Host microbe interactions
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Rescooped by Sachin from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds

Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Intracellular NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat-containing) receptors are sensitive monitors that detect pathogen invasion of both plant and animal cells. NLRs confer recognition of diverse molecules associated with pathogen invasion. NLRs must exhibit strict intramolecular controls to avoid harmful ectopic activation in the absence of pathogens. Recent discoveries have elucidated the assembly and structure of oligomeric NLR signalling complexes in animals, and provided insights into how these complexes act as scaffolds for signal transduction. In plants, recent advances have provided novel insights into signalling-competent NLRs, and into the myriad strategies that diverse plant NLRs use to recognise pathogens. Here, we review recent insights into the NLR biology of both animals and plants. By assessing commonalities and differences between kingdoms, we are able to develop a more complete understanding of NLR function.

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity

Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen–host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus–animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation.


Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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Hyphal chemotropism in fungal pathogenicity

Hyphal chemotropism in fungal pathogenicity | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
The ability to grow as filamentous hyphae defines the lifestyle of fungi. Hyphae are exposed to a variety of chemical stimuli such as nutrients or signal molecules from mating partners and host organisms. How fungi sense and process this chemical information to steer hyphal growth is poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa have served as genetic models for the identification of cellular components functioning in chemotropism. A recent study in the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum revealed distinct MAPK pathways governing hyphal growth towards nutrient sources and sex pheromones or plant signals, suggesting an unanticipated complexity of chemosensing during fungus-host interactions.

Via Giannis Stringlis, Steve Marek, Jessie Uehling, Francis Martin, Stéphane Hacquard
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Rescooped by Sachin from Adaptive Evolution and Speciation
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The frequency of sex in fungi - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B

The frequency of sex in fungi - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode. The proximate molecular mechanisms potentiating outcrossing and meiosis appear to be present in nearly all fungi, making them of little use for predicting outcrossing rates, but also suggesting the absence of true ancient asexual lineages. We review how population genetic methods can be used to estimate the frequency of sex in fungi and provide empirical data that support a mixed mode of reproduction in many species with rare to frequent sex in between rounds of mitotic reproduction. Finally, we highlight how these estimates might be affected by the fungus-specific mechanisms that evolved to reduce the costs of sexual and asexual reproduction.


Via Pierre Gladieux, Steve Marek, Ronny Kellner
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Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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Nature Communications: Host genotype and age shape the leaf and root microbiomes of a wild perennial plant

Nature Communications: Host genotype and age shape the leaf and root microbiomes of a wild perennial plant | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Bacteria living on and in leaves and roots influence many aspects of plant health, so the extent of a plant’s genetic control over its microbiota is of great interest to crop breeders and evolutionary biologists. Laboratory-based studies, because they poorly simulate true environmental heterogeneity, may misestimate or totally miss the influence of certain host genes on the microbiome. Here we report a large-scale field experiment to disentangle the effects of genotype, environment, age and year of harvest on bacterial communities associated with leaves and roots of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial wild mustard. Host genetic control of the microbiome is evident in leaves but not roots, and varies substantially among sites. Microbiome composition also shifts as plants age. Furthermore, a large proportion of leaf bacterial groups are shared with roots, suggesting inoculation from soil. Our results demonstrate how genotype-by-environment interactions contribute to the complexity of microbiome assembly in natural environments.

Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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Dissecting endophytic lifestyle along the parasitism/mutualism continuum in Arabidopsis

Dissecting endophytic lifestyle along the parasitism/mutualism continuum in Arabidopsis | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Mutualistic interactions between plants and fungi often occur in the rhizosphere, although examples exist where shoot-endophytes support host growth and increase resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Fungal endophytes which colonize their hosts without any visible disease symptoms have been recognized to be fundamental components of various ecosystems. Initial efforts have been taken to decipher the genetic basis of beneficial plant–fungus interactions and of lifestyle transitions. This review gives a short overview on well established experimental systems amenable to genetic manipulation and of known genome sequence for dissecting plant–fungal endophyte interactions with a special focus on Arabidopsis thaliana associations.

Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Rescooped by Sachin from Adaptive Evolution and Speciation
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Nature Microbiology: Fungal pathogenesis: Host modulation every which way (2016)

Nature Microbiology: Fungal pathogenesis: Host modulation every which way (2016) | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes an effector that is similar to a plant peptide hormone, underscoring the variety of mechanisms that plant pathogens have evolved to tamper with host physiology.

 

Plant pathogens cause devastating diseases of crop plants and threaten food security in an era of continuous population growth. Annual losses due to fungal and oomycete diseases amount to enough food calories to feed at least half a billion people. Understanding how plant pathogens infect and colonize plants should help to develop disease-resistant crops. It appears that plant pathogens are sophisticated manipulators of their hosts. They secrete effector molecules that alter host biological processes in a variety of ways, generally promoting the pathogen lifestyle. A new study by Masachis, Segorbe and colleagues describes a new mechanism by which plant pathogens interfere with plant physiology. They discovered that the root-infecting fungus F. oxysporum secretes a peptide similar to the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor) to induce host tissue alkalinization and enhance plant colonization. This study demonstrates that in addition to secreting classical plant hormones (or mimics thereof), fungi have also evolved functional homologues of plant peptides to alter host cellular processes.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Ronny Kellner
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Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges

Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth’s Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time.

Via Francis Martin, Stéphane Hacquard
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Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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Frontiers | Two Poplar-Associated Bacterial Isolates Induce Additive Favorable Responses in a Constructed Plant-Microbiome System | Plant Biotic Interactions

Frontiers | Two Poplar-Associated Bacterial Isolates Induce Additive Favorable Responses in a Constructed Plant-Microbiome System | Plant Biotic Interactions | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
The biological function of the plant-microbiome system is the result of contributions from the host plant and microbiome members. The Populus root microbiome is a diverse community that has high abundance of β- and γ-Proteobacteria, both classes which include multiple plant-growth promoting representatives. To understand the contribution of individual microbiome members in a community, we studied the function of a simplified community consisting of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia bacterial strains isolated from Populus hosts and inoculated on axenic Populus cutting in controlled laboratory conditions. Both strains increased lateral root formation and root hair production in Arabidopsis plate assays and are predicted to encode for different functions related to growth and plant growth promotion in Populus hosts. Inoculation individually, with either bacterial isolate, increased root growth relative to uninoculated controls, and while root area was increased in mixed inoculation, the interaction term was insignificant indicating additive effects of root phenotype. Complementary data including photosynthetic efficiency, whole-transcriptome gene expression and GC-MS metabolite expression data in individual and mixed inoculated treatments indicate that the effects of these bacterial strains are unique and additive. These results suggest that the function of a microbiome community may be predicted from the additive functions of the individual members.

Via Stéphane Hacquard
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A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host–microbe interface in symbiosis

A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host–microbe interface in symbiosis | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host–microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host–microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host–microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Sachin from Adaptive Evolution and Speciation
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Metabolic cross-feeding via intercellular nanotubes among bacteria - Nature Communications

Metabolic cross-feeding via intercellular nanotubes among bacteria - Nature Communications | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Bacteria frequently exchange metabolites by diffusion through the extracellular environment, yet it remains generally unclear whether bacteria can also use cell–cell connections to directly exchange nutrients. Here we address this question by engineering cross-feeding interactions within and between Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli, in which two distant bacterial species reciprocally exchange essential amino acids. We establish that in a well-mixed environment E. coli, but likely not A. baylyi, can connect to other bacterial cells via membrane-derived nanotubes and use these to exchange cytoplasmic constituents. Intercellular connections are induced by auxotrophy-causing mutations and cease to establish when amino acids are externally supplied. Electron and fluorescence microscopy reveal a network of nanotubular structures that connects bacterial cells and enables an intercellular transfer of cytoplasmic materials. Together, our results demonstrate that bacteria can use nanotubes to exchange nutrients among connected cells and thus help to distribute metabolic functions within microbial communities.

