Harmony Day: Many stories, One People. HSIE K-6 Stage 1: Change and Continuity (school, local, national and global events)
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Target Group

Stage 1 (Years 1 and 2)

 

Outcomes and indicators:

 

CCS1.1 (Board of Studies, 1998, p. 48)

Communicates the importance of past and present people, days and events in their life, in the lives of family and community members and in other communities.

 

Subject Matter: School, local, national and global events (Board of Studies, 1998, p. 49)

 

Implications for Teaching and Learning (Board of Studies, 1998, pp. 50-51):

 

Students will have the opportunities to engage in activities associated with current family, school and local events as well as relevant national and global events.

 

Teachers will encourage students to respect and value their own family and community heritage and to bring in items that demonstrate this heritage, to share evidence of their own heritage.

 

Reference:

 

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

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Focus Questions

1)      Why do we have Harmony Day in Australia?

2)      How do we maintain friendship (harmony)?

3)      What does Harmony Day mean to you?

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International Day of Friendship - 30 July

International Day of Friendship - 30 July | Harmony Day: Many stories, One People. HSIE K-6 Stage 1: Change and Continuity (school, local, national and global events) | Scoop.it
Eleanor Quek's insight:

TEACHER RESOURCE WITH A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE (Global)

 

- Description

This site contains resources and information on International Day of Friendship. It is a day set by the United Nations on 30 July to recognise “the relevance and importance of friendship as a noble and valuable sentiment in the lives of human beings around the world” (United Nations, 2014). The site also suggests video that show friendships among people from different countries being fostered through sports and games. There are other resources on this site to provide the teachers with support to conduct International Day of Friendship in schools.

 

Through understanding of how harmony is celebrated world wide during International Day of Friendship, stated in the HSIE syllabus, students "learn about their historical roots, their shared history and the people, forces and events that have created present societies and cultures" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 10).  

 

- A teaching idea

The teacher can unpack the work ‘Friendship’ with the students to find out the understanding of what ‘Friendship’ is for them. Through class discussion, the teacher will guide and teach the students how to be a good friend to one another using the PowerPoint slides from http://www.tesaustralia.com/teaching-resource/Assembly-about-Friendship-6051941/. From this web link, there are PowerPoint slides and a rubric activity sheet on being a good friend to their peers. (Note: to download the resources, one has to be a member of TESAustralia. The membership is free and teachers can join this online community to share and obtain resources for teaching.)

After unpacking the word ‘Friendship’ with the Stage 1 students, guide the students to link it to Harmony Day.

Ask the following questions:

1)      Why do we have Harmony Day in Australia?

2)      How do we maintain friendship (harmony)?

3)      What does Harmony Day mean to you?

Giving the students a global perspective, introduce them to International Day of Friendship. Show the video (in this site) on how people who cannot speak a common language can communicate through sports and games. Students have to know that they can also learn about other cultures, their languages, the way that they count and say the numbers (Mathematics) to foster friendships.

 

- Idea for an assessment task

Using the app ‘One Globe Kids – children’s stories from around the world’ to assess students’ understanding of the concept of maintaining friendship and harmony. The app is downloadable at https://itunes.apple.com/app/OneGlobeKids/id477746969?mt=8. Through this app, students will access the different stories of different children around the world and learn their stories. Students will be put into pairs to listen to the stories (each pair will get a different story) and learn the language that the child in the app speaks. They will record down their repetition of the words and numbers taught in another language through the app. After which, the class can do a show-and-tell in pairs to share with the class what they have learnt through the story and demonstrate how they could speak a few words from that culture. The students will get to teach the class how to count in the language that they have just learnt.

