DIU Immunologie et Biotherapies is a french diploma associating many french universities and immunology laboratories. It is dedicated to the involvement of immunology in new biotherapies, either molecular or cellular
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Donor T cell–mediated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a serious complication of stem cell transplantation, but complete inhibition of T cell activation might leave the patient susceptible to leukemia relapse. Betts et al. targeted two kinases involved in T cell costimulation and cytokine-responsiveness to blunt T cell responses. Dual targeting drove human CD4 T cells to become potently suppressive T regulatory cells instead of TH17 effector cells and also prevented GVHD in a humanized mouse model. CD8 T cells were capable of activation after a tumor challenge, indicating that patients receiving this treatment might be able to mount antileukemia responses.
Antibodies to watch in 2017. mAbs. Accepted 5 December 2016. doi: 10.1080/19420862.2016.1269580
Abstract Over 50 investigational monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics are currently undergoing evaluation in late-stage clinical studies, which is expected to drive a trend toward first marketing approvals of at least 6–9 mAbs per year in the near-term. In the United States (US), a total of 6 and 9 mAbs were granted first approvals during 2014 and 2015, respectively; all these products are also approved in the European Union (EU). As of December 1, 2016, 6 mAbs (atezolizumab, olaratumab, reslizumab, ixekizumab, bezlotoxumab, oblitoxaximab) had been granted first approvals during 2016 in either the EU or US. Brodalumab, was granted a first approval in Japan in July 2016. Regulatory actions on marketing applications for brodalumab in the EU and US are not expected until 2017; however, a regulatory action on the biologics license application for ocrelizumab is expected by the end of 2016. In 2017, first EU or US approvals may be granted for at least eight other mAbs (avelumab, Xilonix, inotuzumab ozogamicin, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, guselkumab, romosozumab) that are not yet approved in any country. Based on announcements of company plans for regulatory submissions and the estimated completion dates for late-stage clinical studies, and assuming the study results are positive, marketing applications for at least 6 antibody therapeutics (benralizumab, tildrakizumab, emicizumab, galcanezumab, ibalizumab, PRO-140) that are now being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies may be submitted during December 2016 or 2017. Other ‘antibodies to watch’ in 2017 include 20 mAbs are undergoing evaluation in pivotal studies that have estimated primary completion dates in late 2016 or during 2017. Of these, 5 mAbs are for cancer (durvalumab, JNJ-56022473, ublituximab, anetumab ravtansine, glembatumumab vedotin) and 15 mAbs are for non-cancer indications (caplacizumab, lanadelumab, roledumab, tralokinumab, risankizumab, SA237, emapalumab, suptavumab, erenumab, eptinezumab, fremanezumab, fasinumab, tanezumab, lampalizumab, brolucizumab). Positive results from these studies may enable submission of marketing applications in 2017 or 2018, or provide justification for additional studies.
Keywords: antibody therapeutics, Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, cancer, immune-mediated disorders
Cell Research (2017) 27:109–118. doi:10.1038/cr.2016.151; published online 20 December 2016 Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy Atsushi Tanaka1,2 and Shimon Sakaguchi1
Abstract FOXP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress aberrant immune response against self-antigens, also suppress anti-tumor immune response. Infiltration of a large number of Treg cells into tumor tissues is often associated with poor prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that the removal of Treg cells is able to evoke and enhance anti-tumor immune response. However, systemic depletion of Treg cells may concurrently elicit deleterious autoimmunity. One strategy for evoking effective tumor immunity without autoimmunity is to specifically target terminally differentiated effector Treg cells rather than all FOXP3+ T cells, because effector Treg cells are the predominant cell type in tumor tissues. Various cell surface molecules, including chemokine receptors such as CCR4, that are specifically expressed by effector Treg cells can be the candidates for depleting effector Treg cells by specific cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies. In addition, other immunological characteristics of effector Treg cells, such as their high expression of CTLA-4, active proliferation, and apoptosis-prone tendency, can be exploited to control specifically their functions. For example, anti-CTLA-4 antibody may kill effector Treg cells or attenuate their suppressive activity. It is hoped that combination of Treg-cell targeting (e.g., by reducing Treg cells or attenuating their suppressive activity in tumor tissues) with the activation of tumor-specific effector T cells (e.g., by cancer vaccine or immune checkpoint blockade) will make the current cancer immunotherapy more effective.
Keywords: Treg; CTLA-4; cancer; immunotherapy
Abstract Biologics, both monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and fusion proteins, have revolutionized the practice of medicine. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the Food and Drug Administration approval of the first mAb for human use. In this review, we examine the biotechnological breakthroughs that spurred the explosive development of the biopharmaceutical mAb industry, as well as how critical lessons learned about human immunology informed the development of improved biologics. We also discuss the most common mechanisms of action of currently approved biologics and the indications for which they have been approved to date.