AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO
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Old Mexico lives on

Old Mexico lives on | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
On February 2nd 1848, following a short and one-sided war, Mexico agreed to cede more than half its territory to the United States. An area covering most of present-day Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah, plus parts of several other states, was handed over to gringolandia. The rebellious state of Tejas, which had declared its independence from Mexico in 1836, was recognised as American soil too. But a century and a half later, communities have proved more durable than borders. The counties with the highest concentration of Mexicans (as defined by ethnicity, rather than citizenship) overlap closely with the area that belonged to Mexico before the great gringo land-grab of 1848. Some are recent arrivals; others trace their roots to long before the map was redrawn. They didn’t jump the border—it jumped them.

 

Tags: culture, demographics, North America, historical, colonialism, borders, political.


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Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute

Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
Three African leaders sign an initial deal to end a long-running dispute over the sharing of Nile waters and the building of Africa's biggest hydroelectric dam.

Via Seth Dixon, Adrian Bahan (MNPS)
Mike Busarello's Digital Storybooks's insight:

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  


Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, supranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

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David Lizotte's curator insight, April 10, 2015 3:29 PM

The key of this article is that there has been an initial treaty signed. This agreement overturns a colonial era treaty which stated any countries upstream (south of Egypt) essentially had no right to touch the Nile in any way that would effect Egypt. They had veto power over everything. 

The reason behind this is that Ethiopia had overthrown there colonial power-Italy, in the 1890's-and was henceforth its own country. Another attempt to seize Ethiopia took place in the 1930's under Benito Mussolini's rule. Him being a fascist and wanting to be like Hitler and take everything certainly contributed to Mussolini wanting to take Ethiopia. Another contributing factor is the fact that Italy tried and failed in claiming/colonizing Ethiopia. They had lost in the battle field. Mussolini wanted to improve and prove Eastern Italian Africa's dominance. Ethiopia would be freed of Italy's rule during WWII and become its own country once again. In any case the article states the treaty designed by the British was set forth in 1929. Ethiopia was not part of British Africa, or a protectorate (in regards to what Egypt would become in relation to the UK), so Britain would not care about the Nile in Ethiopia, rather the Nile in Sudan and especially in Egypt. Any country upstream is to not obstruct or deter the natural flow of the Nile-a pivotal source for Egyptian civilization. 90 percent of Egyptians live within 20km of the Nile while a little over 50 percent live within 1km. It is clear Egypt needs the Nile in order to function.

Ethiopia is able to create jobs through the building of the dam and will also be able to employ people through dam maintenance, inspections, etc... for years to come (if the dam is built). The dam will also provide an immense amount of power/energy, truly benefiting the country. The article states Ethiopia just wants to take a more fair share of the Nile. Everybody feels entitled to the Nile. This concept I understand. With that being said I also understand the concept of Egypt being concerned. There country functions though the Nile and its existing. 

I would like to see more of Ethiopia's plans and the statistics they've gathered throughout the duration of this project. I'm sure they have comprised some projected statistics, not just focusing on the positive aspects (for them) but also the negative aspects for Sudan and Egypt. The article states Sudan is on board but Egypt-although taking part in the new agreement thus putting aside the colonial era treaty- is very hesitant when discussing the existence of the dam. Obviously there are fair reasons for the concern...but then again exactly what are the reasons? How would the Nile be affected by the dam and also how would countries downstream (Egypt, Sudan) be affected? 

Its a concern amongst African countries but is it also a concern amongst the world? Will professionals from other countries "put their two cents in?" 

With all this being said, I suppose it does not matter...to Ethiopia. They have already begun the process of building and are about 30% completed. As stated in this bbc article: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26679225 Another interesting factor is how other sub Saharan countries are in favor of the dam. Why? Being in favor means they probably benefit from the dam as well, however this is something that may come to my light at the dam progresses. Until the dams construction is arrested, the dam is certainly being built. Ethiopia is making ground, excuse me energy, to better its country as a whole.  

Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, May 6, 2015 7:22 PM

This article discusses the dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the construction of a dam that would provide Ethiopia with a larger share of the Nile's water. Egypt is wholly opposed to this dam because it would mean less water for the country, which so desperately needs it. With 95% of the population of Egypt living within 20km of the Nile River, a reduction in the amount of water supplied to these tens of millions could potentially spell slow disaster. At the same time, however, Ethiopia desperately needs water from the Nile in order to provide sustainable energy for its citizens. 

