-cell engager [BiTE], bispecific killer cell engager [BiKE], trispecific killer cell engager [TriKE], tandem diabody [Tandab] and dual-affinity-retargeting [DART] are showing exciting results in terms of recruiting and activating self-immune effector cells to target and lyse tumor cells. Promisingly, Fc antigen binding fragment [Fcab] and monomeric antibody or half antibody may be particularly advantageous to target solid tumours owing to their small size and thus good tissue penetration potential while, on the other hand, keeping crystallizable fragment [Fc] related effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC], complement-dependent cytotoxicity [CDC], antibody dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis [ADCP] and extended serum half-life via interaction with neonatal Fc receptor [FcRn]. This review, therefore, focuses on the progress of Fc engineering in generating bispecific molecules and on the use of small antibody fragment as scaffolds for therapeutic development.

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, February 13, 6:03 AM
Front. Immunol., 26 January 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00038 ;
Fc Engineering for Developing Therapeutic Bispecific Antibodies and Novel Scaffolds image

Hongyan Liu, Abhishek Saxena, imageSachdev S. Sidhu and Donghui Wu