Humanities research task - Deep Earth
25 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

BREAKING NEWS: Iran struck by magnitude 7.8 earthquake | iNews Ghana: Latest News in Ghana | Ghana Music Awards

BREAKING NEWS: Iran struck by magnitude 7.8 earthquake | iNews Ghana: Latest News in Ghana | Ghana Music Awards | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
A magnitude 7.8 earthquake has struck south-east Iran, the US Geological Survey (USGS) reports.
The epicentre of the huge quake was 86km (53 miles) from the
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

1906 San Francisco earthquake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco and the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906.[3] Devastating fires broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result of the quake and fires, about 3,000 people died[4] and over 80% of San Francisco was destroyed.

The earthquake and resulting fire are remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the United States[5] alongside the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005.[6] The death toll from the earthquake and resulting fire is the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history.

At the time, 375 deaths were reported.[7] That figure was fabricated by government officials who felt that reporting the true death toll would hurt real estate prices and efforts to rebuild the city.[citation needed] Hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded; that number is still uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum.[8] Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area;[3] nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose also suffered severe damage. In Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new outlet just north of Marina.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Ring of Fire

Ring of Fire | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
Encyclopedic entry. The Ring of Fire is a string of volcanoes and sites of seismic activity, or earthquakes, around the edges of the Pacific Ocean.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

List of tectonic plates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth. Tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere. The plates are around 62 mi (100 km) thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust (also called sima from silicon and magnesium) and continental crust (sial from silicon and aluminium). The composition of the two types of crust differs markedly, with basaltic rocks ("mafic") dominating oceanic crust, while continental crust consists principally of lower density granitic rocks ("felsic"). See also Plate tectonics

The following tectonic plates currently exist on the Earth's surface with roughly definable boundaries.

These seven plates comprise the bulk of the continents and the Pacific Ocean.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

San Andreas Fault - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 810 miles (1,300 km) through California in the United States. It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip (horizontal). The fault divides into three segments, each with different characteristics, and a different degree of earthquake risk.

The origins of the fault can be traced back to the subduction of a spreading ridge 30 million years ago, although the most significant (Southern) segment only dates back about 5 million years. The fault was first identified in the Northern zone by the UC Berkeley geology professor Andrew Lawson in 1895. After the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, Lawson discovered that it extended into southern California, and Thomas Dibblee’s assertion in 1953 that it ran for hundreds of miles took the scientific establishment by surprise.[1]

Speculation about ‘the next big one’ is the subject of formal study at the University of California, and the San Andreas Fault at Depth (SAFOD) is drilling deep into the fault, to improve recording and prediction of quakes.

ZYM0001's insight:

This is going to be my regional inquiry

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Popocatepetl Volcano: Earthquake and Growing Lava Dome Threaten Further Eruptions [VIDEO]

Popocatepetl Volcano: Earthquake and Growing Lava Dome Threaten Further Eruptions [VIDEO] | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
Mexico seismologists increase alert level to Yellow Phase 3 in wake of small earthquake and increased volcanic 'exhalations'.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Plate Tectonics-- Difference between crust and lithosphere

Plate Tectonics Introduction and Difference between crust and lithosphere
ZYM0001's insight:

Khanacademy series of videos on plate tectonics

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Volcano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates, e.g., in the East African Rift, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "Plate hypothesis" volcanism.[1] Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.

Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. Volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere or troposphere; however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the stratosphere. Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Paricutin Volcano in Mexico unbelievable view | World Visits

Paricutin Volcano in Mexico unbelievable view | World Visits | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
ZYM0001's insight:

linked for photos of paracutin

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Plate Tectonics, Tectonic Plates Information, Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic

Plate Tectonics, Tectonic Plates Information, Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
Get information, facts, photos, news, videos, and more about plate tectonics from National Geographic.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Alfred Wegener - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alfred Lothar Wegener (November 1, 1880 – November 1930) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.

During his lifetime he was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research, but today he is most remembered for advancing the theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung) in 1912, which hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth. His hypothesis was controversial and not widely accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries such as palaeomagnetism provided strong support for continental drift, and thereby a substantial basis for today's model of Plate tectonics.[1][2] Wegener was involved in several expeditions to Greenland to study polar air circulation before the existence of the jet stream was accepted. Expedition participants made many meteorological observations and achieved the first-ever overwintering on the inland Greenland ice sheet as well as the first-ever boring of ice cores on a moving Arctic glacier.