 

The Nile has been a source of life and energy for thousands of years in an oppressively hot, dry place. The ancient Egyptians counted on the Nile to flood every year so that they would have arable land and used the large river to irrigate their farmland. It is almost ironic, therefore, that Egyptians are once again counting on the water of the Nile to help them survive in such a harsh climate. It seems that the Nile is one of those natural geographic features that is pivotal to political, economic, and social wellbeing. It represents the nexus between natural landforms and the political and economic goals of human beings and nations. Dispute over use of the Nile as a natural and life-giving resource is not the first instance of human debate over possession or use of natural geography and it likely won't be the last. 

Adrian Bahan (MNPS)'s curator insight, March 31, 11:57 AM

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  


Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, supranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

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Timeline of the Breakup of Yugoslavia

Map animation depicting the break up of Yugoslavia through the series of political upheavals and conflicts that occurred from the early 1990's onwards. Different areas of control are colour coded.

 

Tags: devolution, historical, political, states, borders, political, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia.


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Photographs: 22+ International Borders Around The World

Photographs: 22+ International Borders Around The World | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
History (and sometimes, unfortunately, current events) shows us just how easily national borders can change, but we still like to think that they are permanent fixtures. These photos of different national borders around the world show you how both friendly and hostile nations like to fence off their turf.

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Why India and Bangladesh have the world's craziest border

Why India and Bangladesh have the world's craziest border | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
On July 31st India and Bangladesh will exchange 162 parcels of land, each of which happens to lie on the wrong side of the Indo-Bangladesh border. The end of these enclaves follows an agreement made between India and Bangladesh on June 6th. The territories along the world’s craziest border include the pièce de résistance of strange geography: the world’s only “counter-counter-enclave”: a patch of India surrounded by Bangladeshi territory, inside an Indian enclave within Bangladesh. How did the enclaves come into existence?The enclaves are invisible on most maps; most are invisible on the ground too. But they became an evident problem for their 50,000-odd inhabitants with the emergence of passport and visa controls. Independent India and Bangladesh—part of Pakistan until 1971—each refused to let the other administer its exclaves, leaving their people effectively stateless.According to Reece Jones, a political geographer, the plots were cut from larger territories by treaties signed in 1711 and 1713 between the maharaja of Cooch Behar and the Mughal emperor in Delhi, bringing to an end a series of minor wars.It was partition, the division of India and Pakistan, that turned the enclaves into a no-man’s-land. The Hindu maharaja of Cooch Behar chose to join India in 1949 and he brought with him the ex-Mughal, ex-British possessions he inherited. Enclaves on the other side of the new border were swallowed (but not digested) by East Pakistan, which later became Bangladesh.

 

Tags: borders, geopolitics, political, India, South Asia, Bangladesh.


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Stephen Zimmett's curator insight, July 22, 2015 12:32 PM
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Alex Vielman's curator insight, December 15, 2015 12:10 AM

The images in the above article truly define how the geography of an area can not last forever. Maps are continuously changing and the border changing of Bangladesh and India is a clear example. In the map giving, we can see that there is an odd circular border forming inside of what seems or should be Bangladesh territory in the upper North of India. Because of the zigging and zagging, the border along these two country is the fifth longest in the world. It is important to understand how and why territories and regions are divided, and also the affects it has for the people in the region. Since establishing a proper border is in the works between the two countries, this will allow  residents in the region, who can now choose which country to join. The overall matter is to provide a more simpler border line without a border battle. 

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22+ International Borders Around The World

22+ International Borders Around The World | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
History (and sometimes, unfortunately, current events) shows us just how easily national borders can change, but we still like to think that they are permanent fixtures. These photos of different national borders around the world show you how both friendly and hostile nations like to fence off their turf.

 

Borders can make for some striking manifestations of power on the landscape.  On the other hand as seen in this picture of Slovakia, Austria and Hungary, friendship and cooperation can also be inscribed into the landscape.  There are some great teaching images in this gallery. 

 

Tags: border, political, territoriality, sovereignty,  images, land use, landscape.


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Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, June 1, 2015 9:38 AM

Unit 4

Level343's curator insight, June 1, 2015 3:00 PM

Now that's cool!!

Dwane Burke's curator insight, June 3, 2015 6:16 PM

What do these say about the world?

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Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute

Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
Three African leaders sign an initial deal to end a long-running dispute over the sharing of Nile waters and the building of Africa's biggest hydroelectric dam.

Via Seth Dixon, David Lizotte, Luke Gray
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Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, May 6, 2015 7:22 PM

This article discusses the dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the construction of a dam that would provide Ethiopia with a larger share of the Nile's water. Egypt is wholly opposed to this dam because it would mean less water for the country, which so desperately needs it. With 95% of the population of Egypt living within 20km of the Nile River, a reduction in the amount of water supplied to these tens of millions could potentially spell slow disaster. At the same time, however, Ethiopia desperately needs water from the Nile in order to provide sustainable energy for its citizens. 