 

- Literacy and numeracy outcomes

 

Numeracy:

MA1-4NA

Applies place value, informally, to count, order, read and represent two- and three-digit numbers

Develop confidence with number sequences to 100 by ones from any starting point (ACMNA012)

(Board of Studies NSW, 2012, p. 72)

 

Literacy:

EN1-4A

Draws on an increasing range of skills and strategies to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on less familiar topics in different media and technologies.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 14)

 

EN1-6B

Recognises a range of purposes and audiences for spoken language and recognises organisational patterns and features of predictable spoken texts.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 15)

 

- Link to pedagogical research

The Forward Number Word Sequence (FNWS) is crucial and forms the foundation of students’ learning of addition. Through FNWS, students will be able to understand the sequencing of numbers that count forward and this will help in the concept of addition. It also helps in the students’ understanding of place value concepts and this is indicated in the Learning framework of number for Count Me in Too where students will begin to count in 10s, 20s and so on (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2011). Through this assessment and learning task, the students will be able to strengthen their understanding of Mathematics and will revise the concepts that the students were taught. This is done interestingly through the introduction of different ways of counting forward in another language. 

 

Through this task, the students are able to observe and learn how to “initiate conversations” (Miller, 2004) with their friends to complete the assessment task. They will also be sharing stories about friendships (Miller, 2004) and other information they have learnt with their peers.    

 

Resources:

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

 

Board of Studies NSW (2013). English K-10 syllabus. New South Wales, Australia: Board of Studies NSW.

 

Board of Studies NSW (2012). Mathematics K-10 syllabus. New South Wales, Australia: Board of Studies NSW.

 

Department of Education and Training (2011). Developing efficient numeracy strategies Stage 1 (DENS1). Australia: NSW Board of Studies. 

Miller, S. A. (2004). Helping Kids Form Friendships. Scholastic Parent & Child, 12(2), 9. 

 

United Nations (2014). International Day of Friendship 30 July. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.un.org/en/events/friendshipday/background.shtml

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Social Media and Apps | Harmony Day

Social Media and Apps | Harmony Day | Harmony Day: Many stories, One People. HSIE K-6 Stage 1: Change and Continuity (school, local, national and global events) | Scoop.it
Eleanor Quek's insight:

STUDENT INTERACTIVE RESOURCE (School, local and national level)

 

- Description

The Harmony Day Stories App contains an interactive matching game and stories. The app tells us how Harmony Day comes about and gives us details on the ways that we can get involved in Harmony Day. It is user friendly and the level that it is pitched at is suitable for Stage 1 students. The matching game allows students to find out more about the different heritage artefacts of different cultures and there are three levels of difficulties for the students to choose from, catering to a variety of learning needs in the classroom. The stories in the app comes alive in 3D format and there are supporting lesson plans (http://www.harmony.gov.au/get-involved/app-downloads/) for the teachers to use in the classroom. It is free to download into iPad which schools in Australia should have access to.

 

This interactive app allows students, as stated in the HSIE syllabus, to "locate information using reference and information skills, drawing on the school library/information technology centre, maps, globes and community resources" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 11).    

 

- A teaching idea

Teacher will need to ensure that the app is downloaded and installed in the iPads before issuing to the students. The teacher will prepare the poster of the three characters in the app story. As the story will only activate when the iPad is facing the poster, the teacher can monitor the progress of the students. The class will be divided into three groups to work on different characters in the app. Students will proceed to the virtual story of  different characters in groups and they will later share with the class the story and character that they have explored. After exploration of the digital stories, the teacher will provide the students with the actual script of each character so that students could use phrases spoken in the story as a support for class sharing. If the group has completed their task, they could proceed to the game section in the app to explore and learn.   

Additional teaching ideas and resources on Harmony Day can be retrieved from:

http://www.forteachersforstudents.com.au/KidsMedia/HarmonyDay-P/pdfs/harmonyday-p-facts.pdf

 

- Idea for an assessment task

After exploring the three stories in the app, students will have to write three sentences (literacy strategies) in groups to express how Anh, Kofi or Renata feel about Harmony Day through what they understand of the story.  The assessment task will be based on the focus questions, change slightly to tailor to the content of the app to direct the students to reflect on Harmony Day through the characters in the app stories.

1)      Why do we have Harmony Day in Australia?

2)      How do we maintain friendship (harmony) for the characters in the story?

