HSIE Stage 2: Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation
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HSIE Stage 2: Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation
CCS2.1: Aboriginal resistance to the establishment of a British colony - significant people including Pemulwuy, achievements, events and places
Curated by Amy Bull
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Schools TV - Our History

Schools TV - Our History | HSIE Stage 2: Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation | Scoop.it
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Amy Bull's comment, April 17, 2013 9:08 PM
Australia’s national broadcaster (ABC) has produced the educational series Our History (2010), which explores a range of topics, issues and attitudes in Australia’s history. In particular, its seventh episode (The colonists: Resistance) investigates the tensions between the Aboriginal people and the First Settlers. In this episode, Governor Phillip captures some Aboriginal men to convince them that his way of life is better. Before long, the British settlement expands, and the Aboriginal people begin to lose their possession over their land. In response to this growing destruction, an Aboriginal man named Pemulwuy organises resistance against the settlers. In the episodes’ climax, Pemulwuy is captured, with his head cut off and sent to England, yet the story continues with his son Timbery taking over as leader to continue the battle for their land. The program uses documentary and archival footage, incorporated through animated interpretations of the events and extracts from primary sources.

Engaging in historical inquiry, in order to develop an understanding of the broad picture of the past, is a cyclical process that begins with the asking of guiding historical questions. This is a useful thought for teachers to keep in mind when planning and teaching lessons of historical significance to students.
A lesson Idea: Explain to students, that as Australia was progressively settled, Aboriginal people were loosing their possession over the land, and in extreme cases, loosing their loved ones. Their land was quickly being invaded and destroyed. Ask students how they would feel in this situation. Introduce the idea to students that in many places around Australia, these invasions were resisted, often with force. View the episode from the ABC schools programs “Our History: The colonists: Resistance” to provide background information for students.
Activity: Instruct students to research the lifestyle of Aboriginal people in Australia in the time before the British officially established the first colony. The gathered historical evidence can be used to construct credible claims/narratives about the past (i.e. historical interpretations) that seek to provide answers to the guiding historical questions that were introduced at the beginning of the lesson.
Assessment task: Ask students to imagine that they are a local Aboriginal person in 1809. Instruct them to create a response (written format of song, story, diary entry, etc) describing their life story and how their life has changed with the coming of the Europeans. (Describe what you think about this situation. How would you feel about this and the changes to your life?) Presenting thoughts and findings in written form links directly to the WS2.9 outcome of the English syllabus (NSW Board of Studies, 2007, p. 39).
Teaching students to engage in the doing of history, Levstik (1996) suggests, involves students to “…pose questions, collect and analyze sources, struggle with issues of significance, and ultimately build their own historical interpretations" (p. 394). The lesson idea incorporating the viewing of the ABC program, in conjunction with the class activity and assessment task, strives to achieve this outcome in the students.

References:

NSW Board of Studies. (2007). English K-6 Syllabus. Sydney: BOS.

Levstik, L. (1996). Negotiating the history landscape. Theory and Research in Social Education, 24, 394.
Catherine Smyth's comment, May 6, 2013 2:17 AM
I like how you draw on Levstik's research on teaching history.
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A shared history - Change and continuity - Stage 1 - Aboriginal perspectives in HSIE K-6

A shared history - Change and continuity - Stage 1 - Aboriginal perspectives in HSIE K-6 | HSIE Stage 2: Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation | Scoop.it
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Amy Bull's comment, April 17, 2013 9:41 PM
This curriculum support page is collaborated by the NSW Government Education and Communities and provides teachers with lesson ideas and quality resources related to the Stage 2 outcomes CCS2.1 and CCS2.2. For teachers, this page is a useful base to collect information on significant Aboriginal people from the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as various events that occurred (e.g. massacres). Available to teachers are a variety of primary and secondary sources, ranging from the 18th to the 20th centuries, which depict the range of responses to the act of colonisation. Furthermore, there is a weblink from this page to a seven-page document with additional rich and engaging lesson plans, providing detailed guidelines on outcomes, learning experiences and forms of assessment - a useful resource towards successful planning for teachers.