On November 1, 1880, Alfred Wegener was born in Berlin as the youngest of five children in a clergyman's family. His father, Richard Wegener, was a theologian and teacher of classical languages at the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster. In 1886 his family purchased a former manor house near Rheinsberg, which they used as a vacation home. Today there is an Alfred Wegener Memorial site and tourist information office in a nearby building that was once the local schoolhouse.[3]

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Parícutin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, also accented Paricutín) is a cinder cone volcano in the Mexican state of Michoacán, close to a lava-covered village of the same name. The volcano is unique in the fact that its evolution from creation to extinction was witnessed, observed and studied by human beings. It appears on many versions of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Parícutin is part of the Michoacán-Guanajuato volcanic field, which covers much of west central Mexico. It is part of the Ring of Fire.

Three weeks before the actual eruption, rumbling noises that resembled thunder were heard by people near Parícutin village. These were actually deep earthquakes.[3] The volcano began as a fissure in a cornfield owned by a P'urhépecha farmer, Dionisio Pulido, on February 20, 1943. He and his wife witnessed the initial eruption of ash and stones first-hand: "Dionisio Pulido and his wife Paula were burning shrubbery in their cornfield."[3] The volcano grew quickly, reaching five stories tall in just a week, and it could be seen from afar in a month. Much of the volcano's growth occurred during its first year, while it was still in the explosive pyroclastic phase. The nearby villages Parícutin (after which the volcano was named) and San Juan Parangaricutiro were both buried in lava and ash; the residents relocated to vacant land nearby.

At the end of this phase, after roughly one year, the volcano had grown 336 metres (1,102 feet) tall. For the next eight years the volcano continued erupting, although this was dominated by relatively quiet eruptions of lava that scorched the surrounding 25 square kilometres (9.7 square miles; 6,200 acres) of land.[4] The volcano's activity slowly declined during this period until the last six months of the eruption, during which violent and explosive activity was frequent. In 1952, the eruption ended and Parícutin went quiet, attaining a final height of 424 metres (1,391 feet) above the cornfield where it began. The volcano has been quiet since then. Like most cinder cones, Parícutin is believed to be a monogenetic volcano, which means that once it has finished erupting, it will never erupt again. Any new eruptions in a monogenetic volcanic field erupt in a new location.

more...
ZYM0001's comment, July 25, 2013 12:03 AM
This is going to be my local inquiry
Rescooped by ZYM0001 from Deep Earth-Earthquakes
Scoop.it!

Research Shakes Up Earthquake-Energy Connection - EarthTechling

Research Shakes Up Earthquake-Energy Connection - EarthTechling | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
EarthTechling
Research Shakes Up Earthquake-Energy Connection
EarthTechling
A second study in the same issue of Science focused on the link between geothermal energy production and earthquakes.

Via yan0035
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Continent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, with up to seven regions commonly regarded as continents—they are (from largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.[1]

In geology, continents are described by means of tectonic plates. Plate tectonics is the process and study of the movement, collision and division of continents, earlier known as continental drift.

Conventionally, "continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, ideally separated by expanses of water."[2] Many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated by water. The criterion "large" leads to arbitrary classification: Greenland, with a surface area of 2,166,086 square kilometres (836,330 sq mi) is considered the world's largest island, while Australia, at 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is deemed to be a continent. Likewise, the ideal criterion that each be a continuous landmass is often disregarded by the inclusion of the continental shelf and oceanic islands, and contradicted by classifying North and South America as two continents; and/or Eurasia and Africa as two continents, with no natural separation by water. This anomaly reaches its extreme if the continuous land mass of Europe and Asia is considered to constitute two continents. The Earth's major landmasses are washed upon by a single, continuous world ocean, which is divided into a number of principal oceanic components by the continents and various geographic criteria.[3][4] Continents are sometimes extended beyond the major landmasses, in a way that every bit of land on earth is included in a continent.[5]

more...
ZYM0001's comment, July 25, 2013 12:03 AM
This will be part of my global enquiry
Rescooped by ZYM0001 from Deep Earth by Sean
Scoop.it!

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle - PhysOrg.com

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle - PhysOrg.com | Humanities research task - Deep Earth | Scoop.it
Scientists have long believed that lava erupted from certain oceanic volcanoes contains materials from the early Earth's crust. But decisive evidence for this phenomenon has proven elusive. New research from a team ...

Via Sean0020
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by ZYM0001
Scoop.it!

Earthquake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.

Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and over potentially cause serious damage over larger areas, depending on their depth. The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of October 2012), and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. The shallower an earthquake, the more damage to structures it causes, all else being equal.[1]

At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.

more...
No comment yet.