 

The Nile has been a source of life and energy for thousands of years in an oppressively hot, dry place. The ancient Egyptians counted on the Nile to flood every year so that they would have arable land and used the large river to irrigate their farmland. It is almost ironic, therefore, that Egyptians are once again counting on the water of the Nile to help them survive in such a harsh climate. It seems that the Nile is one of those natural geographic features that is pivotal to political, economic, and social wellbeing. It represents the nexus between natural landforms and the political and economic goals of human beings and nations. Dispute over use of the Nile as a natural and life-giving resource is not the first instance of human debate over possession or use of natural geography and it likely won't be the last. 

Adrian Bahan (MNPS)'s curator insight, March 31, 11:57 AM

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  


Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, supranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

Mike Busarello's Digital Storybooks's curator insight, April 1, 12:19 AM

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  


Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, supranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

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China building 'great wall of sand' in South China Sea

China building 'great wall of sand' in South China Sea | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
The scale of China's land reclamation in the South China Sea is leading to "serious questions" on its intentions, a top US official says.


China is building artificial land by pumping sand on to live coral reefs - some of them submerged - and paving over them with concrete. China has now created over 4sq/km (1.5 sq miles) of artificial landmass.  China is creating a great wall of sand with dredges and bulldozers over the course of months.


Tags: borders, political, conflict, water, China, East Asia.


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PIRatE Lab's curator insight, April 3, 2015 10:45 AM

In addition to the original BBC article, here is another article from the Telegraph with some aerial imagery showing the extent of this geo-engineering project.  This has plenty of geopolitical implications and the United States government is on record saying that it is "concerned."

Danielle Lip's curator insight, April 6, 2015 9:16 PM

Pumping in sand to cover coral reef and create more land is a very inventive way to make new territory, using concrete and placing bulldozers and other machinery is helping China gain more land and gain more access in the South China Sea yet this who pumping is making people question and causing places such as the Philippines to  file complaints saying they will not be associated with the whole plan that China has. Why is China exactly pumping sand and spreading concrete over the live coral reefs? Does China know they are killing live animals and plants underneath the sea? 

While looking into the matter I found that China believed the whole act of reclaiming land to be "entirely within China's sovereignty and are totally justifiable". Now people all over the world are focused on land and power, not about other social matters. This land pumping is not only causing conflict but it is creating more opportunity to better work and living conditions.

Bob Beaven's curator insight, April 16, 2015 2:41 PM

China is a large and powerful nation that is not afraid of flexing military muscle to its smaller neighbors.  The developments of China building artificial land to strengthen its claim in the region shows how determined the country is to have its claims honored.  It also shows that China will stop at nothing to have regions were resources could be to aid in the countries economic growth.  However, China is causing a great deal of controversy through its actions.  Also, China's neighbors are becoming increasingly frustrated with the large nation, yet they are all much smaller nations that really can't prevent the Chinese from doing what they want, especially with China declaring it won't listen to what the UN has to say.  China is a country that is not afraid of strongman politics to get what it wants.

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Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute

Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
Three African leaders sign an initial deal to end a long-running dispute over the sharing of Nile waters and the building of Africa's biggest hydroelectric dam.

Via Seth Dixon
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Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, May 6, 2015 7:22 PM

This article discusses the dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the construction of a dam that would provide Ethiopia with a larger share of the Nile's water. Egypt is wholly opposed to this dam because it would mean less water for the country, which so desperately needs it. With 95% of the population of Egypt living within 20km of the Nile River, a reduction in the amount of water supplied to these tens of millions could potentially spell slow disaster. At the same time, however, Ethiopia desperately needs water from the Nile in order to provide sustainable energy for its citizens. 

 

The Nile has been a source of life and energy for thousands of years in an oppressively hot, dry place. The ancient Egyptians counted on the Nile to flood every year so that they would have arable land and used the large river to irrigate their farmland. It is almost ironic, therefore, that Egyptians are once again counting on the water of the Nile to help them survive in such a harsh climate. It seems that the Nile is one of those natural geographic features that is pivotal to political, economic, and social wellbeing. It represents the nexus between natural landforms and the political and economic goals of human beings and nations. Dispute over use of the Nile as a natural and life-giving resource is not the first instance of human debate over possession or use of natural geography and it likely won't be the last. 

Adrian Bahan (MNPS)'s curator insight, March 31, 11:57 AM

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  


Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, supranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

Mike Busarello's Digital Storybooks's curator insight, April 1, 12:19 AM

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  


Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, supranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

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These Amazing Maps Show the True Diversity of Africa

These Amazing Maps Show the True Diversity of Africa | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it

"African countries are also quite diverse from an ethnic standpoint. As the Washington Post's Max Fisher noted back in 2013, the world's 20 most ethnically diverse countries are all African, partially because European colonial powers divvied up sections of the continent with little regard for how the residents would have organized the land themselves. This map above shows Africa's ethnographic regions as identified by George Murdock in his 1959 ethnography of the continent."

