A generation ago, incumbents that struggled to respond to disruptive innovations had an excuse. The pattern that simple, convenient, low-priced solutions would grow from humble beginnings to create and transform industries had not yet been identified. Managers at companies like General Motors, Sears, and Eastman Kodak simply didn’t have the tools to spot and respond to would-be disruptors.

Today’s leaders have no excuse. Harvard Professor and Innosight cofounder Clayton Christensen alerted the world to the pattern of disruptive change almost two decades ago. Academics and practitioners have built on Christensen’s work to develop robust frameworks that can help leaders to spot disruptive developments early and respond appropriately.