Via Ronny Kellner
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Rescooped by Sachin from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Comparing Apples and Oranges?: Next Generation Sequencing and Its Impact on Microbiome Analysis

Comparing Apples and Oranges?: Next Generation Sequencing and Its Impact on Microbiome Analysis | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Rapid advancements in sequencing technologies along with falling costs present widespread opportunities for microbiome studies across a vast and diverse array of environments. These impressive technological developments have been accompanied by a considerable growth in the number of methodological variables, including sampling, storage, DNA extraction, primer pairs, sequencing technology, chemistry version, read length, insert size, and analysis pipelines, amongst others. This increase in variability threatens to compromise both the reproducibility and the comparability of studies conducted. Here we perform the first reported study comparing both amplicon and shotgun sequencing for the three leading next-generation sequencing technologies. These were applied to six human stool samples using Illumina HiSeq, MiSeq and Ion PGM shotgun sequencing, as well as amplicon sequencing across two variable 16S rRNA gene regions. Notably, we found that the factor responsible for the greatest variance in microbiota composition was the chosen methodology rather than the natural inter-individual variance, which is commonly one of the most significant drivers in microbiome studies. Amplicon sequencing suffered from this to a large extent, and this issue was particularly apparent when the 16S rRNA V1-V2 region amplicons were sequenced with MiSeq. Somewhat surprisingly, the choice of taxonomic binning software for shotgun sequences proved to be of crucial importance with even greater discriminatory power than sequencing technology and choice of amplicon. Optimal N50 assembly values for the HiSeq was obtained for 10 million reads per sample, whereas the applied MiSeq and PGM sequencing depths proved less sufficient for shotgun sequencing of stool samples. The latter technologies, on the other hand, provide a better basis for functional gene categorisation, possibly due to their longer read lengths. Hence, in addition to highlighting methodological biases, this study demonstrates the risks associated with comparing data generated using different strategies. We also recommend that laboratories with particular interests in certain microbes should optimise their protocols to accurately detect these taxa using different techniques.

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Multi-Omics Approach Identifies Molecular Mechanisms of Plant-Fungus Mycorrhizal Interaction

Multi-Omics Approach Identifies Molecular Mechanisms of Plant-Fungus Mycorrhizal Interaction | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
In mycorrhizal symbiosis, plant roots form close, mutually beneficial interactions with soil fungi. Before this mycorrhizal interaction can be established however, plant roots must be capable of detecting potential beneficial fungal partners and initiating the gene expression patterns necessary to begin symbiosis. To predict a plant root—mycorrhizal fungi sensor systems, we analyzed in vitro experiments of Populus tremuloides (aspen tree) and Laccaria bicolor (mycorrhizal fungi) interaction and leveraged over 200 previously published transcriptomic experimental data sets, 159 experimentally validated plant transcription factor binding motifs, and more than 120-thousand experimentally validated protein-protein interactions to generate models of pre-mycorrhizal sensor systems in aspen root. These sensor mechanisms link extracellular signaling molecules with gene regulation through a network comprised of membrane receptors, signal cascade proteins, transcription factors, and transcription factor biding DNA motifs. Modeling predicted four pre-mycorrhizal sensor complexes in aspen that interact with 15 transcription factors to regulate the expression of 1184 genes in response to extracellular signals synthesized by Laccaria. Predicted extracellular signaling molecules include common signaling molecules such as phenylpropanoids, salicylate, and jasmonic acid. This multi-omic computational modeling approach for predicting the complex sensory networks yielded specific, testable biological hypotheses for mycorrhizal interaction signaling compounds, sensor complexes, and mechanisms of gene regulation.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Recent Developments in Systems Biology and Metabolic Engineering of Plant–Microbe Interactions