 

Tags: Africa, colonialism, borders, political, language, ethnicity.


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Chris Costa's curator insight, October 27, 2015 4:51 PM

We have seen the repercussions of ethnic tensions play out in the Balkans, the Middle East, and even in the United States, and Africa is no exception. Arbitrarily drawn national borders- the remnants of European colonialism- means that there is often significant ethnic diversity within many African nations. Although this creates interesting blends of language and culture, it has often bred violence in many countries, perhaps most notably in South Africa and Rwanda. Although many members of the West like to lump the entire continent into a single category, this could not be further from the truth. The second largest continent with extreme biodiversity, it has bred thousands of languages and hundreds of different cultural backgrounds, sometimes within a single country. It is important for the West to understand the complex make-up of the African continent in order to avoid the Eurocentric assumptions many Westerners make when discussing the continent. There isn't a single "Africa"- there isn't even a single "Nigeria," but rather a multitude of different peoples and cultures, equally as complex as those found in other regions of the world. This map does a very good job at illustrating the complexity and richness of the continent.

Mark Hathaway's curator insight, October 30, 2015 7:20 AM

People often underestimate how diverse Africa really is. We often have the tendency to lump all Africans together in one large ethnic group. The actual number of different ethnic groups in Africa is rather staggering. This map can also be used as a partial explanation for the amount of ethnic conflict in Africa. Often times, these ethnic groups are squashed together in states with poorly drawn borders. Under that situation, ethnic conflict becomes inevitable.

Patty B's curator insight, February 11, 4:52 PM

This map of Africa not only shows the true diversity of the African continent, but it represents the diversity that truly exists everywhere on a global scale. In many ways, people are the same everywhere you go. But people are also vastly different in a multitude of ways. In a highly globalized society it has become easy to focus on the similarities between the people of different countries, but the fact of the matter is that no matter how far reaching a corporation’s influence is, we are always talking about and dealing the individual lives. Towns, cities, states, countries, continents are all comprised of individuals and our society today makes it difficult to remember that by focusing on group statistics and other forms of impersonal data (not to say those tools are useless, there just needs to be a balance between the tools used). Each person that falls within any group being examined or categorized is vastly unique in a variety of other ways and I think this map brings that notion to light. As someone born in the U.S., I would never think of Africa as such a diverse place. Not even close as a matter of fact. It really is easy to examine Africa as a country instead of a continent. I think that goes for many continents, including Europe. We often think of the U.S. as being the melting pot and the most diverse place, but the article points to the fact that 20 of the world’s most diverse countries happen to be in Africa. 

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9 questions about the Israel-Palestine conflict you were too embarrassed to ask

9 questions about the Israel-Palestine conflict you were too embarrassed to ask | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
Yes, one of the questions is "Why are Israelis and Palestinians fighting?"

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Brian Wilk's curator insight, March 22, 2015 1:02 PM

This story of the Palestinians, Israel, Arabs, and Jews has its roots in Germany at the hands of one of the worst dictators the world has ever seen, Adolf Hitler. His ethnic cleansing of Jews via torture, the gas chamber, and starvation, is one of the bleakest times in recorded humanity. The remaining Jews were a people without a land and so it was agreed that Israel would be formed to provide a safe haven. However the land has been disputed, fought over, and the borders changed so many times that it no longer resembles the initial attempt to provide a refuge for the Jews. Ironically, 700,000 Palestinians had been displaced initially and now number 7,000,000 according to the article; all of them designated as refugees. There is no solve for the problems between the Arabs, Jews, Palestinians and Israel as too much blood has been spilled, and forgiveness is a forgotten word. How do you apologize or forgive for generations of bloodshed, displaced families, borders that constantly change, and religions that contradict one another? I'm glad that I wake every day in the USA. We have our own issues to resolve, but nothing approaches the contradictions and paradoxes this area of the world must live with every day.

Claire Law's curator insight, April 26, 2015 2:07 AM

A good refresher for teachers and a start for students

Michael Amberg's curator insight, May 26, 2015 11:25 PM

Its interesting to see another side to the story and what barriers are now in place from the two opposing cultures.

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Africa, Uncolonized: A Detailed Look at an Alternate Continent

Africa, Uncolonized: A Detailed Look at an Alternate Continent | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
What if the Black Plague had killed off almost all Europeans? Then the Reconquista never happens. Spain and Portugal don't kickstart Europe's colonization of other continents. And this is what Africa might have looked like.

 

Tags: Africa, colonialism, borders, historical, map.


