Molecular profiles of tumors and tumor-associated cells hold great promise as biomarkers of clinical outcomes. However, existing data sets are fragmented and difficult to analyze systematically. Here we present a pan-cancer resource and meta-analysis of expression signatures from ~18,000 human tumors with overall survival outcomes across 39 malignancies. By using this resource, we identified a forkhead box MI (FOXM1) regulatory network as a major predictor of adverse outcomes, and we found that expression of favorably prognostic genes, including KLRB1(encoding CD161), largely reflect tumor-associated leukocytes. By applying CIBERSORT, a computational approach for inferring leukocyte representation in bulk tumor transcriptomes, we identified complex associations between 22 distinct leukocyte subsets and cancer survival. For example, tumor-associated neutrophil and plasma cell signatures emerged as significant but opposite predictors of survival for diverse solid tumors, including breast and lung adenocarcinomas. This resource and associated analytical tools (http://precog.stanford.edu) may help delineate prognostic genes and leukocyte subsets within and across cancers, shed light on the impact of tumor heterogeneity on cancer outcomes, and facilitate the discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
A dangerous new variant of flesh-eating bacteria has been discovered, and researchers have found that it's already contributed to a spike in severe infections in the UK, Canada, Japan, France and Sweden. Usually group A streptococcus bugs cause...
Understanding the success and failure of the HIV-specific cellular immune response has implications for immunotherapies and vaccines for HIV-1. Migueles and Connors discuss the mechanisms that are most likely responsible for durable and potent immunologic control of HIV-1 by the cellular immune response.
by Leonard Chavez, Vincenzo Calvanese, Eric Verdin Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication to undetectable levels but cannot fully eradicate the virus because a small reservoir of CD4+...
Author Summary Elite controllers (EC), a small group of HIV-1-infected individuals that are able to control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, provide living evidence that the human immune system is able to spontaneously control HIV-1 infection and serve as a model for inducing a functional cure of HIV-1 infection in broader patient populations. Prior studies indicated that T cell-mediated immune responses represent the backbone of effective antiviral immune defense in EC; however, emerging studies suggest that innate and cell-intrinsic immune activities may have critical roles for supporting and enhancing HIV-1-specific T cells. Here, we performed a detailed investigation of conventional dendritic cells (cDC) from elite controllers and their responses to HIV-1 infection. These studies indicate that cDC from EC have improved abilities to sense cytosolic HIV-1 replication products, and can more effectively mount cell-intrinsic type I interferon (IFN) secretion in response to HIV-1 infection. Notably, such increased production of type I IFN in response to viral antigen translated into enhanced abilities to prime and expand HIV-1-specific T cells. Together, these data suggest that a fine-tuned interplay between innate dendritic cell responses and adaptive HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells represents a critical component of antiviral immune defense in elite controllers.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique DC subset that specializes in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). pDCs promote antiviral immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases that are characterized by a type I IFN signature. However, pDCs can also induce tolerogenic immune responses. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field of pDC biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and functions of pDCs, the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids, their functions at mucosal sites, and their roles in infection, autoimmunity and cancer.
Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. ..... We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses. ACSN may also support patient stratification, prediction of treatment response and resistance to cancer drugs, as well as design of novel treatment strategies.
Helicobacter pylori: Past… Present… Future Labmate Online While the relative virulence of H. pylori can be identified by analysis of the bacterial genotype, there are a number of host factors that affect the development of H.
Background: The Lck and Src binding adaptor protein TSAd (T cell specific adaptor) regulates actin polymerization in T cells and endothelial cells. The molecular details as to how TSAd regulates this process remain to be elucidated.
Anti-cancer strategies generally involve killing off tumor cells. However, cancer cells may instead be coaxed to turn back into normal tissue simply by reactivating a single gene, according to a study published June 18 in the journal Cell. Researchers found that restoring normal levels of a human colorectal cancer gene in mice stopped tumor growth and re-established normal intestinal function within only four days.
Immunology and Cell Biology focuses on the general functioning of the immune system in its broadest sense, with a particular emphasis on its cell biology. Areas that are covered include but are not limited to: Cellular immunology, Innate and adaptive immunity, Immune responses to pathogens,Tumour immunology,Immunopathology, Immunotherapy, Immunogenetics, Immunological studies in humans and model organisms (including mouse, rat, Drosophila etc)
by Leila Masri, Antoine Branca, Anna E. Sheppard, Andrei Papkou, David Laehnemann, Patrick S. Guenther, Swantje Prahl, Manja Saebelfeld, Jacqueline Hollensteiner, Heiko Liesegang, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Rolf Daniel, Nicolaas K.
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