3)      What does Harmony Day mean to the characters?

 

- Literacy outcomes

EN1-4A

Draws on an increasing range of skills and strategies to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on less familiar topics in different media and technologies.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 14)

EN1-6B

Recognises a range of purposes and audiences for spoken language and recognises organisational patterns and features of predictable spoken texts.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 15)

EN1-11D

Responds to and composes a range of texts about familiar aspects of the world and their own experiences.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 16)

 

- Link to pedagogical research

Considering the possible cultural diversity in the classroom, there is a need for interactive digital stories that brings stories alive for the students to be engaged in. It provides animation that the students whose first language might not be English to understand the meaning behind the words heard through visuals stimulants. The digital stories in the app not only transfer “historic knowledge among the generations, but also to transfer cultural and social values and to provoke emotions” (Spierling, 2002, p. 1). Through the stories, students could be able to draw on their own prior experiences to share with the class and talk about the themes raised through the stories by different portrayed cultures in the app. This will help all students in their language development and social awareness. For students who are less affluent in the classroom, they might not have access to digital media and through this use of the app and iPad in the classroom, the teacher can demonstrate “safe, responsible and ethical use of ICT” (NSW Institute of Teachers, 2011). This is important for the students to not “just having access to digital media, but also having access to good mentoring around that media” (Gee, 2012, p. 63). In addition to that, the students also will have the opportunities to learn information about the artefacts of different cultures through gaming, providing “challenging problem-solving spaces” (Gee, 2012, p. 62) for the students to develop cognitively and social interaction skills as they attempt to solve the task in groups.   

 

References:

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

 

Board of Studies NSW (2013). English K-10 syllabus. New South Wales, Australia: Board of Studies NSW.

 

Spierling, U. (2002). Digital Storytelling. Computers & Graphics, 26(1), 1-2. 

 

Gee, J. P. (2012). Digital games and libraries. Knowledge Quest, 41(1), 61-64. Chicago.

 

NSW Institute of Teachers (2011). National Professional Standards for Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.nswteachers.nsw.edu.au/Main-Professional-Teaching-Standards/national-professional-standards-for-teachers/

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Rationale for focusing on Harmony Day

Harmony Day is observed across Australia (within schools, local areas and nation) to honour and celebrate the diversity in the country. “The message of Harmony Day is Everyone Belongs. … It is a day of cultural respect for everyone who calls Australia home – from the traditional owners of this land to those who have come from many countries around the world.” (Commonwealth of Australia, 2012). Students can learn and understand that even though there is diversity in the backgrounds of Australians, everyone belongs and contributes to a better nation.

 

“Since 1999 Harmony Day has been widely celebrated across schools, childcare centres, community groups, churches, businesses and federal, state and local government agencies.” (Commonwealth of Australia, 2012).

 

It is useful for the teachers to know that Harmony Day falls on 21 March and it coincides with the United Nations International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. However, as this subject matter is targeted at Stage 1 students, the idea and content of ‘Elimination of Racial Discrimination’ from the United Nations might be too difficult or heavy for the students to comprehend. To provide a global perspective for Stage 1 students, another initiative by the United Nations with parallel intent to introduce to the Stage 1 students will be ‘International Day of Friendship’, a global event similar to Harmony Day, which falls on 30 July and it is “based on the recognition of the relevance and importance of friendship as a noble and valuable sentiment in the lives of human beings around the world” (United Nations, 2014).

 

By unpacking the term for Stage 1 students, it will be necessary to relate the idea behind ‘harmony’ to that of ‘friendship’. It will allow the young students to understand a bigger concept through one that they experience during their daily interactions. Students will have the opportunity to "learn about people and the environment with which they interact" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 7). This is important as the "future wellbeing of human society ... depends upon the quality of people's interactions with each other and with their cultural, social and physical environments" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 7). 