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Bob Beaven's curator insight, March 26, 2015 2:26 PM

An interesting fact for a geographer/historian to look at is how different events happening in history can affect a map.  This is very fascinating, because Africa or should I say Alkebu-Lan has very strong looking kingdoms without the Influence of Europe.  Another interesting element of the map is how it is not Euro-centric, Africa is shown as the top of the world.  I guess in this history, Northern Europe instead of being a powerhouse of the world, would be classified as the dark region (like the Congo was in our own world).  It is also interesting how the map is not Euro-centric, but the fact to keep in mind there is the old saying, history is written by the winner.  In this case, the map of the world was drawn by the winning Europeans as well, and this map completely reverses that.  Another interesting fact, is that the Iberian is part of an Islamic Empire.  It looks, as if in this history, Portugal was overcome by the "Arabes" and Spain never even attempted to launch the Reconquista.  History and Geography, especially Political Geography are very closely linked with one another.  

Chris Costa's curator insight, October 27, 2015 5:00 PM

I found this particularly interesting to read about, as alternative histories fascinate me. The "what if" questions that historians always ask themselves are fun to examine and illustrate, as they are shown in the alternative map of Africa. It's interesting to see just how different this map- drawn from historical accounts of ethnic and linguistic differences between the various African societies- is from the map of Africa we now have today. European colonizers drew borders without any consideration for the native populace, and that is today reflected in the rigid borders of African states that do not match historical ethnic boundaries. The concept of a Europe unable to recover from the Black Death would have serious repercussions for world history. It would allow for the progression of African economies and polities unmolested by European influences and the slave trade, completely reshaping the course of the continent's history. The increased influence of the Arab world would also be a plausible consequence of the decimation of Europe's population. This is an interesting concept, and it is very informative in the sense that it forces us to consider a multitude of factors that played a role in shaping the world as we see and live it today.

Mark Hathaway's curator insight, October 30, 2015 7:04 AM

Alternative history is always fun. There is no question that Africa would be a different place today, if Europeans had never step foot on the shores of this great continent. Would the great African empires still be alive today? Would Africa be the dominant continent in world affairs? The history of civilization over the past 500 years would almost certainly be radically different. Instead of a Eurocentric world, we may have had an Afrocentric world. What this map really underscores, is the effect that colonialism had on Africa. The Africa we know today is a consequence of that era of European domination. While alternate history is fun, we must always remember the actual history that has occurred in Africa.

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The Berlin Wall fell 25 years ago, but Germany is still divided

The Berlin Wall fell 25 years ago, but Germany is still divided | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
Stunning satellite images and maps show how east and west differ from each other even today.

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Peter Phillips's curator insight, November 6, 2014 11:43 AM

50 years of communist rule still affect opportunities in Germany today, as these maps show. What they don't show is the social mirror that each provides to the other and the rich discussions about social policy that result. Reunification has been an expensive exercise for Germany, however one that it is committed to.

Jacob Conklin's curator insight, February 12, 2015 6:20 PM

The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, but its influence is still present in today's Germany. History plays a key role in the shaping of political boundaries and that history is clearly evident in Germany. The line where the Berlin wall once stood still divides the country economically. The western part of Germany is far more economically affluent than the east. The USSR may be gone, but its influence still remains. 

BrianCaldwell7's curator insight, April 5, 8:14 AM

These two maps (unemployment on the left and disposable income on the right) are but two examples in this article that highlights the lingering distinctions between the two parts of Germany that were reunited 25 years ago.  The social geographies imposed by the Iron Curtain and the Berlin  Wall are still being felt from this relic border and will for years to come. 


Tags: Germany, industry, labor, economic, historical, political, borders.

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Point Roberts

Point Roberts | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
An American city stranded at the tip of a Canadian peninsula where strict adherence to the "49th parallel rule" became problematic.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 22, 5:34 PM

I'm sharing this because what isn't exciting about an exclave that was created by a superimposed, geometric border?  

 

Tags: borders, political.

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It's Complicated: 5 Puzzling International Borders

It's Complicated: 5 Puzzling International Borders | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it

"Most of us think of international borders as invisible, but clear-cut lines: stand on one side, and you’re in one country; stand on the other, you’re in another country.  But here’s a list of five international borders that, for one reason or another, are not quite that simple."


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Seth Dixon's curator insight, July 12, 2013 9:20 AM

This article is in dire needs of some maps, but it still provides 5 intriguing case studies of borders and chunks of territory that defy normal categorization.


Tags: borders, political, territoriality, sovereignty.

Caterin Victor's curator insight, July 13, 2013 12:53 PM

It  is  Puzzling, but  every  human  being  chose to live in a normal,  happy  and  free  country, in a  Democratie,  if  possible.