A lesson Idea: Introduce (or revisit) the concept of a ‘primary’ source and a ‘secondary’ source of historical information. (What are primary sources? Why is it important to use original records or documents created by someone who lived at the time of the event?) Next, with literary support, instruct students read a text about Pumulwuy or Windradyne (significant Aboriginal people), such as:
- Pemulwuy, 1999 by Gail Taylor, part of the Livewire series by Cambridge University Press.
- Pemulwuy, 1994 by Eric Willmot, Transworld Publishers, Australia.
- Windrayne, a Wiradjuri Koorie 1986/1989 by Mary Coe, Aboriginal Studies Press
- Windrayne: Wiradjuri resistance, 1993 video by Aboriginal Education Unit NSW Department of School Education.
Generate discussion of shared thoughts/ideas based on reading excerpt (What can we learn about the lives of Aboriginal people in colony of NSW at this time from these historic recounts?).
Activity: Instruct students to write a letter to Pemulwuy or Windrayne, as if they were alive today. Ask them to develop questions they would like to be able to ask Pemulwuy or Windrayne, as well as to share their response to what these Aboriginal people did. Presenting thoughts and ideas in written form links directly to the WS2.9 outcome of the English syllabus (NSW Board of Studies, 2007, p. 39).
After the activity, ask some students to volunteer to read out their letter. Anticipate that reconciliation issues may arise during these discussions. This activity, as Marsh (2008) highlights, “enables students to travel vicariously to other times and places. They add important dimensions to student learning and, in the process, provide further opportunities for students to develop listening, speaking, writing and reading skills” (p.34).

References:

NSW Board of Studies. (2007). English K-6 Syllabus. Sydney: BOS.

Marsh, C. (2008). Becoming a Teacher: Knowledge, Skills and Issues. 4th Ed, Frenchs Forrest: Pearson Education Australia.
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Aboriginal educational contexts :: Invasion and Resistance Kit - Timeline

Aboriginal educational contexts :: Invasion and Resistance Kit - Timeline | HSIE Stage 2: Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation | Scoop.it
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Amy Bull's comment, April 17, 2013 9:23 PM
Eight timeline posters were published by the Aboriginal Curriculum Unit of the Board of Studies as part of the education kit ‘Invasion and Resistance: Untold stories – Aboriginal voice in Australian history’. The posters were developed to provide a visual representation of the Aboriginal experience with those of the Europeans, from their arrival in 1770 to the present.
The posters effectively support the teaching of Australian history through the demonstration of both the richness and the ongoing impact of Aboriginal people on the social, political and economic development on the emerging nation of Australia. As clearly evidenced throughout the posters, the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were profoundly changed by the arrival of British colonists in 1788. Lives were lost and land taken as the colonisers attempted to impose new social, economic and religious orders, despite the Aboriginal people’s ongoing resistance. These posters depict some of the ways that the Aboriginal people responded; while some fought back with weapons, others developed different strategies to survive this new and hostile presence. Significant people and events are explicitly recorded.
Ultimately, these timeline posters serve as an effective visual reference for students. They capture different dates and events and how they occurred in relation to one other, and in essence provide a great means to incorporate different learning modalities.

A lesson idea: Divide class into pairs, and allocate each pair with a significant person or event as recorded on the timeline. Instruct students to engage in the process of historical inquiry by conducting further research upon their given person/event, and to create a summary on A4 paper using both written text and pictures. For example, a pair might research the small pox epidemic that occurred in the late 1700’s/early 1800’s. They would outline what small pox is, how the disease spread and killed so many Aboriginal people, the impact of the epidemic (the effects of the Aboriginal population becoming so severely reduced) and the Aboriginal response to the disease. When students have completed task, pin up the page summaries around the timeline posters, connecting the two with string in the form of a surrounding web chart.
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Picture books

Picture books | HSIE Stage 2: Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation | Scoop.it
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Amy Bull's comment, April 17, 2013 8:37 PM
John Marsden’s sophisticated and compelling picture book, The Rabbits**, is an allegorical tale of colonialism, illustrated through the viewpoint of the colonised. The Rabbits as a textual history of Australia generates discussion of our nations’ past from both an Indigenous and non-Indigenous (global) perspective, where the different actions, motives, values and attitudes of people from the past can be interpreted, questioned, debated, and interrogated. This process of historical inquiry brings about a deeper understanding of the students’ place in the Australian historical narrative, important for the maturing minds of young Australians.