Recent Developments in Systems Biology and Metabolic Engineering of Plant–Microbe Interactions | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant–microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant–microbe interactions using gene editing and system biology tools toward the comprehension in improvement of plant traits. Further, system biology tools like FBA (flux balance analysis), OptKnock, and constraint-based modeling helps in understanding such interactions as a whole. In addition, various gene editing tools have been summarized and a strategy has been hypothesized for the development of disease free plants. Furthermore, we have tried to summarize the predictions through data retrieved from various types of sources such as high throughput sequencing data (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism detection, RNA-seq, proteomics) and metabolic models have been reconstructed from such sequences for species communities. It is well known fact that systems biology approaches and modeling of biological networks will enable us to learn the insight of such network and will also help further in understanding these interactions.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Herve Moal's curator insight, November 11, 3:42 AM

Toute la complexité de l'écologie et de la botanique

Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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Ecology of the forest microbiome: Highlights of temperate and boreal ecosystems

Ecology of the forest microbiome: Highlights of temperate and boreal ecosystems | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Due to land use history, most of the current temperate and boreal forests are developed on nutrient-poor and rocky soils, keeping fertile soils for agriculture. Consequently, the conditions occurring in forest ecosystems strongly differ from those of other terrestrial environments, giving importance to the access of nutritive elements and their recycling for the long-lasting development of forest ecosystems. In this review, we present an overview of the recent findings on the relationships between bacterial and fungal communities and their tree hosts at both the taxonomic and functional levels. We highlighted the common and different deterministic drivers of these microbial communities, focusing on the tree species effect, the different interfaces existing between the trees and their environment, the impact of tree by-products (decaying wood and litter), the impact of soil and seasonal changes, and lastly, the consequences of forestry practices. Depicting both taxonomic and functional diversity based on cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses, we highlight the distribution patterns and the functional traits characterizing bacterial and fungal communities. We also discuss the importance of bridging environmental microbiology to genomics and how to integrate the interactions between microorganisms for a better understanding of tree growth and health.

Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Probing bacterial–fungal interactions at the single cell level

Probing bacterial–fungal interactions at the single cell level | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it

Interactions between fungi and prokaryotes are abundant in many ecological systems. A wide variety of biomolecules regulate such interactions and many of them have found medicinal or biotechnological applications. However, studying a fungal–bacterial system at a cellular level is technically challenging. New microfluidic devices provided a platform for microscopic studies and for long-term, time-lapse experiments. Application of these novel tools revealed insights into the dynamic interactions between the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Direct contact was mediated by polar attachment of bacteria to only a subset of fungal hyphae suggesting a differential competence of fungal hyphae and thus differentiation of hyphae within a mycelium. The fungicidal activity of B. subtilis was monitored at a cellular level and showed a novel mode of action on fungal hyphae.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Sachin from LRSV Publications
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New Phytologist - Comparative phylogenomics of symbiotic associations

New Phytologist - Comparative phylogenomics of symbiotic associations | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Understanding the genetic bases of complex traits has been a main challenge in biology for decades. Comparative phylogenomics offers an opportunity to identify candidate genes associated with these complex traits. This approach initially developed in prokaryotes consists in looking at shared coevolution between genes and traits. It thus requires a precise reconstruction of the trait evolution, a large genomic sampling in the clades of interest and an accurate definition of orthogroups. Recently, with the growing body of sequenced plant genomes, comparative genomics has been successfully applied to plants to study the widespread arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here I will use these findings to illustrate the main principles of comparative phylogenomic approaches and propose directions to improve our understanding of symbiotic associations.

