The different languages and dialects of the world are generally associated with specific countries, regions, or even towns. Before there were billions of people on Earth, smaller groups and communities developed and spoke their own individual languages, and when those groups and communities stayed in the same place for hundreds or thousands of years, those languages became associated with the land they lived in. However, not everyone stayed in the same place all the time, and social change from war, commerce, travel, and environmental change pushed or pulled people into different regions, where they’d both influence and be influenced by the new languages spoken there. That’s why English is full of words from other languages, and why it’s often helpful to learn a second language to improve your vocabulary in the first one. - See more at: http://www.ultimatevocabulary.com/2014/01/tracing-the-language-family-tree/#sthash.mJ66M8qA.dpuf
The United States and Europe have reacted against Russia's military intervention in the Crimean peninsula last week with threats of economic punishments. But their positions are slightly different. Here's why.
"The oil boom has legs, the recession is lingering and Maine is getting old". This is a great look at areas in the US that have gained or lost population in 2013 and the reasons behind shifts in fertility and migration.
The world is urbanising rapidly (World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision). Some of its rapidly growing cities, however, seem to be misplaced. They are located in places hampered by poor access to world markets, shortages of water, or vulnerability to flooding, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
This outcome – cities being stuck in the wrong places – has dire economic and social consequences. When thinking about policy responses, a key research question is whether historical events can leave towns trapped in suboptimal places.
New research on a historical ‘experiment’
Our recent research looks at this issue by comparing the evolution of two initially similar urban networks following a historical calamity that wiped out one, while leaving the other largely intact (Michaels and Rauch 2013). The specific setting in which we examine this is northwestern Europe, where we trace out the effects of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire more than 1500 years ago, through to the present day.
"A map marked with crude chinagraph-pencil in the second decade of the 20th Century shows the ambition - and folly - of the 100-year old British-French plan that helped create the modern-day Middle East."
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' comes from the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. No actual biological relationship between speakers is implied by the metaphor.
"The video clip shows the cliff where the fall initiated, near the ledge close to the skyline. Then, below the ledge, you can see the talus cone, which are rocky bits along the slope. The really large boulders that fell down and ruined the house have carved out soil ruts as the boulders rolled downhill." http://geographyeducation.org/2014/01/30/gravity/