 

References:

 

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

 

Commonwealth of Australia (2012). About Harmony Day. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from Government, A. (n.d.). About Harmony Day. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.harmony.gov.au/about/

 

United Nations (2014). International Day of Friendship 30 July. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.un.org/en/events/friendshipday/background.shtml

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Shake A Leg

Shake A Leg | Harmony Day: Many stories, One People. HSIE K-6 Stage 1: Change and Continuity (school, local, national and global events) | Scoop.it
A unique picture book collaboration about having fun, sharing culture and the power of story and dance. A picture book to get the whole town dancing.
Eleanor Quek's insight:

TEACHER RESOURCE WITH INDIGENOUS PERSPECTIVE (School, Local and National)

 

- Description

The book ‘Shake A Leg’ is a unique picture book collaboration about having fun, sharing culture and the power of story and dance. A summary of the story is as follows (http://www.allenandunwin.com/default.aspx?page=94&book=9781741758900) :

From pizza shop to bora ground, here is a joyous celebration of food, dance and cultural understanding.

When three young boys go to a pizza parlour and meet an Aboriginal chef who can speak Italian and make a deadly pizza, they're in for a surprise!

All you fellas watching, come up, join in, warrima.

Clap your hands, little ones.

Stamp your feet, nannas.

Get down and dance, you smart young things, mummas and daddas.

Let's get the whole town dancing!

 

The AECG (http://www.aecg.nsw.edu.au/) should be consulted regarding the use of Aboriginal resources in the schools to be able to provide a more accurate information for the students. 

 

- Selection Criteria for this resource

Authenticity:

The book is published in 2010 and is rather recent. The material shows positive illustrations and accurate portrayals of Aboriginal people which are relevant to the text. Through the text in the book, clarifications of stereotypes and misconceptions of Aboriginal people are clarified and allows students to understand more about the Aboriginal culture. These examples in the book can be seen on http://www.allenandunwin.com/_uploads/BookPdf/Extract/9781741758900.pdf .

 

Balanced nature of the material:

The diversity of the Indigenous societies are acknowledged and celebrated through the book. With the support of Teachers’ Notes at http://www.allenandunwin.com/_uploads/BookPdf/TeachersNotes/9781741758900.pdf for the book, there are elaborations on how to use the book in the classroom appropriately.

 

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation:
This story is written by an Aboriginal author, Boori Monty Pryor. He is a storyteller, dancer, writer and educator. Boori Monty Pryor was born in North Queensland. His father is from the Birrigubba of the Bowen region and his mother from Yarrabah (near Cairns), a descendant of the Kungganji.

 

Accuracy and support:

The book has won awards for its contribution to Children’s fiction as follow:

1)    Winner, 2011 Prime Minister's Literary Awards, Children's fiction

2)    Shortlisted, 2011 Speech Pathology Australia's Book of the Year, Lower Primary

3)    Shortlisted, 2011 Speech Pathology Australia's Book of the Year, Indigenous Children

4)    Notable Book, 2011 Children's Book Council of Australia Book of the Year, Younger Readers

5)    Notable Book, 2011 Children's Book Council of Australia Book of the Year, Picture Book

 

Exclusion of content of a secret or sacred nature:

The book has included an Aboriginal dance and there is teaching support for teachers to show to the students to develop understanding of the culture. This dance can be seen at http://youthworxproductions.org.au/welcome/project/warrima/ .

 

After looking through the criteria to select appropriate Indigenous resources, this book aligns to the topic of Harmony Day, with the celebrations of friendships and cultures depicted through the story.

 

The selection criteria is based on Aboriginal Education K-12 Resource guide, page 17. 

 

Through consideration for the resource with Aboriginal perspective to be used in the classroom, it is aimed to develop the values and attitudes for students' learning as stated in the HSIE syllabus that students will develop intercultural understanding through "identifying and appreciating the cultural, linguistic and spiritual heritage of oneself and others" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 13).   

 

- A teaching idea

Through the use of the book, the teacher will engage the students in Aboriginal culture appreciation. Teacher will read the book with the students and using the video, ‘Shake A Leg Trailer’, available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFNCJS0qd-c  to show the students what the book is about and how they could participate actively in learning about cultures, celebrations, friendship and harmony. Through this, teacher is to relate back to the focus questions and discuss the importance of Harmony Day.

