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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Neuroscience_topics
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The Number and Organization of Ca2+ Channels in the Active Zone Shapes Neurotransmitter Release from Schaffer Collateral Synapses

The Number and Organization of Ca2+ Channels in the Active Zone Shapes Neurotransmitter Release from Schaffer Collateral Synapses | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

[Abstract] Fast synaptic transmission requires tight colocalization of Ca2+ channels and neurotransmitter vesicles. It is generally thought that Ca2+ channels are expressed abundantly in presynaptic active zones, that vesicles within the same active zone have similar release properties, and that significant vesicle depletion only occurs at synapses with high release probability. Here we show, at excitatory CA3→CA1 synapses in mouse hippocampus, that release from individual vesicles is generally triggered by only one Ca2+ channel and that only few functional Ca2+ channels may be spread in the active zone at variable distances to neighboring neurotransmitter vesicles. Using morphologically realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we show that this arrangement leads to a widely heterogeneous distribution of release probability across the vesicles docked at the active zone, and that depletion of the vesicles closest to Ca2+ channels can account for the Ca2+ dependence of short-term plasticity at these synapses. These findings challenge the prevailing view that efficient synaptic transmission requires numerous presynaptic Ca2+ channels in the active zone, and indicate that the relative arrangement of Ca2+ channels and vesicles contributes to the heterogeneity of release probability within and across synapses and to vesicle depletion at small central synapses with low average release probability. - by Scimemi A. & Diamond J.S., The Journal of Neuroscience, 12 December 2012, 32(50): 18157-18176


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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RNA Kits for Next Generation Sequencing Workflow - Bioscience Technology

RNA Kits for Next Generation Sequencing Workflow - Bioscience Technology | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
Bioscience Technology RNA Kits for Next Generation Sequencing Workflow Bioscience Technology AMSBIO's sample library construction kits reduce NGS workflow complexity, shorten sample library preparation time and labor, and minimize errors by...

Via Pedro Fernandes
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age

Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
www.connectivism.ca “…the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing.” George Siemens In this piece George Siemens argues...

Via Ana Cristina Pratas, Paula King, Ph.D., Pedro Fernandes
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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Make it Share it - Free online drawing and animation tools

Make it Share it - Free online drawing and animation tools | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
Free online drawing and animation tools and software...

Via Baiba Svenca, Pedro Fernandes
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2012

Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2012 | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2012

A lecture series covering contemporary areas in genomics and bioinformatics

January 11 - April 25, 2012


Via Pedro Fernandes
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from iPads, MakerEd and More in Education
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Apple TV vs Interactive Whiteboards in the Classroom | Instructional Tech Talk

Apple TV vs Interactive Whiteboards in the Classroom | Instructional Tech Talk | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

"There have been several posts on the web discussing what makes the most sense to purchase for the classroom, an Apple TV setup or an Interactive Whiteboard. While it’s great to say one is better than the other, I would like to show you the differences between the two setups and break each setup down into categories to see which outperforms the other."


Via John Evans
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Darlene Clapham K12's curator insight, May 25, 2013 6:19 PM
I would like to hear from teachers who have experience with both IWB and Apple TV in the classroom. What is your opinion?
Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from The 21st Century
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How to Make an Infographic in Five Steps | Social Media Today

How to Make an Infographic in Five Steps | Social Media Today | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

A happy boy coloring walls (How to Make an Infographic in Five Steps | Social Media Today


Via Dr. Susan Bainbridge
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Plants and Microbes
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PLOS Pathogens: Coevolution and Hierarchical Interactions of Tomato mosaic virus and the Resistance Gene Tm-1 (2012)

PLOS Pathogens: Coevolution and Hierarchical Interactions of Tomato mosaic virus and the Resistance Gene Tm-1 (2012) | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

During antagonistic coevolution between viruses and their hosts, viruses have a major advantage by evolving more rapidly. Nevertheless, viruses and their hosts coexist and have coevolved, although the processes remain largely unknown. We previously identified Tm-1 that confers resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and revealed that it encodes a protein that binds ToMV replication proteins and inhibits RNA replication. Tm-1 was introgressed from a wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites into the cultivated tomato species Solanum lycopersicum. In this study, we analyzed Tm-1 alleles in S. habrochaites. Although most part of this gene was under purifying selection, a cluster of nonsynonymous substitutions in a small region important for inhibitory activity was identified, suggesting that the region is under positive selection. We then examined the resistance of S. habrochaites plants to ToMV. Approximately 60% of 149 individuals from 24 accessions were resistant to ToMV, while the others accumulated detectable levels of coat protein after inoculation. Unexpectedly, many S. habrochaites plants were observed in which even multiplication of the Tm-1-resistance-breaking ToMV mutant LT1 was inhibited. An amino acid change in the positively selected region of the Tm-1 protein was responsible for the inhibition of LT1 multiplication. This amino acid change allowed Tm-1 to bind LT1 replication proteins without losing the ability to bind replication proteins of wild-type ToMV. The antiviral spectra and biochemical properties suggest that Tm-1 has evolved by changing the strengths of its inhibitory activity rather than diversifying the recognition spectra. In the LT1-resistant S. habrochaites plants inoculated with LT1, mutant viruses emerged whose multiplication was not inhibited by the Tm-1 allele that confers resistance to LT1. However, the resistance-breaking mutants were less competitive than the parental strains in the absence of Tm-1. Based on these results, we discuss possible coevolutionary processes of ToMV and Tm-1.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Neuroscience_topics
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Functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction

Functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

The memory of fear extinction is context dependent: fear that is suppressed in one context readily renews in another. Understanding of the underlying neuronal circuits is, therefore, of considerable clinical relevance for anxiety disorders. Prefrontal cortical and hippocampal inputs to the amygdala have recently been shown to regulate the retrieval of fear memories, but the cellular organization of these projections remains unclear. By using anterograde tracing in a transgenic rat in which neurons express a dendritically-targeted PSD-95:Venus fusion protein under the control of a c-fos promoter, we found that, during the retrieval of extinction memory, the dominant input to active neurons in the lateral amygdala was from the infralimbic cortex, whereas the retrieval of fear memory was associated with greater hippocampal and prelimbic inputs. This pattern of retrieval-related afferent input was absent in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our data show functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction, providing a framework for therapeutic manipulations of these circuits. (...) - by Knapska E et al., PNAS October 16, 2012 vol. 109 no. 42 17093-17098


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Jim Siders's curator insight, February 11, 2013 1:45 PM

wonder what this does with learning opportunities

Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Geography Education
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The Role of Place in Discovery and Innovation

The Role of Place in Discovery and Innovation | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
The Kauffman Foundation's Samuel Arbesman on his new book, The Half-Life of Facts.

 

This is an interview, Samuel Arbesman,the author of The Half-Life of Facts explains how population density and place matter in forming a creative economic workforce. Urban centers act as drivers of innovation and advancements and attract the more ambitious and daring workers. Additionally, this map on the expansion of the printing press (discussed in the interview) is also a great map to show how technological innovations can spur cultural diffusion.

 

Tags: technology, diffusion, urban, labor, migration, book review.


Via Seth Dixon
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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A massively spectacular view of the chemical lives of microbes

A massively spectacular view of the chemical lives of microbes | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

NanoDESI MS combined with spectral networking may usher in a new era of discovery in the context of human therapeutics.


Via NatProdChem
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NatProdChem's curator insight, January 5, 2013 7:53 PM

A comment by Matthew F. Traxler and Roberto Kolter on the NanoDESI approach develloped by Waltrous et al. (see previous scoop).

Definitely future of natural products chemistry !!!

Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Neuroscience_topics
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Ion channels in genetic and acquired forms of epilepsy

Ion channels in genetic and acquired forms of epilepsy | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

Genetic mutations causing dysfunction of both voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels make a major contribution to the cause of many different types of familial epilepsy. Key mechanisms comprise defective Na+ channels of inhibitory neurons or GABAA receptors affecting pre- or postsynaptic GABAergic inhibition, or a dysfunction of different types of channels at axon initial segments. Many of the mentioned ion channel mutations have been modelled in mice which has largely contributed to the understanding of where and how the ion channel defects lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. Defects of ion channel function are also associated with forms of acquired epilepsies. Animal models of febrile seizures or mesial temporal epilepsy have shown that dendritic K+ channels, hyperpolarization-activated cation channels and T-type Ca2+ channels play important roles in the generation of seizures. For the latter, it has been shown that suppression of their function by pharmacological mechanisms or in knock-out mice can antagonize epileptogenesis. (...)  Nevertheless, the molecular bases for most common forms of epilepsy are not yet clear, and evidence to be discussed indicates just how much more we need to understand about the complex mechanisms that underlie epileptogenesis. - By Lerche H. et al., The Journal of Physiology, October 22, 2012


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Brasil integra o novo mapa da ciência | Agência FAPESP :: Especiais

Brasil integra o novo mapa da ciência | Agência FAPESP :: Especiais | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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The c MOOC as knowledge ecologies

The c MOOC as knowledge ecologies | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
Thanks to Stephen Downes for the reference to Dr. Mohamed Amine Chatti’s Knowledge Management: A Personal Knowledge Network Perspective. Here are some abstracts that I would like to quote: Kn...