Via LRSV
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plants and Microbes
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New Phytologist: Seeing is believing: cell biology at the plant–microbe interface (2016)

New Phytologist: Seeing is believing: cell biology at the plant–microbe interface (2016) | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it

36th New Phytologist Symposium ‘Cell biology at the plant–microbe interface’ Munich, Germany, November/December 2015

 

The advances made during the twentieth century in understanding the genetics of host–pathogen interactions transformed crop breeding; however the field of plant pathology was founded from the earliest cell biology of Hooke and his contemporaries. During the twenty-first century phytopathologists have refocused their attention to the microscopic world to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for inherited disease resistance, mutualistic interactions and virulence. For the first time a symposium was organized to specifically discuss the latest insights into plant– microbe interactions gained by merging rediscovered techniques, such as electron-microscopy, with new tools that allow in vivo highresolution tracking of cellular dynamics. These methods, together with the implementation of state-of-the-art proteomic and chemical biology approaches, are helping to elucidate the intricate mechanism of the interaction between two organisms. In this report we highlight emergent themes from the meeting and some of the cognate fundamental biological questions driving the contemporary study of phytopathology and mutualism.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Jessie Uehling's curator insight, June 8, 11:10 AM
Seeing is believing isnt it?
Rescooped by Sachin from Microbes, Mutualism, & Ecology
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Mannitol in Plants, Fungi, and Plant–Fungal Interactions

Mannitol in Plants, Fungi, and Plant–Fungal Interactions | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Although the presence of mannitol in organisms as diverse as plants and fungi clearly suggests that this compound has important roles, our understanding of fungal mannitol metabolism and its interaction with mannitol metabolism in plants is far from complete. Despite recent inroads into understanding the importance of mannitol and its metabolic roles in salt, osmotic, and oxidative stress tolerance in plants and fungi, our current understanding of exactly how mannitol protects against reactive oxygen is also still incomplete. In this opinion, we propose a new model of the interface between mannitol metabolism in plants and fungi and how it impacts plant–pathogen interactions.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Kabir Peay
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Rescooped by Sachin from Rice Blast
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Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus Oil against Rice Blast Fungi and the Possible Mechanism of Gene Expression Pattern

Eucalyptus oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity, including anti-microbial, fungicidal, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal properties. We studied anti-fungal activities of the leaf oil extracted from Eucalyptus. grandis × E. urophylla. Eleven plant pathogenic fungi were tested based on the mycelium growth rates with negative control. The results showed that Eucalyptus oil has broad-spectrum inhibitory effects toward these fungi. Remarkable morphological and structural alterations of hypha have been observed for Magnaporthe grisea after the treatment. The mRNA genome array of M. grisea was used to detect genes that were differentially expressed in the test strains treated by the Eucalyptus oil than the normal strains. The results showed 1919 genes were significantly affected, among which 1109 were down-regulated and 810 were up-regulated (p 2). According to gene ontology annotation analysis, these differentially expressed genes may cause abnormal structures and physiological function disorders, which may reduce the fungus growth. These results show the oil has potential for use in the biological control of plant disease as a green biopesticide.

Via Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Sachin from The Plant Microbiome
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The bright side of microbial dark matter: lessons learned from the uncultivated majority - Current Opinion in Microbiology

The bright side of microbial dark matter: lessons learned from the uncultivated majority - Current Opinion in Microbiology | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Microorganisms are the most diverse and abundant life forms on Earth. Yet, in many environments, only 0.1–1% of them have been cultivated greatly hindering our understanding of the microbial world. However, today cultivation is no longer a requirement for gaining access to information from the uncultivated majority. New genomic information from metagenomics and single cell genomics has provided insights into microbial metabolic cooperation and dependence, generating new avenues for cultivation efforts. Here we summarize recent advances from uncultivated phyla and discuss how this knowledge has influenced our understanding of the topology of the tree of life and metabolic diversity.

Via Max-Bernhard Ballhausen, Ruth L. Schmidt, Stéphane Hacquard
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Max-Bernhard Ballhausen's curator insight, May 20, 3:07 AM
An update on hitherto uncultured bacteria. Good Friday morning read ;)
Rescooped by Sachin from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Hijacked cell division helped fuel rise of fungi: Research could point to new antifungals that stop cell growth in fungi but not in their plant or animal hosts

Hijacked cell division helped fuel rise of fungi: Research could point to new antifungals that stop cell growth in fungi but not in their plant or animal hosts | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
The more than 90,000 known species of fungi may owe their abilities to spread and even cause disease to an ancient virus that hijacked their cell division machinery, researchers report. Over a billion years ago, a viral protein invaded the fungal genome, generating a family of proteins that now play key roles in fungal growth. The research could point to new antifungals that inhibit cell division in fungi but not in their plant or animal hosts.