Matthew DiLuglio's curator insight, October 12, 2013 7:20 PM

These borders and boundaries indicate something that I thought of while rewatching Independence Day (the Smith/Goldblum flick from '96)...  If we make a mess, and destroy this planet, aliens wouldn't want it.  The land that no one wants, is probably wanted by someone in reality... I am a fervent believer in aliens, and spend my free time diving into attempts to solve my quandary about the higher questions of the universe.  I think that the area that no one wants, everyone wants.  Unlike state boundaries in the US, planets are divided as separate entities from other planets, but grouped in solar systems, galaxies, asteroid belts, etc... I can't wait for the day some pompous fool gets on the bridge of a starship from Earth and sits in the captain's chair and says "Lieutenant, take us to Sector ----- (so and so)"... We will have moved up from the United States and Canada to the United Sectors of Galaxies!  And that little bit of land that 'no one wants,' everyone actually wants... same with planets.  Terraforming will allow those unsightly balls of fury that float around a star to become the most inhabitable of them all!  I wonder where these things will stop... or if it keeps going to larger sectors, endlessly? Well, we will likely encounter other species with territorial claims... play nice, America!  Or the Aliens will pop out of your stomach.  Though there are some politicians now that seem to have popped out of someone's stomach, I think the threat is more domestic while territory disputes occur nowadays, as it is humans arguing with humans, but it will increase when the Martians come to claim what is theirs.

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Wall for nothing: the misjudged but growing taste for border fences

Wall for nothing: the misjudged but growing taste for border fences | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it

"Globalisation was supposed to tear down barriers, but security fears and a widespread refusal to help migrants and refugees have fuelled a new spate of wall-building across the world, even if experts doubt their long-term effectiveness. When the Berlin Wall was torn down a quarter-century ago, there were 16 border fences around the world. Today, there are 65 either completed or under construction, according to Quebec University expert Elisabeth Vallet."


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Seth Dixon's curator insight, September 18, 2015 12:11 PM

This is an intriguing opinion piece that would be good fodder for a class discussion on political geography or the current events/refugee crisis. 


Tags: borders, political.

Nflfootball Live's curator insight, September 19, 2015 8:04 AM

https://www.reddit.com/3ljqnq/

Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, September 23, 2015 3:53 PM

unit 2 or 4

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What China Has Been Building in the South China Sea

What China Has Been Building in the South China Sea | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
China has been feverishly piling sand onto reefs in the South China Sea for the past year, creating seven new islets in the region. It is straining geopolitical tensions that were already taut.

Via Seth Dixon, Mary Rack
Mike Busarello's Digital Storybooks's insight:

Last year this was an intriguing story but now the geopolitical drama is growing as more countries are literally building islands out of reef outcroppings to strengthen their claims to the South China Sea.  This is the most comprehensive article that I've seen on the escalating situation.   

 

Tags: borders, political, conflict, water, China, East Asia.

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Benjamin Jackson's curator insight, December 14, 2015 12:01 PM

this strategy makes sense, even if it ignores international laws and angers every other nation on earth. china needs resources, and the south china sea has resources.

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 17, 2015 4:02 PM

The fact that China is doing this in the first place is a profound geopolitical statement. They are in effect disregarding international law and acting as though they own the region. This also fly's in the face of countries in the Area such as Vietnam and the Philippines who have territorial water claims in that area of the region itself has been a matter of dispute for decades. This is partially due to the fact there is key oil and gas resources and china intends to use the islands they have made to claim and seize those deposits. trade also goes through the area making it possible for China to shut down regional trade if it gains these waters. This is a clear power display and shows China wants to supersede the U.S. not work with it. Hopefully the issue is resolved peacefully given that it has been causing heightened tensions with the Chinese Navy patrolling the area. The international community should have acted earlier to stop this because now it will be far more difficult and makes nations like the U.S. look weaker. Not to mention the vast environmental consequences for destroying reefs filled with unique wildlife thus disrupting the ecosystem.

Gouraud's curator insight, January 6, 3:16 PM

En une année pour construire un port et un terrain d’atterrissage à partir d'un atoll submergé....

Inquiétant.

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Argentina judge orders asset seizure of Falklands oil firms

Argentina judge orders asset seizure of Falklands oil firms | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
A judge in Argentina orders the seizure of assets of firms drilling for oil around the Falklands, but it is unclear how it can be enforced.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, June 28, 2015 9:19 PM

Are they the Falklands or Las Malvinas?  It's not just a simple linguistic translation but also a statement of territoriality and geopolitical recognition in this festering situation.  For a great teaching resource on the historical ebbs and flows in this longstanding dispute between Argentina and the UK, see the second slideshow in this series of  AP Human Geography talks that was given at NCGE two years ago.   