Via Ana Cristina Pratas, Paula King, Ph.D., Pedro Fernandes
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Ken Morrison's comment, September 4, 2012 11:10 PM
Thank you for the rescoop.
Ken
Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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The 25 Most Beautiful Public Libraries in the World

The 25 Most Beautiful Public Libraries in the World | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

Public libraries are places where anyone can enter and partake of knowledge, where anyone can engage with history, literature and culture. And while we know it’s the books that are important, everyone likes to read in a beautiful space, so take a look at the most beautiful public libraries in the world here: http://www.flavorwire.com/280318/the-25-most-beautiful-public-libraries-in-the-world?all=1


Via Fe Angela M. Verzosa, Pedro Fernandes
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Bioinformatics Training
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[Personal Shitinomics] Phase I: Collecting and sending poo to the other side of the globe

[Personal Shitinomics] Phase I: Collecting and sending poo to the other side of the globe | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
Finally, I was able to find the appropriate means to send the fecal sample to Hong Kong, for the BGI to analyse my faeces.

Via Pedro Fernandes
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Mycorrhizal fungal genomes
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Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Rhizophagus irregularis – syn. Glomus irregulare – reveals a polymorphism induced by variability generating elements

Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Rhizophagus irregularis – syn. Glomus irregulare – reveals a polymorphism induced by variability generating elements | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are involved in one of the most widespread plant–fungus interactions. A number of studies on the population dynamics of AM fungi have used mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences, and yet mt AM fungus genomes are poorly known. To date, four mt genomes of three species of AM fungi are available, among which are two from Rhizophagus irregularis.
In order to study intra- and interstrain mt genome variability of R. irregularis, we sequenced and de novo assembled four additional mt genomes of this species. We used 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina technologies to directly sequence mt genomes from total genomic DNA.
The mt genomes are unique within each strain. Interstrain divergences in genome size, as a result of highly polymorphic intergenic and intronic sequences, were observed. The polymorphism is brought about by three types of variability generating element (VGE): homing endonucleases, DNA polymerase domain-containing open reading frames and small inverted repeats. Based on VGE positioning, mt sequences and nuclear markers, two subclades of R. irregularis were characterized.
The discovery of VGEs highlights the great intraspecific plasticity of the R. irregularis mt genome. VGEs allow the design of powerful mt markers for the typing and monitoring of R. irregularis strains in genetic and population studies.

 

 

DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04283.x


Via Stefano Ghignone
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Rhizobium Research
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Functional modules, structural topology, and optimal activity in metabolic networks

Functional modules, structural topology, and optimal activity in metabolic networks | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it

Modular organization in biological networks has been suggested as a natural mechanism by which a cell coordinates its metabolic strategies for evolving and responding to environmental perturbations. To understand how this occurs, there is a need for developing computational schemes that contribute to integration of genomic-scale information and assist investigators in formulating biological hypotheses in a quantitative and systematic fashion. In this work, we combined metabolome data and constraint-based modeling to elucidate the relationships among structural modules, functional organization, and the optimal metabolic phenotype of Rhizobium etli, a bacterium that fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris. To experimentally characterize the metabolic phenotype of this microorganism, we obtained the metabolic profile of 220 metabolites at two physiological stages: under free-living conditions, and during nitrogen fixation with P. vulgaris. By integrating these data into a constraint-based model, we built a refined computational platform with the capability to survey the metabolic activity underlying nitrogen fixation in R. etli. Topological analysis of the metabolic reconstruction led us to identify modular structures with functional activities. Consistent with modular activity in metabolism, we found that most of the metabolites experimentally detected in each module simultaneously increased their relative abundances during nitrogen fixation. In this work, we explore the relationships among topology, biological function, and optimal activity in the metabolism of R. etli through an integrative analysis based on modeling and metabolome data. Our findings suggest that the metabolic activity during nitrogen fixation is supported by interacting structural modules that correlate with three functional classifications: nucleic acids, peptides, and lipids. More fundamentally, we supply evidence that such modular organization during functional nitrogen fixation is a robust property under different environmental conditions.

 

Resendis-Antonio O, Hernández M, Mora Y, Encarnación S. (2012).  PLoS Comput Biol. 2012 Oct;8(10):e1002720.


Via IvanOresnik
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from Digital Presentations in Education
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Screen-O-Matic: One-click Screen Capture Recording Tool

Screen-O-Matic: One-click Screen Capture Recording Tool | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
It has gained an immense popularity because of its main feature ‘one-click online screen recorder for free’. At times making a video recording of screen might seems difficult, However Screencast-O-Matic tool have made this task quite simple.

Via Baiba Svenca
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Rescooped by Capixaba Institute of Sciences and Management (ICCA) from iPads, MakerEd and More in Education
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iPad Today 120 - App Stew! Girls Like Robots, Dungeon Story

iPad Today 120 - App Stew! Girls Like Robots, Dungeon Story | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
Crazy game apps, the truth about the Mini, Surface vs. iPad, Things for getting things done, & more!

Via John Evans
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CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior

CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior | ICCA NEWS AND VIEWS | Scoop.it
Visa a melhoria da pós-graduação brasileira, através de avaliação, divulgação, formação de recursos e promoção da cooperação científica internacional.
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