As Bain (2000) acknowledges, it is the teacher who, after reading the literature, is the one left to “design activities that engage student in using such thinking in the classroom” (p. 334). Using this picture book as the focus resource for a lesson that teaches Aboriginal perspectives to British colonisation, teachers have the opportunity to be able to creatively engage students to effectively grasp hold the process of historical inquiry.
A lesson idea: Introduce lesson by establishing what an allegory is. After initial reading of the book, ask students to jot down some words to indicate what they felt (What words come to mind?). Follow on with a discussion about the plot/themes/messages of the book (This book is clearly not about rabbits. What do you think it is about? How does this story represent the British colonisation of Australia?). Discuss how the author represents a particular point of view, and ask students what their particular point of view is on British colonisation. (Why is it important for us to learn about the past?).
Activity: Ask students to construct an abstract work of art using shapes that depicts their understanding of the Aboriginal people’s response to the arrival and establishment of a British Colony. This assists with space and geometry outcomes (SGS2.2a) for Stage 2 Mathematics (NSW Board of Studies, 2002, p.23), as well as outcomes for creating and representing perspectives through artwork (VAS2.1) of Stage 2 Creative Arts (NSW Board of Studies, 2006, p.24).

**A short description of the Marsden’s The Rabbits:
Napoleonic white rabbits invade a population of native brown marsupials, who were living humbly in an arid region. The marsupials describe how the Rabbits, who carry black muskets and calibrated measuring devices, arrive by sea in a foreign looking, metallic golden ship. Although the wisdom of the elders suggests a distinct wariness of these new and ‘different’ people, the original inhabitants initially tolerate this. As the unclothed, brown animals look on impotently, the red-eyed Rabbits ferociously alter the landscape. Strange new animals, like sheep, graze on artificially green paddocks, and beautiful hills are transformed to accommodate highways. The desolation, the destruction, and the despair are depicted. By the time the marsupials decide to defend themselves and rebel, “there were too many rabbits. We lost the fights”. In the bleak conclusion, the speakers lament what has been lost and they wonder: “Who will save us from the rabbits?”.

References:

Bain, R. (2000). Into the breach: Using research and theory to shape history instruction. In P. Stearns, P. Seixas, & S. Wineburg (Eds.), Knowing, teaching, and learning history: National and international perspectives (p. 334). New York: New York University Press.

NSW Board of Studies. (2002). Mathematics K-6 Syllabus. Sydney: BOS.

NSW Board of Studies. (2006). Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Sydney: BOS.
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back09a.pdf

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Amy Bull's comment, April 17, 2013 11:31 PM
This document, which was created by the Board of Studies, is a chronology of significant events in cross-cultural relations between British and Aboriginal people in the years 1792–1809. This source provides helpful links to external related resources that offer global perspectives in regards to Aboriginal resistance to British colonisation. Using a framework of teaching strategies provided by globaleducation.edu (http://globaleducation.edu.au/teaching-and-learning/australian-curriculum.html), teachers are able to understand how to relate and use themes of this outcome/indicator to establish broader thinking upon ideas such as the identity/cultural diversity and social justice/human rights of Indigenous people, on a universal scale. For example, a teacher could incorporate learning about the resistance of Indigenous people in Canada throughout history, and how the Truth and Reconciliation Commission that was established in 1998. This can be compared and contrasted to the resistance of Aboriginal people in Australia and what was endured as a result of British colonisation (e.g. pain and suffering created by the Stolen Generations), and Australian Government’s 2008 apology to the Aboriginal people (past and present) for those devastating actions. A helpful website for Australian teachers to gain and develop a deeper understanding of reconciliation efforts between Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians can be acquired though the organisation ‘Reconciliation Australia’ (http://www.reconciliation.org.au/home/reconciliation-resources).
Moreover, this resource provides teachers with evidence from primary source documents and contemporary images, and acts as a good basis for more detailed research. It serves as a useful document for teachers to gain a broad yet rich insight to the major incidents that occurred between Indigenous and colonial settler societies, and in particular, the ways that the original inhabitants reacted in resistance. Whilst this timeline resource is for the teacher, it is important for them to bear in mind that history is not simply about learning about the facts of the past, along with their dates. Instead, teachers should strive for their students to develop skills to analyse historical sources and develop historical accounts. Counsell (2000) contends that the acquisition of historical knowledge is “both the servant and the result of enquiry” (p.70). Learning history means learning how to engage in the process of historical inquiry, and thus teachers should always endeavor to make history an active learning experience for their students.

Reference:

Counsell, C. (2000). Historical knowledge and historical skills: A distracting dichotomy. In J. Arthur & R. Phillips (Eds.), Issues in history teaching (Eds). London: Routledge, pp. 54-71.