Tags: Argentinaborders, political, territoriality, sovereignty.

ed alvarado's comment, July 4, 2015 12:31 AM
Thats superior
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22+ International Borders Around The World

22+ International Borders Around The World | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
History (and sometimes, unfortunately, current events) shows us just how easily national borders can change, but we still like to think that they are permanent fixtures.

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Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, June 1, 2015 9:38 AM

Unit 4

Level343's curator insight, June 1, 2015 3:00 PM

Now that's cool!!

Dwane Burke's curator insight, June 3, 2015 6:16 PM

What do these say about the world?

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New Images Show China Literally Gaining Ground in South China Sea

New Images Show China Literally Gaining Ground in South China Sea | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it
Satellite photos show the speed, scale and ambition China has exerted to assert ownership over South China Sea islands, far from the mainland.

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Marc Meynardi's curator insight, April 13, 2015 2:40 AM

Suprisingly, the other countries dont show a lot of concerns.

Norka McAlister's curator insight, April 15, 2015 10:06 PM

China is a powerful country with a population of 1.357 billion people. China as a regional hegemony, the more land means expansion of territorial control on the region and projecting sea power on international waters. However the main reason why China, the Philippines, and other countries are trying to claim these islands is due to the oil and natural gas exploitation in the South China Sea. Even when geopolitical conflicts between Philippines and other countries arise, any of these countries will have to form powerful armies in order to fight against China. The U.S. would be the only country that could pursue different strategies and mediate agreements between China’s neighbors. However, through military intimidation, China would overpower any country that tried to claim these islands as part of their territory. 

Lora Tortolani's curator insight, April 20, 2015 1:37 PM

China has its hopes on securing the land that is rich in oil to bring prosperity to the country.  China is building a great wall of sand and seems as though they are not fearful of others stopping it even though China has been warned that these actions create tension from Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.  

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Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it

"Animated GIF map chronicling the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire." 


Tags: empire, devolution, Middle East, borders, historical, map.


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Mark Hathaway's curator insight, October 23, 2015 5:47 AM

Many of the problems the Middle East faces today, are a result of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. During the First World War, the Ottoman Empire was aligned with Germany and Austria- Hungary to form the central powers. Following their defeat in the war, the empire collapsed in the ensuing chaos. The victorious allies divided up the ottoman territory amongst themselves. The Borders and nations they created, were poorly designed. They failed to take into account the wide divergences of ethnic groups in the Middle East. The artificial nations they constructed, were ripe for ethnic conflict.

Kevin Nguyen's curator insight, December 7, 2015 2:33 PM

The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire can be clearly seen at the beginning and the end. They had a massive territory expansion at 1300 and it bloomed from there. from then to 1900 then only had some minor changes with some changes in territory. At the end, in 1900s was the most significant change with the Empire collapsing with the Republic of Turkey being established in 1923.  

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 13, 2015 3:39 PM

A fascinating look into the shifting nature of borders through history. Unfortunately it also reflects many atrocities that also occurred in those years. Geographically the Empire wouldn't last given its difficult to defend borders. Additionally its extremely conservative Political and Cultural nature made it nearly impossible for it to adapt to changing times in technology. Which is ironic in a way because it was their innovation that sparked the Empire and the seizure of Constantinople to begin with. Also it should perhaps be mentioned that the current nation of Turkeys borders are an unnatural creation on the part of the Turks when they were aware their Empire would collapse. This unfortunately also means this map hides events such as the Armenian Genocide to try and purify Anatolia so that the Turks could claim it as its sole homeland while abandoning the rest of the Empire (so in effect they consolidated to try and keep as much land as possible).

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22 International Borders

22 International Borders | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it

"Brazil (top) and Bolivia (bottom)."


Via Seth Dixon, Michael Miller
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Ms. Harrington's curator insight, May 6, 2014 7:49 PM

Borders can tell us a great feel about the relationship beween the two  nations.

Jason Wilhelm's curator insight, May 22, 2014 12:52 PM

The concept of a political boundary has been developed over many many years into an unbreakable line between two different sets of people with different ideologies, religions, and government styles. The boundary extends into the ground, into the air, and includes any resources within the boundary. These pictures show the different shapes and various lines between countries, and displays the intricacies of boundaries in the world.  

Lauren Sellers's curator insight, May 29, 2014 1:11 AM

Photographs show how different countries can be even by just the border. Number 3 really stuck out to me that Haiti doesnt have as many regulation reguarding deforestation as the Dominican Republic and its very noticable.