Via Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plants and Microbes
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PLOS Pathogens: Cooperation and Conflict in the Plant Immune System (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: Cooperation and Conflict in the Plant Immune System (2016) | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Plants have a sophisticated innate immune system with which they defend themselves against a myriad of pathogens. During the past two decades, work in a range of species has advanced our knowledge of the molecular and biochemical details of plant immunity. Many of these studies have focused on the action of nucleotide-binding domain/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR or NLR) immune receptors. NLR genes constitute the most diverse gene family in plants, reflecting their role in perceiving a very diverse set of molecules that are released by pathogens. There has also been progress in unraveling the forces that drive diversification of NLR and non-NLR immune receptors in wild species. A major recent insight from mechanistic and evolutionary studies is that there is both cooperation and conflict in the plant immune system. Here, we propose that these two antagonistic forces are inherently entangled, and that they are potentially fundamental to our understanding of growth-defense trade-offs.

Via Elsa Ballini, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Sachin from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Understanding Microbial Multi-Species Symbioses

Understanding Microbial Multi-Species Symbioses | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it
Lichens are commonly recognized as a symbiotic association of a fungus and a chlorophyll containing partner, either green algae or cyanobacteria, or both. The fungus provides a suitable habitat for the partner, which provides photosynthetically fixed carbon as energy source for the system. The evolutionary result of the self-sustaining partnership is a unique joint structure, the lichen thallus, which is indispensable for fungal sexual reproduction. The classical view of a dual symbiosis has been challenged by recent microbiome research, which revealed host-specific bacterial microbiomes. The recent results about bacterial associations with lichens symbioses corroborate their notion as a multi-species symbiosis. Multi-omics approaches have provided evidence for functional contribution by the bacterial microbiome to the entire lichen meta-organism while various abiotic and biotic factors can additionally influence the bacterial community structure. Results of current research also suggest that neighboring ecological niches influence the composition of the lichen bacterial microbiome. Specificity and functions are here reviewed based on these recent findings, converging to a holistic view of bacterial roles in lichens. Finally we propose that the lichen thallus has also evolved to function as a smart harvester of bacterial symbionts. We suggest that lichens represent an ideal model to study multi-species symbiosis, using the recently available omics tools and other cutting edge methods.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Sachin from Publications from The Sainsbury Laboratory
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Frontiers: The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP) inhibits the growth of the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina and triggers cell culture alkalinisation (2016)

Frontiers: The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP) inhibits the growth of the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina and triggers cell culture alkalinisation (2016) | Host microbe interactions | Scoop.it

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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, January 25, 5:17 AM

Plant cells secrete a wide range of proteins in extracellular spaces in response to pathogen attack. The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP) is a small cationic protein of unknown function that was identified as the most induced gene in poplar leaves during immune responses to the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina, an obligate biotrophic parasite. Here, we combined in planta and in vitro molecular biology approaches to tackle the function of RISP. Using a RISP-mCherry fusion transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we demonstrated that RISP is secreted into the apoplast. A recombinant RISP specifically binds to M. larici-populina urediniospores and inhibits their germination. It also arrests the growth of the fungus in vitro and on poplar leaves. Interestingly, RISP also triggers poplar cell culture alkalinisation and is cleaved at the C-terminus by a plant-encoded mechanism. Altogether our results indicate that RISP is an antifungal protein that has the ability to trigger cellular responses.

Jim Alfano's curator insight, January 27, 8:18 AM

Is it secreted when other types of pathogens attack? That is, is it a typical PR protein?