 

- Idea for an assessment task

Students are given different scenes in groups from the book that shows friendship among the characters. Each group of students will have to fill out a thought bubble of the scene with a complete sentence to show how the characters are feeling. This gives each student an opportunity to frame their thoughts into a sentence and learn to present it. This assessment task also assess how the students have understood the relationships among people and how they should approach friendship as a form of harmony in the community.  

 

- Literacy outcomes

EN1-6B

Recognises a range of purposes and audiences for spoken language and recognises organisational patterns and features of predictable spoken texts.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 15)

 

EN1-11D

Responds to and composes a range of texts about familiar aspects of the world and their own experiences

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 16)

 

- Link to pedagogical research

By encouraging and exposing students to engage with Indigenous Australian book in authentic and respectful ways, we are helping the students, irrespective of their culture, to learn about Indigenous Australia, which is important learning for all children in Australian schools. With education about the Indigenous culture comes understanding, and understanding offers the potential for kinder, more tolerant communities for everyone (Uhlmann, 2012, p. 41). This is the spirit of Harmony Day.

 

“A further benefit of using Indigenous Australian texts in the classroom is that it may help decrease the literacy performance gap that exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students – a gap that, statistically, continues to widen as students progress through their years of schooling. Indigenous students may arguably relate better to books from and about their own culture, possibly making them more attractive to read. Using Indigenous Australian books in the classroom also actively demonstrates to all students the value of diversity and, in particular, the importance of Indigenous Australia and its people.”

(Uhlmann, 2012, p. 41)

 

References:

Board of Studies NSW (2013). English K-10 syllabus. New South Wales, Australia: Board of Studies NSW.

 

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

 

Uhlmann, L. (2012). Sharing culture through story. Practically Primary, Vol. 17, No. 2, 41.

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The Power of Union is Strength - Crabs VS Ants VS Penguins Advertisement - YouTube

Three interesting advertisement illustrating the Power of Union is Strength. An individual maybe brilliant and have strong core competencies but unless you a...
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TEACHER RESOURCE (School level)

 

-Description

The video presents the overarching idea that unity is strength against adversity in a humorous way. Knowing that the Australian community is made up of people from over two hundred countries, it is important for young Australians to understand the need to be in harmony and unity. The video is engaging using animals as representation and will appeal to the Stage 1 students. Minimal language is used and through this video allowing the students to develop media literacy through interpretation of the visuals in the video.    

 

It is stated in the HSIE syllabus that students make "connections between what one knows and what one is learning" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 14) and apply it to this learning experience. 

 

-A teaching idea

Teacher will play the video in the class to provide a common learning experience for students. The teacher will unpack the phrase ‘union is strength’ asking for students for what they understand of the word ‘union’ and ‘strength’. Using the suggestions from the students, collectively come up with a class’ definition of ‘union is strength’ with the focus on the questions – ‘Why do we have Harmony Day in Australia?’ and ‘What does Harmony Day mean?’ and focusing the questions back to the scenarios in the video.

 

Students will learn to have intercultural understanding through “supporting cultural diversity within a cohesive society” (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 13). Using the ideas from this, students are to use Drama strategies to create “freeze frame(s)” (Gibson & Ewing, 2011, p. 67) to show ‘union is strength’.

 

-Idea for an assessment task

Students will create a poster based on the learning experience of Drama Freeze Frame, incorporating Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus with students making “artworks that represent a variety of subject matter” (Board of Studies NSW, 2006, p. 21), and present to the class verbally to explain how the poster represents ‘Union is Strength’.

 

-Literacy outcome

EN1-1A

Communicates with a range of people n informal and guided activities demonstrating interaction skills and considers how own communication is adjusted in different situations.