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India-Pakistan border Ceremony

Fascinating footage of a traditional ceremony that takes place on the Pakistan India border. From the BBC

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Kevin Nguyen's curator insight, December 14, 2015 2:32 PM

This video was very fascinating. The soldiers preformed a traditional ceremony to display political cooperation without the use of force. They may have some differences in the past but they came together to show great sportsmanship.

Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 14, 2015 6:55 PM
This is truly a fascinating work of art. It shows tolerance to each other and it is done in a respectful manner. People are constantly showing up at their respectful borders to watch as each side in sync do their ceremonial marches. Some people are afraid that the two countries are just playing each other and they are waiting for an attack to happen. Although there was one instance of a suicide bomber killing sixty people. People had shown up at the Wagah border to witness the daily flag ceremony, but both sides cancelled for the day as a sign of respect.
Martin Kemp's curator insight, December 17, 2015 3:32 PM

whether or not this incites nationalism in a poor way, i think it is a good thing. no nationalism is a very detrimental thing to a country, i believe that this does benefit both countries in a way, maybe not as far as relations between the two countries but internally having love for your own country.

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Complex International Borders

More complex international borders in this follow up to part 1. 
In this video I look at even more enclaves and exclaves."


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Lydia Tsao's curator insight, March 23, 2015 11:40 PM

After viewing this video, I found one common characteristic that ties together the countries involved in all of these border disputes: hunger for power. Although culture and sacred lands do cause border disputes, I believe the underlying purpose of claiming land for cultural reasons is to demonstrate power. Claiming lands for cultural purposes demonstrates that one's culture is superior to the other's culture, so naturally the more powerful culture gets to claim territory. On another note, I think it's interesting to see just how many enclaves and exclaves exist in the world. I did not know how many existed until I saw the video. I think this shows how insignificant these border anomalies are because these exclaves are usually just governed by the other country by which they are surrounded. 

Danielle Lip's curator insight, April 7, 2015 9:13 PM

Borders seem to be a problem whether you live in one continent or another, everyone wants power and control but not everyone can gain it. This video focuses and goes into depth about enclave and exclave borders, showing the irregularity of the borders in different areas that causes conflicts and problems. An example of a problem that the citizens have to deal with is that some villages can not leave due to the road blocks due to the borders. I can not imagine not being able to leave a certain area for all that time, I would go insane and I imagine those people are as well. International borders power has to be split somehow and not everyone can always come to an easy decision because parts of the land are claimed but the people do not have any control of it. Irregular borders cause more trouble than they are worth in my opinion. The final interesting fact about this video was that you learn that Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are the two locations that have the most irregular border, these places must have the most conflict and problems. These borders are in places such as Germany, South Asia, China, Belgian, Sweden and Central Asia.

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 17, 2015 5:17 PM

A fascinating look into the complexity of borders. It is always important to keep in mind when looking at maps that the borders are neither permanent or defined as it exists in reality. Borders on world maps are rough estimations of what the borders actually are for they can't depict precise details on such a large scale. Furthermore regional/local maps sometimes do not whether as to conform to the border misconception unfortunately. In Central Asia as defined int he video the border were primarily a result of the Soviet Unions attempts to divided ethnic minorities reducing their power (primarily Stalin). As a result the countries after the collapse proceeded to claim the ethnic groups which created enclaves within each-other. As long as these groups are on peaceful terms this kind of thing isn't an issue. Unfortunately it does make the peoples lives in the enclaves slightly more difficult due to having to cross the border twice to see the rest of your country. This kind of thing was even done to the Jews in the first century AD who like the Russians wanted to eliminate or at least reduce attempts at revolution by the local populace. Hopefully Central Asia has or will make the lives of these enclaves easier.

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Asian Border Disputes

Asian Border Disputes | AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL  STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO | Scoop.it

Tags: borders, political, conflict, infographic, map.


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Asie(s)'s curator insight, November 23, 2014 10:23 PM

A good overview on the matter!

Kevin Barker's curator insight, November 25, 2014 8:20 AM

A great primer for discussions over border disputes.  In this modern geopolitical climate, some of these claims can seem aggressive to say the least.  The strategies/responses can also be very interesting when military options are put aside.

Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, November 25, 2014 12:36 PM

I was looking at the disputes between the Paracel Islands, the Spratly Islands, and the Scarborough Shoal. What I notices with all oft he disputes, the land being fought over is all claimed by China but the land location itself is all closer to the country china is disputing it over. For the Paracel Islands, China and Vietnam are in dispute especially after China put 2 oil rigs by their land. The other dispute between the Spratly Islands, China and the Philippines each claim entire ownership of the lands but Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei all claim some part of the islands as well. For the Scarborough Shoal, it is a lot closer to the Philippines than it is to China but China claims it as their own since they discovered the land. Now china has restricted access to the island following a standoff.