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 14)

 

-Link to pedagogical research

Through unpacking of big ideas and words for the Stage 1 learners, it will offer “a lens into why and how young people engage” (Jocson, 2010, p. 209) in learning. As the words and ideas are abstract, it will help the students to develop their understanding of the big concepts through providing a common learning experience and allowing room for discussions in the classroom. In addition, the teacher will be able to observe how the students engage in learning. Looking at the video, the students will have the opportunities to learn not only the “forms and signs are being represented but also who is creating them, for whom and for what purposes” (Jocson, 2010, p. 213). By knowing the meaning behind the visuals, will the students be able to develop media literacy and through their interpretations of the intent, thus, producing their own works.   

 

References:

Board of Studies NSW (2006). Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus. Sydney, Australia: Author. 

 

Board of Studies NSW (2013). English K-10 syllabus. New South Wales, Australia: Board of Studies NSW.

 

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

 

Gibson, R. & Ewing, R. (2011). Transforming the curriculum through the arts. Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan.

 

Jocson, K. (2010). Unpacking Symbolic Creativities: Writing In School and Across Contexts. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 32(2), 206-236. 

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Many Stories -- One Australia - YouTube

This year's Harmony Day theme, Many Stories -- One Australia, recognises how each of us make up the chapters of the bigger Australian story we share today. O...
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TEACHER RESOURCE (School, Local, National)

 

- Description

The video gives a very brief and quick snapshot of some events in Australia. It aims to show the different stories of Australia and provides a good platform for discussion among the students to share their own personal story or a story from his/her tradition.

 

- A teaching idea

Teacher to play the video as a stimulus for the students to think about their own story of their culture or a traditional tale from their culture. Get the students to find out their own heritage by interviewing their parents or guardian.

 

Questions to ask students:

1)      Which country are you born in?

2)      Where are your parents born?

3)      What are some of the stories from you or your culture?

 

Using the world map, get the students to locate and point the country they are born in.

To encourage the students to share their personal story or traditional stories from their cultures, show the video called One World, Many Stories from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9uTZbreHVw. The lyrics of the song in the video can be found at http://www.songsforteaching.com/readinglanguagearts/oneworldmanystories.htm.

This provides students with examples of different stories from different cultures and how they could prepare the story to share with their peers.

 

Through understanding of how Harmony Day is celebrated through recognising the diversity of Australia that makes it unique, stated in the HSIE syllabus, students "learn about their historical roots, their shared history and the people, forces and events that have created present societies and cultures" (Board of Studies NSW, 1998, p. 10).  

 

- Idea for an assessment task

Students will pair up to interview their friend to find out about the story that they have prepared. Prepare a list of generic interview questions (Examples: Is the story about ____? Who are the people in the story? What does Harmony Day mean to you?)  to prompt students when they have difficulties coming up with questions to ask their friend. At the end of the interview session, the student can either express what they have learnt from their friend through writing (reflective journal) or drawing. This is to assist students who might not have the language capabilities yet to summarise what their friends have said through the interview.

  

- Literacy outcome

EN1-1A

Communicates with a range of people in informal and guided activities demonstrating interaction skills and considers how own communication is adjusted in different situations

(Board of Studies NSW, 2013, p. 14)

 

- Link to pedagogical research

Young students (Stage 1) when given the proper guidance are able to perform interview skills that requires higher order thinking. With scaffolding and modelling from the teacher, young students can pick up valuable literacy skills like questioning, communication and listening. Throughout the process of interviews with adults and peers, the students are “encouraged to think in terms of general questions” (Iwasyk, 1997, p. 44) to generate more responses from the interviewee (open-ended questions). Students will learn through clarification to “differentiate between types of responses and also determine appropriate times to make them” (Iwasyk, 1997, p. 44).

 

Resources:

 

Board of Studies NSW (1998). Syllabus Human Society and its Environment K-6. Sydney, Australia: Board of Studies NSW. 

 

Board of Studies NSW (2013). English K-10 syllabus. New South Wales, Australia: Board of Studies NSW.

 

Iwasyk, M. (1997). Kids questioning kids: "Experts" sharing. Science and Children, 35(1), 43-46.

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